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Huadan Zhaxi s>C]«5|-ffla:-q»T|-^^^ main editor, edited the dictionary 
and did most of the translation work. !>:yai-«g^-q^-^^-g^-^5j-sm-q- 

Kevin Stuart wrote all the English sentences for the Tibetan- 
English section and wrote English sentences for the English- 
Tibetan section. Kevin Stuart ^!5J-qs;-s;|3;-s;:;-s;|3;-q:n-a^3;-q- 

Rinclien Dorji ^^a'SS'j'g, checked the Tibetan sentences and the 
translations and translated some of the sentences from English to 
Tibetan. Gesang Norbu ^oi-qgs^-sa;-^, Dorji Zliaxi F^'qj]"^^, 
Rinclien Kliar ^S'^ai'Sip^a;, Gongbu Caireng 3JTO^'2r^'^z^ 

checked the Tibetan sentences. ^3^'53^'F^^'^^'aisn'sn'^sn'^q'^^' 

Sandra Benson, wrote English sentences for the English-Tibetan 

part. Sandra Benson 55!5I-s;|g;-q!^-a^g;-q<^-=v|g;-^:n-^-^:n-mq- 





'^f^'^] beginning learner || The beginning learner of English is often 

nervous. =^|)3j'^=^'fK>'c]^''T]-p-q-^5]!^-^3j-q^-qcfqi 
'Tj'S] things, goods || How many things did you buy today? 

'Tyq] pillar II The wooden pillar is old and rotten. ■^^'^''']'^'S'I^'5"''^'^^1 
'^^'^] have to II I have to visit my mother soon. 

'V^] hello II Hello, students, ''j'^l ^q'^^'N'^si-qi 

'T]'^] candy, sugar || This candy has a lot of sugar in it. 

'^d^di'^m'ii] crumpled || He set the crumpled piece of red paper on fire. 

'Tj5^'5^''T]5^'s^| to blink one's eyes to show something unusual || His eyes 
blinked when I described unusual things. 

'vj shout, yell || His shout was heard far away. p^'^'^^'^^'^'WH^'l 
W5\ shout, yell 1 1 Her yell brought her family running outside to see 

what was the matter. 'pw'^^q^q'q'N'qgq'5^'^s]!5i-'^-^-^J!]-^!;-q^-q<^-q^-|,- 

W^'^ narrow personahty || I don't hke him because his personality is so 

narrow. P<^'|'S^'55j'^'pi'".VS^'=^J!]'^] 
^■^] kidding, joking || Our teacher is always joking with us. 

7[-P|l apple II The green apple slowly became bright red. ^■-P|'^'5Jl]'=;".V5^^'y 

^^■^^ bent, curved || The old man's walking stick is curved. 

TO] everyone, entire, all || Everyone is glad that our exam has been 

postponed. '^■§f'^'^J!]'^-|^-q|=;'S)-q5)-;Ti3j-".V^J!]qW|'^l 
TO'l^q] widespread, widely popular || English is a widely popular 

language. =^|^-^=^%^^-(iq-|-^=^-^qi^-^^-^^l 
TO'5^|53j] the all knowing, the Buddha || The Buddha is deeply respected 

by Tibetans. TO-»l(i3j-'N=;'N-^^-^-q=^-9S'N-|^=^-ql3jl 
TO'iS] eternity, everywhere, to all places || The teachings of the Buddha 

have gone almost everywhere. ^^^■§'N'^'^f3i'^''^"-V5]'TO'y(5qi 
TO'qii'^] anthology, collection || Have you read the anthology of famous 

Tibetan short stories? (i^'|'^^^'|'§^'^l=^'5!^'^'5aj™-q^'N-^-^J!]-|5-=;»ll 
7]3'3j'^] from everywhere; 'entirely || People came from everywhere to 

see the temple dance. 5^-^»l'Nt^".v|5!]'N™-3j'N-ns»l'"l'q'^'q^w;'l "I entirely 

agree with her opinion about not getting involved in that issue. 

^3j'g^l moral, virtuous behavior || Your moral conduct will be closely 

observed. (3^-|-^3j-|=^-'^VJ!l(^3j-|<^-^q-q^J!]-|=^-^'Nl 
^aj'q^^'] entirely good || I have known her for many years and I can say 

that she is an entirely good person. 

713j'J]^'l motivation, motive || What is your motivation for majoring in 
the Tibetan language at University? if'^'^'^'^^'SSi'^'^'^'I'f '^'^^'S'^'f^^' 
|£^-(^^£^-q<^-^3^-^!:;-^-%-Sm-S3^| His motive was greed, p'^'^^j'^^;'^'*^^'^'^'^' 

^5^™| wincing || Wincing in pain is what the little girl did when she 

touched the hot stove with her hand. 

'T]'q] leather || My brother gave me this leather belt for my birthday. 

'Wi] hello, hi II Hello! I saw you yesterday but you didn't see me. 

^^] above, on || Above the table there is a window. 

^^R\ brain || Do you like to eat sheep brains? (i^''5^'^'^^'^'5'q^'^l'^^'^l 
^] serpent deity || Do you know the name of the serpent deity in that 
painting? (i^'|'N-g=;-J!]q-^!;-q]-^-^q-5^!;-iRr^^)] 

aP\ (^ra^l ^ra^^l ra^^D ^ dou, put ou || He douued new clothing for the 

party. |1&]'N'".vq^q^'p'^'^3j'q'J!]'^^'q'q^q'Nl 
J5^ (q^J!] q^^'^l ^^^1) to read || I have to read my book with a candle. 

^^■^q] textbook II How many textbooks did you buy this year? 

^'T]^ to congeal, become rigid || The fat on top of the mutton soup has 

congealed. .P|-f^q-^=;-^-(^J!]-=^'T]J!]W^l 
'^^ hard, difficult || Walking up the steep mountain path was hard. 

cTTjq-qqjo,!! explanation of a difficult point or meaning || His explanation 
of difficult points is never very clear. p^'=^'T]T'^^".V^'3j«^'^^'^^".vq^5^3j] 

^s'Tjq'^n.ll difficulty, hardship || He overcame many hardships to 
eventually become a successful businessman. 

=;'T]q'^J!j hardship || Little money and little food were hardships for the 

family . ^s^'cdk-q-s^§?3j-3j-|'^-5?=^!;-g-»i-^",v^»l-'^!^-5^=^-q-^-=^'T]q-^q]-fiS3j| 
^N^T^q'".!^] hard work || Hard work will bring you success. 

^'T]=^'S^ 'index; 'contents || 'My book doesn't have an index, ^^■=^^■c5■".l■ 
=^'T1=^■S^■5^^] "After I read the contents I wanted to read the entire 
magazine. =^'T]^'c5J!]'q^J!]^v|'N-!;-'^-S'^-^q-Sr=;^lfJ!]'N-^J!]-^q-q^3i-q-i'^| 

^'Tl^'q] white II The beautiful white snow covered the grassland. 

^'T^^^'g''^] astrology || I have been studying some books about astrology. 
c;T^:^xqa.i| china cup II I broke my mother's only china cup last week. 


^'']3j| rare, exotic || These days genuine tiger skins are rare. ^^'^q^^'^'Ji'^'J]')' 

^N^Tjaj's^cB^ supreme deity || The religious ritual was dedicated to the 

supreme deity. I'^-'5J!]'N-|-I^J!]-^-=^'fi3j-s^IJ!]-".VS^I=^-q-«S3jl 
'^S^^] rare and exotic things || In the marketplace near the temple, many 

rare and exotic things are for sale. 

S^"-!] center, middle || Please move to the center of the room. 

^^'N's^l ordinary, common || I like ordinary food best. 

S^ (S^ S^^l S^^l) ^to wrap around; 'to wind up || 'She wrapped a wool 
scarf around her neck. p'5^'^'q'^'qws^J!]'=^'^'.P|J!]'^!;'5n'S-n,v2^JT]^]| -Every 
morning he must wind up his clock. p^''^3;'5(^'ia5n!^'q^'^'§f2^'qp'^''T=^^' 

^^ (^^^ '^^^^l '^^^^D to shake, to stir || After you add tea to milk you 
have to stir it. ^^■|'s)-'T»iq-3j=;-".V^q|aj-|'N-^'N-q^-S-=^^J!]-^^'^l 

^J!]'.P|R] instigation, incitement, provocation || What was the instigation 
for the recent social unrest? ^'^^'|'S&l'N'|'5'^'§=^'^'=^^^'|3^%'^^'".l'^-^=;-| 

^^^^^^1 rumor, talk || There are many rumors about him, but I don't 
believe most of them. 

^!T]n,vq| to play a music instrument, to loosen || We want to play music 
instruments this evening in our classroom. 

q'T^J!]'q^",l] halting || The halting of the water by the new river dam is a 

good thing. ^■5;qi!^-qi!^3;-q-^!^-^^q'T]q]-q|n,v^^-q-^-s-'^3j-qg!;-^J!]-5,£^| 
q'T^^''^^^ preventing, proscribing, stopping || Preventing the spread of 

the disease will not be very difficult. 3j=^■al5^^^■q'']^■'^^^■^=^■S■3j■y•5=^■ 

^''l^Sl ban, restriction || The ban on killing endangered wildlife is 
necessary. S'^'3!^-^3j-p^-^'^-qq-^J!]-c5J!]'^-J!]^=^-qq-q'T]J!]-^-^-^^^-^'^-il 

q'T]^!]'^^] detention, arrest || His detention was necessary in order to 
investigate the charges against him. 

qi]'^] command, proscription || Although he is a very intelligent man, his 
latest command is not reasonable. 

q'Tjq'q^aj] condemnation, reprimand || His harsh reprimand was a 
permanent lesson. f*''^'q'']'^'q^3j'5J!]'i!'=^'aj'^J!]^'^'q^]q'^'(^^'^3j] 

q'']Tg] government edict || The government edict encouraging people to 
conserve electricity and water is reasonable. 

^''I'^'^^l gratitude || He showed great gratitude for me helping him. 

^'']'^53j'i'q^'q'5l5]'q] thankful, grateful || She was grateful for her 

mother's love. 'i^^-3;z:;-S|-i3VV»iq-^»i!N-i^»i!N-n.vq;T]q-|3j'i'qq'q'^»l'q'q|!;'] 
q^=^'^] respect, esteem || We have great respect for that teacher. 

Q^!^mi^ arrangement || What arrangements have you made for their 

visit? f^§f'^''^cfs^'N-q5-'^V^=^-|'N-q'ff=^-^J!]%-^J!]-^'^-Sr=^-=^^ 
q^T^^N'SJl^'q] organizer, planner || He is the best organizer that I know. 


q'']=^■'^=^5^^1 command, order || My teacher gave an order to me and my 
classmates to clean the room. ^^=;^'^3j'^'N'^'^^'A]q'3]J!]^15]'^'".vp^'q=^' 

q^T^^N^q^NS^^'q] commander, person in charge || The commander of the 
army retired after forty years of service. 

q^=^'q] 'idea; "layout || 'l don't agree with your idea. ^■|i=^'^'q'']=^'q''^vs^'ng=^] 
'I like the layout for your new advertisement. |i^'^'5^cf5^^'g^'q5'|5q' 

q'Tl"-!] to make use of, to utilize || My sister is a travel guide and makes 

use of her English with foreign tourists nearly every day. 

^T^'l^l utilization, exploitation || The utilization of our country's 
natural resources should be done carefully. 

q^ to shine, to glimmer || The sun was shining but we still slept. 

q^'-Pj^l auspicious, fortunate || Rainbows are auspicious symbols. ^^FT 
ft3j'3j'q^'-P|^''^'S'^^^'-f|Jn'"J3j] We will choose an auspicious time for our 
daughter' s wedding. !;'i''N'g'srq'J!]^3j'^3j'f^'qff]--8?i-q^-^3i-5j'^J!]'J!]^»l'^'t^3jl 

q^J!]'5^=;^^] gloss, glitter, brilliance || The stars shone in the sky with 
unusual brilliance. 3i5]-5]|^<^-^^-Jq|!^-aj-q^J!]-»12^!;'N15]-q:^-(^^^] 

qjT]^]-<3qj^i| hunger and thirst || Hunger and thirst were constant 

companions when I was a child. ^'^'^•^'S'^'^l ^^^■'^^^■3j'!;(^''^g"l'gq'^'s^^' 

jf|] irrigation ditch || Yesterday afternoon I saw a small fish in the 

irrigation ditch. p''^=;'|,^^'=;'^'§'if^q'3j=;'^y5j'^J!]'»i=;'l 
^'^^'^ fetter || The horse stepped out of its fetter. ^^if^!;-^J!]-",l'^-i3^| 
jf|^'^3jl barefoot || In summer I like to go barefoot on the grassland. 

jf|^'^^l footprint || After it snows I like to make footprints where no one 
has walked. p=;'N'qq'N'|'N'5]-J!](^3j-q'N'^s^'P'^^'5i!^-'N^'!;'^=;'if^=;'|'^'qTj!]'q^'=^J!]qi 

*=\^^'| walking, on foot || We could take a taxi, but I prefer to go on 
foot. =^'^J!]'N'J!]y;'5.!;'N'qp'^''^vq^=^'lJ!]'sr^l'q3j'^!;'!;'^!;'if^=;'g=;''^^^^ 

*=\^'>q] walker, pedestrian || He was a great walker — even when he was 
eighty he liked to walk several kilometers everyday, p'si'^fj^'^^'^'^^'^' 

jfj^'s^qq] sole (of foot) II I stepped on a nail and it penetrated the sole of 
my foot. '^•'^¥^'»l'^^'S^'^=;'^»l'i!''^^'i!'^'^"=;^'jfj=^'»l§"l'".V'^?^l 

jf|Rg5^] trousers || I like these brown trousers because they are made of 
wool and are very warm. i5^!;'|»l'|]J!]^q^'^J!]'S-q".V'^!^-q'i''^'^!;'=9'5!;^3j^ 

jfj^'^l ^foot; 'leg II 'when the horse stepped on his right foot, he 

screamed in agony. ^•q!5l"pq'^=;'q'Jl]"^'sj-5iq-a:;-c-q|s]-q-3j| ps]-3j-|q^-5]-qf!^- 
q^'5'^^'q^3j] "Those basketball players have very long legs, '^z^'.f '>'^'".V 

jf^^'q'(^'q| lame, paralyzed foot || After my uncle had a tractor accident his 
foot was paralyzed. 

jf|R2;5^Jl^ infantryman || My father was an infantryman in the last war. 


'^^S^^ q "~'l soccer, football || Soccer is not very popular in the United 
States, but it is very popular in China and the United Kingdom. 

3fi=;'5]^!q| toe II He cut off his right big toe when he was chopping wood 
in the forest. f?'^'3i5r|'5)-:t|$q-^--flc;-q|^!^-sq!^-st;-q-st|£«?)-5]^-5]§q-qc,-zT|^qB!^-j 

jf|Rn,15^] footpath II There is a footpath from our village to the small 
village over the mountain. 


^] (qif|] qifj'^l }^^]) to steal || If you want to steal money from a bank you 
should think about the punishment. ^^■§'N'=^5'^vp=;'3j'N'|'^'s?if^'q^=^'Sl ^k 

^■'^^^ looting, robbing || The bandits went everywhere, robbing the 

people. ^5!]-q-5!]=;-'^^-»r=;-3j'N-5^-^»l'N'".V;if^-q^q]-|^l 

*3j'5^| thief, robber || The thief stole my wife's new gold watch last night 
as she came home from work on the bus. 


*q'^Jlj^l| chair || My mother always sat in this red chair after a hard day's 

work. |3j'J!]5J!]'^'f\l'N'jgJ!]'N'53^-q4'|'^'^l'^'S'l?>V5^'^3j'q^'if^q'^J!]'N'=^5^^'q^q^ 

if|=^■q] waist II I got a pain in my waist after running three hundred 
meters. I'^'^s^'^^^'^-V^^'^'l^'^^^'^S'^^'SJl 

^] (qif|] ^jffi] jffi]) Ho dig; "to carve || ^Tomorrow I will have to dig holes 
to plant apple trees. 'N=;-|3j-=;'N-f^=;-g-q?^^-3j'N-^-M-^=;^q^J!]'N-=^3]'^l "He 
carves human figures out of wood. (^^■-S^'?^'^'S<^'^^^^^'!:!$3^'qs^| 

*■'^=^3j| Migging; "mining || ^Digging for caterpillar fungus is something 

that many people do in spring in my home place. S^S''']^'^'^'^'^"^'^' 
^^^y=^^3j-qg-S-q'^-^-5^-»l!;^^^3j-^-J!]^^-q-^J!]-«|3j| -Coal mining destroyed 
a large area of grassland. '^"I'^^z^I'^'^yM'^'isj^^J!]'^^.^!]'^] 

^1 strand of rope || Slowly the strand of rope holding the box on the 
truck began breaking. 5|=;'N'qp'^'^=;'g^si'^=^'q^J!]'N'qq'^=^'^'^'=^".VWc5^1 

^'\ 'wild ass; 'pure; ''single || 'The wild ass was afraid of the car. 5^'S' 
^:;!S)-qpk-^!;-q-n,vq5J!]s)] "He likes to eat pure butter. ■^si^-^=;-^!;-g-q^-=^Ji]q| 
'He is a single person in his forties. p'3j'".vq(^'q^'".13j'i!'l'5^'^^'(^J!]'^3j] 

S"~'l (S"~'l S"~'l S"~'l) to swim II I want to swim this afternoon in the river 
near here. ^■^'^■|,^=^''^'^'^''^^'^'Sy<^'^^'^'|'^'5^'3i=^'^'5"-v|'^''^'^^l 

*",V^R] dandy || Looking at his hair and clothes I know he's a dandy. 

^3j] factor, because of || The most important factor in learning English 
well is two hours a day of study. =^^'^J!]''5jn!^'q'(aqi'^]q'q^'£5^'J!j",vi'q'3j' 

S^S'^1 because || I am tired because I didn't sleep last night. 

^3j'^3j] 'disaster; 'incident || 'The most recent disaster we experienced 
was the heavy snowfall two years ago. 5'5^''^'S'5^'^'^'*"l'^^'q^'53j'^3j'^'^' 
f^V^^^'^3j'^'p^'^'c5^'^'^3j] "An incident happened last year between us 
that ended our friendship. 3j'^!;'!;'§§q'q^'".V^aj'^J!]'^=;"3j'S5-si^q-q|<^-g3^-$:^| 

If^'l C^'^] ^S'^'^l S^'^l) to stretch out || Stretch out your hand and I will 

pull you up. ^^■|'N-".iJ!]-q-^=;'^-=^=;-=;'N-^=^-«^^-".vqgaji 
a^^'q] mute, dumb person || He has been mute since birth. 

j^^S^l abstract, enigmatic || His speech was so enigmatic that I could 

not understand it. p'^-J!]^s^-q.P|=^-^-=9-5'^-^J!]-5,^-^J!]-'^3j-q'N-^'N-=9-qys^-^qi 
a^'^".l] surprise attack || The enemy launched a surprise attack at dawn. 

^^■^3j] bribery, graft || Bribery is a social evil that should be eliminated. 

a^'iil secretly || She secretly whispered into her friend's ear. p'5^^'^J!]'y 

'S^'S] to peep II Last night I caught Caireng peeping into your room 

while you were sleeping. 

a^'ft^'] black marketing || He made a lot of money by black marketing 
gold. p''^'J!]^^'|,'^J!]'§§k'q^q'3j'N'p-^5n?i-i3;'q'^=;'^] 
^■^^'^l sash II I have had this red sash for three years. 

S^l 'sound; 'language || 'The sound of singing filled the room. g'^=^'p^' 
qq'^^'S'pt^sj] 'Learning a new language well takes hundreds of hours 
of study. ^=^'5:J!]M-J!]'N^-q-^J!]-«^J!]^=^-^q-q3;-^-§?=^-q^-^J!]-s-»i-=^^Ml 

^S5!^^l fame, repute || His fame is such that it reaches every comer of 
the country. p<^'^=^'5]J!]'N'^".V3^;;-?;;!^-^'(iqi 

^S 5!^'^^^1 famous, well-known || Who is the most famous of Tibetan 
historical figures? q=^-|-'^^'N-^=;-i'^-^^-5]Jl]'N-i-qq-5^-f -^t^ajl 

^^N'f^JljJll to become hoarse || After giving several speeches in a few hours 
he became hoarse. p''^•^•^=^•q^!]q■".l•^!]^»^•q^P|=^•£!]3j=;•|'^•^=^•q^!]^!] 

^=;'g^'q] interpreter, translator || If you learn English very well, perhaps 
you can be a Tibetan-English translator. ^"Jy=^§^'^^'"J'3q'a^'q5^'q'§'N' 

^=^■5^ a moment || I will be ready in a moment. 

^I'^'-S^l noise || Don't make so much noise. a^'-S^'^'^^^S^'^'^S^ 
^=^■c51 language || Other than Tibetan, what languages do you know? 

^2;'qja*]'|j'q| bilingual || He is bilingual in Tibetan and Chinese. p'Sj'ffi'^!^' 

^=;'J!]=;^^] tone (of voice) || I don't like my teacher to talk to us in a 

scolding tone . =^5i-^aj-|M-^-§?k-=^5r=^-srq-^=^-J!]=^^M-|M-q.P|=^-q3;-^-5^-=^J!]qi 
^=^■!^^■^^■^] linguistics || Linguistics is the study of language. 

Sq'^l time, occasion, when || I can come to your home at a time that is 

convenient for you. (i^''^V^q'N-q^-^3j-qq-^q'N-.f|Jl]-f\V=;-ji=^-|-t^'^V'^v'?$;-I^ 
^q'^'qqi^l sometimes || Sometimes I feel sad when I think about my old 

parents living alone. 



^qsj'^sj's^l next time || The next time we have dinner I'U pay. ^q^r^^vs^^^' 

^qs^'gj!^ at the time, current || Short skirts are a current fashion. 

^q'^'^^aj] current events || He reads several newspapers every day and, 
consequently, he knows a lot about current events. 

sq^'^] when, at the time of || At the time of my grandfather's childhood, 

most Amdo Tibetans were nomads. 

f^^'^] ^skinny, thin; 'dry || ^That fat man in his fifties was a very skinny 

child. '5I''^'q^5;-|q!^-q^-5^-jf3j^-^-|3j-S5:^-|^si-q-.^-^»1^^3^-i^q^-i^3il ^Deserts 

have dry weather. ^■g^'S'^3js^'^-P|^'^«^'-f|'^'i] 
^5^'^] dry land || That dry land is unsuitable for cultivation. as^'^'=;''^' 


^s^'^'c53j'i!] continent || Africa, Asia, North America, South America, 
Australia, Europe, and Antarctica are seven continents, i^vvg-^'p'^^^w 

3]'W1| UM'5i'^'|T^=^-S|| U^-5^-S;-pwsi| i3T«S'(|'^'Wl| 35^q-:^:;-ra^|-|:;-q5S]-^-|:;-i3j-q^3j^ 

S^is^'-Pj beef || Yesterday afternoon, my mother said to me, "Go to the 
market and buy one kilogram of beef " 

^^'5]^^] score || My exam score was eighty-eight. ^^'S^^'S^'Sj'^SS'^' 

a^'c5] second (time) || How many seconds did it take you to run one 

hundred meters? ^=^'|]'N-q^-g»l-q3;-^J!]'N-q5;-^^-56-i-^5]-=^q[^)] 
s53;-5^«;q| shooting star, meteor || Last night very late, I saw many 

shooting stars. 5]S3^-^z;-2riq-q<^-^q'N-^-!;'N-^^-si=^q-si!;^5]gs;-H!:;-| 
^=^'5^1 star II Last night at about eleven o'clock, I saw a very bright and 

large star. »l=^=^'=^^=^'=^"l'i^'f ^=^'q^'J!]5J!]'«^'^-»l'N-^] ^^'^-^^^-iaj-^^tj-sw^-] 
a^^l portion || Since I'm not very hungry I will give you the larger 

portion of food. ^^'^-q^'S^-'^Jll'N-q'^l ^'^■^".viaj^-';'^-^^-".!-^^] 
^q-q-ajm-qi proper opportunity, good chance || Success requires ambition 

and the proper opportunity. '^ai'q5]q'q^'^".vq'«)5;|!5l--flK,-(^^3i-q-55;|-q-'S3i- 


^^'^l Her parents provided her with a good chance to go to school. ^' 

S^^ stairs, ladder || The ladder leading to the roof of my home was given 
to me last year by my sister's family. 

a'RS^'^] body health || Mental health is important for good body health. 

^■qp^] retinue || When he visits countryside areas he is surrounded by a 

retinue of assistants. ^'^'^'"-V'^^^'^1 P^^'^'^''^p'^'|,'^''^^^'"5'^l 
^■5^5!3j] guest II You are my guest so I want to serve you some good 

liquor. ^'^■^■'^^■^■»1^3jt^aj-q'^l =;'N-^=^-".Vc5=^'qg=^^^J!]''^=^''^'^=^l 
a'5^ noble, aristocrat || Before Liberation, he was the richest noble in 

this area. qs'^'N-q^n.i^la-".!] (^■'^■q^-Ji]q-^-5J!]-i'^-§J!]^'^aji 
^'cf^l representative, deputy || He has been a representative in the 

National People's Congress for six years. 

^■(^q'^1 an honorific term used before names, Mr. || Mr. Smith will visit 
you this afternoon at three p.m. ^■^=;-|^q-^-sf=;-J!]^»l-^=;-^-(^q'N-^-^^-^-5s^)- 

S'Sj^'q] bodyguard || Because he is so famous, he is surrounded by 
several strong bodyguards wherever he goes. 

^R] (qa^'l q^^'^l S^^l) to hide II Sometimes when I'm very afraid I want 

\s \s \s \s 

to hide under the bed and weep. 


^=;] (q^l q^^] ^^'\) to smear; voice || I will have to smear some shoe 

\s \s \s \s 

polish on my shoes to make them look new. ^'^■^!;'5n'™«^'^^'qg=^'J!]'^=^'q' 
^q|-!^K,-(^5-q^-qg-5!^-^<^-gj!]-n,v™»l-|-q^-:^q^^)-^-^2^| He had a cold so his 
voice was not clear. p'^-S»l'q''^Jl]'"r^'q'^-pq-s'^-J!]'^".vq^5^3jl 

aS'^] thread || Will you please put this green thread through the needle's 
eye for me? (i=^'|'N-=;-".V^=^-q-'^=;-f^-q^-pq-8^5[^-".V^!^-3j-Ii!]-J!]»ll 

^=;'".is^] line (of telegraph) || The telegraph line was broken by the heavy 
snow. p=^'N-i3j^M-^^-^J!]-S]-^=^-".wq5=^l 

^5^1 (q^s^l qas^'^l ^^^\) to cringe, to wince, to shrink || I winced in pain 


from the injection. |3^-pq'q|q-q<^-3j'|£!]'".i'N'=;q''5'N^q^5^'Nl 
^^] (q^=^l q^=^l ^=^1) Ho mail; "to send || I want to mail these letters to my 
friends by December tenth. |'!^^'5i]^'^'q<^'^'^'ci^<^'f3^'^'=^'^'<^|3i'Sq|-(^^- 
=>5r|'^!^'5r|'5]5r|5^'q'55]!5^'nj'q^^'3;'(^!;s;| 'I will send my sons to your home 
tomorrow to help you with your farmwork. ^^■'^5'^^'^R5n-g^-55]!5^'|gj;' 

a=^''^^q'^] slander, defame 1 1 The slander that was circulated about him 
did not seem to make him worried. 

^t^] (qa".l] qa".l] ^"-l]) to persuade, to encourage || I will try to persuade 
him to stop drinking and smoking. ^^■p'f\vs^'^^'g's^^'^5=^'^=^'^'^V^'"^3j] 

^".V^^^^] inspiration, incentive || What inspiration can you provide to 
your employees so that they will work harder? ^2;'Jr|'^'q'^5^^'",V",l^'q§'3j' 

a".vq5] summons, call || I couldn't hear her quiet call. 


a".V5^] encouragement, inspiration, exhorting || Her hard work is an 
inspiration to us all. jSw^'^-qf 3^-|,=^-q-^-^!;-§fcf=^-»l^'5]S3^-3^-^n,v»l-gs;!5i--8q|- 
■^Sj] Your encouragement helped me succeed. (i^'^'N'^'^'5]'q^c;'q'nj!5^' 

^ neck II After being in the sun all day my neck became sunburned. 

^'S^'^l scarf II My mother likes to wear red scarves when she goes 

outside in the winter. =^^3jf^-=;^-i3M-s^-|^n,vq^^^-^-:^^^]-=^s^^-q^:^^-q^-:^qjq| I 
bought this new red scarf for my older sister. ^'^■i3^'5'".rs''>ff]'5^'^5^=^'q" 

^■g3jl necklace || When her necklace broke, pearls rolled all over the 

floor. prq-^-^3j-c5=^'^^l ?j-^J!]-cdk-»i-g!;-",i^^] 
r^S^] waist II My waist now, at the age of fifty, is much bigger than 

when I was eighteen. «r'^'q^5;-a^-q^-:^-^q!5I-|-!:;^-^:^-q-^-;^!:;-arq^-q|:^- 

S»i] (q^»i] q^»i»)] I'si*!]) Ho dry; "to wilt || ^I want to dry this yogurt in the 

sun today. ^•^=;-=;'s)-;^q^-|-»i;^-q^»l-q^;^| -j\iQ barley plants wilted 

because of the drought. g3j-qq-^q'N-|'N-3j'N-q^»l'N| 


^] (q^l q^'^] ^^'\) to appoint, to select || We will have to appoint a new 
leader for the college. =;'§f'^'^q'|=;'".vq^(|=^'J!]'N^'q'^J!]'q^=^3]'^'^'^=^l 

^^^'l (q^:;-] q^'^'Nl ^^^'N]) Ho add; "to convene; ho be content || ^I want to 
add three names to the guest list. !;'N'»15]3j'qq'»l=;'gq'5]!5l-^'»l=;'5!]^si'q^!;' 
'^^^l "We will have to convene the meeting three days later. ^'OTftaj' 
^^*''S'1^'^'^^'^''^'^'^^^'^^^1 'l guess we will have to be content with 
this price for our barley this year. ^'^■q'^«^'^^'"l'=;'"5^'^'^'^'3j^'^'^aj'^' 

^3j] (q^SJl q^Sjl ^3jl) Ho dress (someone), to put clothes (on someone); 'to 
put around || 'You will need to dress the baby in her warm clothes 
because it's very cold outside. |'^"-V^'3j*l^'=9'5=^''^(5^'=^'Nl ^^^'^'N'g's?".!' 

T^^^'^^^^^^'^l 'Sli^ P^t ^ l^ilt around her ice-cream cart so that 
her ice-cream would stay frozen longer. p's^^'=^^'J!]''^'f|'^=^''^q''^3j'=^^'^=^' 
^5^1 to be thirsty || I was so thirsty that I drank three cups of cold water. 

^^] (q^^] q^^] ^^\) Ho surround; ho rotate; ho turn round; ''about || 'We 
will surround him and each of us will offer him three small cups of 
liquor as a special tribute. =;-§f'^-p^".vq^=^-3j'^-5^-^-^'N-(Tn.Vc5=^^^'^=;'^=;'J!]^»l' 
^'^^3"^ 5^^1 I rotate my prayer wheel every morning. •^a'^f^'i^JTi's^'q^' 
c^^t'S^'aj'^^p^^'^-Va^^] The man on horseback turned the horse round and 
rode away. ^<^-(^^K,'5]'|'^'q'^'^'^<^'p''Tq|5;|!^-|!^-5i^-aj-q(g2^] ''l didn't hear 
anything about you. =;'N'^=^'^^'§-5;|3^!^-^'^-S-ai;;-g!^-5]-|c;-| 

^^'^^51 interrogation || Although the interrogation lasted three days he 
did not reveal the name of his friends. S^''^5'^^S'51^'^3i'^^s^'"-V^'^'5^'| 


^^'aj^l from a certain point of view, regarding this || From a certain 
point of view, it may seem reasonable to do evil things. 


S==^'^q] inspection, survey || The inspection of the county's poorest 
families suggested the problem of poverty was not as bad as 
previously thought. ^=^'Sl'^«^'cf=^'i'N-=^g'^vq^|^V^^'^q'^'^'q'".1'^-^g".l^=;'^-|- 


a=^'"lJll odd, eccentric, reverse || Odd behavior makes me uncomfortable. 


^",1] (q^".!] q^".l] ^".1]) Ho boil; 'to cook || ^Please boil some water for tea. 
2^q^^-^n,V^-^n,V^q^^l| -I cooked a meal that all my friends enjoyed. ^^'^^^^ 

g'^] Hayman; 'pale || 'I've always been a layman and never a monk. 
=^'|^^J!]'«S3j-q-".l'^-q^3j-q-^M-»l-^=;-l -Your pale face and thin figure tell me 
that you are not well. ^^•^^»iYll'|''^'^'^''3'^^^*1^^3i'^'^^'^''^'^''^''^'^'^' 

g'«| rider (of a horse) || The rider of the winning race horse was 
awarded ten thousand dollars. 

g'^'^^'^] dawn II At dawn the sun rose from the east, turning the sky a 
fiery red. ^•^=;'N'^'^q'N'«jys^'.P|^'!|5l]'N'^''^Jl]'N'^'3j»l'»ip'TS^''3^-!^5]^-q3;-q|^] 

^■^=^] laymen and monks || Laymen and monks came to hear what the 
local leader had to say. ^•'^^•cf'^'»l''N'£!]3j'N'q3y^=^-^'^'5;|^s]-:K|!^-n,v^3j-q^-g3j] 

g'l]'^] excrement, feces || Please clean the toilet of its excrement. 

g^'^ajl lie II His lies are easy to detect. p'^'g^'f3j%»lcf'^'q^".lA]l 
g'31'"^'>| pampered, spoiled || He was an only son and led a pampered 

life. p^'g'^l^'^''^3j'i!'^'=;3j'q'gJ!]'".i!;'S]'q§fq'q|".il 
gq^'S^J!^3j] savior, protector || A Living Buddha is our village's protector. 

=;'c?|-qq-^ q'N's^^aj'^' q'sq-^qj-^aj] 
SI (qsi qa^l a^l) to lend, to borrow || I want to borrow some money 

from you. ^'N-^=^-|-".lJ!]-3j'N-|'^-SfqJ!]q-q|-q^=^] 
^'5^1 skin, hide || The poor quality skin had several holes. 

g^] happy II It was a happy day when my father came home after being 
away for two years. 

g^'f ^ happiness and sadness || When my son left for college I had a 
feeling of both happiness and sadness. 

g^'s^] happy, glad || I am happy when I am together with my friends. 


g3j'^] payment for things lost, compensation || What is the amount of 
compensation that you wiU be paid? ^■".vi3j''^'^'§§k''^^".l'^3]^] 

g",l] (qg".l] qg".l] ^".1]) to dam up (water), to let water puddle || If you 
want to irrigate the fields, you will have to dam up the ditch. 

g".V^^'] sitting cross-legged || After sitting cross-legged for half an hour 
my legs ached, f §f=^'^5J!]'=^=^'|=^'5»l'".v|"-V^=;'^'q^=^''|'N-=;^-^=;'q'aj'^=;'l 

gJl] (q^^ ^^^^1 ^^^D to vomit, to puke || I drank too much and had to 
vomit. =^M'c5=^'^=^M'5J!]M'i!M'g ^'^T'S'^'l 

g^'^'q] disgusting, awful || The spoiled food made a disgusting meal. 

^^""-1^ nausea, disgust || His terrible behavior filled me with disgust. p<^' 

S^'l (qs^'l ^S^'^l S^^l) to reduce, to diminish 11 1 don't want to reduce 

my weight. !;'^'^:;-S|-|=^'cf=^'g=;'3j'5^'q^^l 
g'v] (^^^\ ^^^1 g^l) to give up, to stop to do || I'm going to give up 

smoking next month. |'|!^-5]^-!;'^'g'siJ!]'qg3j'5]S5]!^-q|^!^-^-fiS3j] 
a^'5^1 sour, acidic 11 Vinegar is sour. a=^'=^'a'a=^'5^'"^ail 
^] (g] ^'^l) to grow II After the warm summer rain the young wheat 

plants rapidly began to grow. 

g'S^l living creature, sentient being || We should all feel compassion for 
all sentient beings. !;'§f'N'|-(^^-g5]!^-^!^-n,v^!;-'^si'N'ql3j'^q]'^l 

i^^'^l Vl^nt; "organic matter || 'How many plant names do you know? 
^^'S'^'i'^'^^'S'^'^'^''^'*''-^'^! 'Glass is not organic matter. ^q-|^-|-=^X''^- 

g'^^'^'^^^'i]] biology II Biology is the study of life. 

^■^q^l developing strength || Developing strength after a rain is 

something that plants do. S^-|'N-^-|-5|!^-g5]!^-^:^-f\i|-^q^-^^)-q->^3j] 
^■■SSjl organic, living || Organic fertilizer contains no harmful chemicals. 

^■^3j'^] place of birth, native home || My place of birth is London, 
England. =;q-|-Jl]3j'N-^-=^|3j-^q-%^aj-«S3j| 


^•q'^3j"s^| former incarnation || It is said that our village's mountain 
god's former incarnation was a Qing Dynasty general. 

g■q■'^=^] this life II In this life I will do as much good for other people as I 

can. I'^''^^'"-!] '^'^•%^q'^'N'5^'^5^'N'".v=^5i-q-q|^q-^t^3ji 
^■q'^'»l] next incarnation || What will my next incarnation be? 

g'q] human being || Human beings are capable of both good and evil. 

^•q'2;5^'q| righteous person || Being a righteous person is not always an 

easy task. |^=^»l-q-^J!]-^-^-^-3j»l-«^=;-".l'NAV5f^J!]-5^3jl 
^•q'!yf\vq| common folk || The common folk have a precious collection of 

oral literature. |-q'^'^vq-'^V=^s^=;'N-^^-f'»l-^Jl]-§]-g'^-^-g'i3jW^l 
g■5^=^] inorganic || A rock is a good example of an inorganic substance. 

^=;] (^^^1 ^^S] ^S]) Ho widen; 'to expand || 'Being a university student 

will do much to widen your mind. ^iq'^J'iaj's^'^Aiq's^'i^^'^aj'^aj'^'^'g'i^' 

^i^^^^l 'Metal expands when it is heated. '^J!]^'^=^'3j'q|=^] 
^S'^ interest, dividend || If I deposit one thousand RMB in the bank for 

three years I will earn three hundred RMB in interest. 

5!]qy!;'S5-^^-s5^!;-J!]gs^-2^f\vp!;-^-"fji]^»i'".vq5'".V3ji l^^-'T^-^^-sf^si-q^-nraj'^qi 
a=;'»l'^'#^l] garden, park || The old man has retired from his job and now 

spends most of his free time in the park with his pet birds. 


^=^■cf'^] 'interest rate; 'growth rate || 'What is the interest rate for ten year 

deposits at you bank? ^^'c^-'^^f^lf '^■^■fTq§q-^5".VJ!]'^J!]-Sl-|=^-cf=^-^-J!]-sf^- 

"^3j| "The growth rate of the company's income did not increase last 

year. ^=;iq-25k-qqq-|-|=^-cf^-",V3j-^=;-%-^!^-q^".v»l-^=;-l 
gS'^^'l bringing up, rearing, upbringing || Rearing children is a serious 

responsibility. |,^'=^'|^'|'^'|^'S'^'"-l'^-qJ!]3j-=^'T]q-s?^J!]-^=^l 
^3^^] sensitive || She is sensitive to strong odors. 

sqi (q|".l] qg"^!] I".!]) 'to deliver; "to escort || 'When is the shop going to 


deliver the goods we ordered? S?=;-p=;-^'^-=;-S?^-»l=;J!]y^^-qq-iklJ!]-aj»l-i=^- 

|a,v|^]-Sr=^| -I want to escort you home. =^'^V^^t^"-V".v|".vq^=^l 
g^-V^^^aj] transportation || Transportation is much more convenient now 

than ten years ago. 'Tq§q-^3j-=^=;-q^^-^-=^-<^-|".vq|3j-=9-5=;-^q'^-q^-^=^l 
g".V5^] accompaniment || Your accompaniment on my way home made 

me feel safe. |^-^s^-^-^J!]-q^-".W^-^=^-|'N-^-".v|".VS^-^^-q-^!^-!:;-'^- 


I'N-^^l birthday || When is your birthday? (i=^'|'|'N-^^-3j»l-§?'^-"^3j] 
g^j'S^S^ righteous person || The fact that he is a righteous person and 

always speaks the truth has earned him the respect of the people of 

my village. 

^^■^] man, male || I was not sure if that person was a man or a woman. 

g'^'g] person || Every person has the capacity to do great things. 

g'^'s^] woman, girl || That young Tibetan woman studies physics at 

Qinghua University in Beijing. 


^'^■'j'q^^] to send something as a present || Our relative will many 
tomorrow so we will have to send something as a present. 

g] to be sad, to be poor, to be pitiful || After her husband died she was 
in a very sad condition. ^^''^^'^'I'^l p^^'^3j^'#^V=9'5^'|^ 

^■q] sorrow, sadness || Sadness and happiness seem to come in equal 
measure . |!^-^q|-q|^!5i-'T|^»i^»i-^-q^!;-q^-g!;-] 

S'^^ moan, sad calls 11 Her sad calls and moans at her father's funeral 
depressed everyone. i3Vii^^'«^=^'N's^c5=^'$!;'pw^'|^=;J!]'!^:;-(^3i-S!^-H=;-q-^!5i-s]- 

§ 5^1 ^^'^ feeling || I often have a sad feeling when I think of my 
miserable childhood. 


^ (qg^ ^§^^1 §^^1) 'to turn; "to make something crooked || 'Please 
turn right and you will find the store. ^"J^'".V^^^'S^'^S'^^'^^'p^'^'is' 

^^] 'The accident made the front of the car crooked. c5^'^'§^'".l'^'^^'^' 

|J!]M1 ladle II That ladle is made of wood. |J!]'N-q^-^=^-^'^-qi'^l 
g=\| (^g^'l ^^^'^l ^^'^l) to take care of, to rear || My parents were not 
often at home so my grandparents actually reared me. si'si'^i'^JS^'Tj-sa;- 

g=;] (^^S] ^^S] gS]) Ho sway; 'to go || ^The wind made the trees sway. 
5^-q|»)-«^-q-q|^=^| 'Please excuse me, I have to go to the toilet. =^q]^»j'=^q]w 

asj] (^^311 ^^3)1 g3j|) Ho ride; 'wrong, false, mistake || ^I want to ride on 
your new horse. ^■(i^'^'f^3i'^'^^^'^'"-V^^3i'3i''^'^^l 'I made a mistake 
when I did my homework. ^^■".1'^'^''^g'^q'^'^^'^3j'(^J!]'qg'^| 

ssj't^q^"-!] to frame someone || He was framed by several of his enemies 
and wrongly accused of a crime. 

g3j'53j] faulty, defective || The electrical wiring in this apartment 
building is defective, therefore, the electricity often goes off. 

g3j'c5] fault, defect || This new washing machine has a serious defect — 
the tub won't hold water. 

gaj'q^^] criticism || I accepted his criticism of my behavior and tried 
earnestly to correct my mistakes. 'fC»)-c,q-|=^-q-(^-|3j-q|=^-ct]3j!^-q-!^»j-=^!^-nS3j-§'^- 

gaj''^^^'^] slander, vilification, malignment || The slander that is told 
about him is told by people that are jealous of his ability and power. 

g3jw]3j] advantage and disadvantage || For every situation there will be 
advantages and disadvantages. J!]3j'^'#>.V5'(^^'^3j'^^'^3j'"^3j'^^^''']''33j] 

gqj (^^^1 ^^^'^l ^^^1) to protect, to rescue || If you saw a man 

drowning, would you try to rescue him? ^"-lys^'^^'^'Sj^'^T^^'q'ajg!;." 

g^l (^^^1 ^^^1 g^l) to repeat, to remember (by heart) || I must repeat 
new English words several times before I can remember them. 


^] hair || Do you think men should wear their hair long or short? 

m'^^^'l curly hair || My father has curly hair and I and my brothers and 
sisters also have curly hair. 

S'»ipaj] barber || Many of Xining's barbers are women. 

^•q(^^| to cut hair || My hair is getting long so I will ask my mother to 

cut it. '^'^•a'1'^=;'^''^^q^3j'«r=^'i!'Nl =;'N'l3M-»l-n.V^-q(^^-^-q|J!]-^-fiS3j| 
S^ to be scared, to be frightened || When I was a child I was scared of 
the dark. I'^'^^S^'S^'^] '^■^aj-ajJ!]-".!-^^!] Do you fear thunder? ^^''^g^'g^'"-!' 
m''^^] Children are often afraid of the dark. |,^'q'^3j'q^'^3j'3jJ!]'".V|5;| 
a^'^^'l fear || His fear of death is very great. p^'nc5'q'"-Va^'^^'i3j'^''^^3j] 
a^^] to swell up II A few minutes after he fell off the horse, his ankle 

began to swell up. ^q-q=;-3j'N-™=;-S-^^-»i-qJ!]q-q^=^-|'Ni pq-^-'^=;-^=;'Ni 
a3j'3j=^] cancer || Smoking causes cancer. g'5^^''^g3j'q''^'^'a3j'3j^'<^S=;'l 
^3^] (^^3j] qaaj] saj]) to make, to construct || The city will construct the 
new leather factory on the outskirts of the city. 5^13^ S-'^'S'^''^''^^'^'^' 

mS] (^m^l ^m^l mS]) to drive out, to exorcise || Every year in winter our 
village holds a ritual to exorcise evil from the village. 

qjfi'^'aj^^] loot, plunder || Though he was convicted for his crimes he 

managed to keep much of his loot. 

q^M'»l] 'sculptured; 'engraved || 'The sculptured deity images in our 

village temple are famous for their beauty. ^cf^'^qqi^pz^si^-Si'^'^'qJ^^'&i'^' 

sjqj-q-s^Ssjqis^s^c^gjq^is^g^ "The engraved inscription was written in very old 

Tibetan. '^^^■^■^■q^^'«^'^'^'^3iq-^^-q'^-^J!]-y|'NW^l 
q^'q] bitter taste || The old cucumber left a bitter taste in my mouth but I 

was so hungry I ate it anyway. 

qa"l'q| era, time || In what era did that king live? 


q^^^wjJ!] letter, correspondence || Even though we have never met we 
have carried on a correspondence with each other for more than 
thirty years. 

q^'q(^J!j appointment || His appointment to the position of governor will 
take effect January first. 

q^^q^] 'summons; 'recruitment || 'After I knew about his summons I 
went to his office. p'^-q|'=;-q^-|^-q-^'s)-,^aj-:^-3;:;-pq-q^(H:;-|^q-p:;-c-5r=;-] "The 
soldier recruitment effort will last for three months. S^^^'s^'q^^'qf'^S' 

q^=^'^3j] reconstruction || China's reconstruction since 1949 is very 


q^^'SJ!^ reorganization || After the reorganization our factory became 
much more efficient. =;-§?q-ql^5!-qg^-^J!]-^^-'|'^-".l'^-I=^-1-'^lJ!]'N-^-i3j^=;-] 

qg^'^v] again, once more || Would you like to hear this music cassette 
once more? ^=^'|'N-^-=^^=;'N-|3j-gJ!]-q^-".vq'^-|,^-^3j-aj-i?;rq^=^l 

qs^^'g^'l exercise, homework 11 This morning our teacher said, "You 
must finish the math homework by tomorrow morning or you will be 
punished." ^■^=^■^^^1 =^-6fq-=^$|-5|3j-|,'s) "^=^-6B5)-5)^-^3j--^^q-q=;-^-q|=;-|=^-§?j-S3;- 

qg^^'J!]'^] restoration || Restoration of the temple will require six years. 

qg=^] (qg^l qg^l g^]) 'to prop up; "to support || 'if we don't prop up this 
wall it will collapse. J!]".iy'^'N-^^-q^-s^-|'^-3j-q^q-^-^^l "My father will 
support me to study in college. i3M-i^'N-=;-".V^q-5]-i3jW^q-|^=;-|^-q^-^q-|=^- 



PI mouth II The basketball hit him in the mouth. '^;;-|'^''^^fpq'|Tq^5i^ 

f^W^] colloquial language, oral language || Colloquial language is more 
vivid than written language. SSq^-^j^-o.i^j-p-^^^-a.vqjsfaj-^si^j-.^aji 

p'a^'l filling the blank, to make up a shortage || To make up the shortage 
in our income I got a job doing construction work. 

p'as^] to be thirsty || I don't like to be thirsty in summer. S^^'p^'^' 

p"^^] perimeter || He walked around the perimeter of the building. 

pr^^'^] Ho be ashamed; 'to be embarrassed || ^I was ashamed because 
the shop owner saw me take a piece of candy and leave without 
paying for it. =;'N'^3j'^=;'s^'|,3j'q^''T]'^''^iq's?^J!]'q(i^'q^q'§f=;'q=^J!]'S|'N's^g^^^ 
qM'^prg^^] "She was so embarrassed that her cheeks turned as red as 
apples when everyone at the party asked her to sing. 5^'cf^'»l^'p's^'".V^' 


p'p] separate, apart, different || We have different thoughts on why 
English is important. 

prpj!j's^=;'q] frank, straightforward || He was very frank in his answer. 

PTS^p'^'q] eloquent person || He is the most eloquent person I know. 

f^'^^] adult (livestock) || If adult livestock are healthy they mate and 
reproduce. J!]".V^lJ!]-p-J!]=;-q^-g=;-'^3j-^l p^fl^'aj^N-^JJl^N-p-Sq] 

p'^'N] to separate, to part || He has been separated from his wife for one 
month. p^§=^'»l'=^=^^'J!]3J!]'^!;-".vp'|,'^l 

p'S]^ to speak || Don't speak to me when you are angry. 


p'5!^'^] number, quantity || Quality is more important than quantity. 

p'=;J!]q'R=;J!]q] cater to, to ingratiate || He will cater to her desire to be 
complimented. p'^'pWq^^'q'")'^5!]q'q5;-qs]»i-3js]-p-:^q^q^:^q^q-|:^-^-5,£^| 

prg^l food and clothing || I will always respect my parents because they 
provided me with food and clothing when I was a child, g'^'^*^'^'^'^' 

R'^NJ face II Please don't criticize me and make me lose face in front of 
my guests. =;q-5^^3j^q-s^S3j-^-=;-'^v|3j-q'|'=^-^^-3j'N-=;q-p^?f^-S-»l-q|J!] Her face 
turns red when the weather is hot. 3j»l-|-".Vcf=^-q-i-^q'^-'p^q-p^^»l^^=^- 

p'5^ a few II Only a few Tibetans know Spanish well. 


pr^S^'p^'^^^J] hypocritical, two-faced || He says pleasant things to 
people but when they are not present, he says bad things about them. 
He is two-faced. p'^'9S'^5^'N'^'»lS3j'^'S5]-q<^-q|^S]-^=^-q-=^!;-] q3j-^:;-5^-g^:^-^aj- 

p'S^] appointment || I have an appointment to see the department leader 
at eleven o'clock Friday morning. 

p"^] saliva, spittle || I was so hungry that saliva dribbled down my chin 
when I smelled the freshly cooked bread. 

ra^'] young (livestock) || The heavy snowstorm killed many of the 

herdsmen's young livestock. p^^'i3j'i!'".l'^'^J!]^'gJ!]'p'^^'«^^'q'p'^^ 
p'cBS^'^] will, last testament || In his will, he specified exactly how his 

property was to be divided among his children. p'c55^'^'^'3j^'=;'p'^'^'^'^' 


prs^^] dispute, altercation || I've had a dispute with my neighbor over 
grazing lands for many years. ^■^^■||«^'«^J§''N'q=^'5]^^'!^(^'gJ!]'3j^'ffe'5^(^- 

pTHcBS^] agreement || Finally, after years of dispute, we reached an 
agreement. "F^'sl'^'^z^-'^'f^^'iJ'^^'s^g^l =;'^"l'p''^S»l'^=;'l 


p'^^^s^] ingratiating in speech, smooth-tongued || When he talks before a 
group of people he is smooth-tongued. p'^'5^'c5^^'^'s^=;3j'R'J!]™'q.PI=;' 

p'ftaj's^paj] obedient || My daughter has always been obedient. 

p'^aj] the day before yesterday || I got married the day before yesterday, 

which was New Year's Day. p'|3j'y"TJ!]'^^%|3j'5?'".V=^'^:;-q]^3j'^J!]'^^] 
fi"^] advice || What advice would you give me about this problem? 

p'qiS".!] to tame, to domesticate || He tamed the wild horse after several 
weeks of effort. J!]gq-qp'^-qJ!]q-".v^^-qf3j-^'^-5]g^] p'^y'^^'^'^'p'^^"-!] 

R■=^3j| verbal promise || Although we did not sign a contract, I assumed 
your verbal promise was just as binding. 

p■=^5^■'^] tight-lipped closemouthed || She is awfully tight-lipped about 
her involvement in the affair. ^!;"^=^^3j'^'S'3j=^'^'^'^'i!'l'^^'3j'^'pWf^-2^»l^^- 
^3j^l Whenever you ask her about her family and marriage, she is 
closemouthed. ^=^'|'N-5?-'^'(|«^'cf=^'=^=^'J!]^3j'|j!]'^-^^'3j«^'^=^'5=^'l p^^-p-=^»l^ 

1^^^ color II Red, green, blue, yellow, black, and white are some of the 
most common colors, '^^'^^^'^''^'^'fll ^3j^ '^^^ 3f^] '^'^^^'^^■3(m 

f^'^^^ narrow || I ran down the narrow path. ^■".l«^'p'^J!]'i!'=^'^=^'3j'^'q^J!]^] 
pr^^'q^^] frankly || His tendency to speak frankly is one of his most 
admirable characteristics. 

1^51 luck, I wish you good luck! || I wish you good luck in your study of 

the English language. =^|;3j-^^-^q-|=;-|^-q^-=;'^-(i=^-'^-p-5^qq-^3j-".l»l-q^q'Nl 
p■q=^■5^] eloquent || His eloquent nature completely convinced his 

listeners that he was telling the truth. 

p'Y'l color II Black is the darkest color. 3jJ!]^-pYl'^'^'^^''^^^l 
f^SF] condemnation || The boss's condemnation of my fellow workmate 

was most unfair. q^=^sraj'|,^'!;q''^l'NTjij'N'"l'p'5=;'q^=;'q'^'^-y5^'«5'3^'^3J'Sa^' 



prqs] chat, conversation || I had a five minute telephone chat with my 
mother this morning. i^5t]^-q^'=^'s)-p-q^-§K,-^;^-5]-<^^-^K,-uvi-»l-:^:^-|ii-q^-g5^| 

|^3j] to depend on || My future depends on how hard I work now and 
what I plan to do in the future. =;'S'»1^3j''^W^'=^''^'5;c,-S|!^-^-q^-(^q!^-qf3^-|!^- 

R'Sj'^l verbally || He agreed verbally, not in writing. 

praq] last night || Last night when you sang that song I felt so excited. 

[^^31] supplement || Every month I receive a two hundred RMB salary 
supplement because I work in a high altitude area. ^'S^Jlj's^g'^'^^'q",!'^' 
q^aj'ST^^q^N] =;'N'|'^^'5^'=^s^=;'N'?iJ!]'|'^'|'Nq^'5;K,-S|-|^q]^)-^-p-|3j-^aj-^-q3j^ 

R'q'v] telephone || The invention of the telephone is one of the greatest 
things of this century. prq^'Jij^i^-Jij^'^-^'^q-^-^^l-^q'N-q^q-i'N-^q'N-iqq-^ai- 

p'^q] saying, proverb || When he gave the wedding speech, his clever 
use of many proverbs impressed everyone. 


p"^] moustache || When I was younger I wanted to have a moustache 
but, now that I have one, I find that it is troublesome. ^^■=;'^'^'^=;'".vp' 

prq'cB'q] boastful || His boastful nature means that he has few friends. 

l^^l to open up II The first thing we need to do after we move into our 

new apartment is to open up all our boxes. 

P'^^'^1 direction || How far and in what direction is the nearest doctor? 


p'qi snow II The snow in the city at first is beautiful, but it quickly is 
covered with dark dust. ^=;'(i^'^-qq!^-q<^-p'q^-^!;^Jij-»l?'^'^=;'^=;'5^'q^^' 

R'q'53j| ^ Tibet, Tibetan region; "snowland || 'Tibet is a place of friendly 


people, beautiful landscape, and an ancient history and culture. fT^ 
'^'^"^ 5! "^^^^l "This vast snowland area is home to many Tibetans. 

f^^] title (of book/article) || What was the title of the book she 

published last year? fw.v3j-^'^-q^-^-q^3j-qq-=^q-'^q-^q-p-^!^-f\v5i^l 

1 ^ 1 ^ 

p'^"-!] separation; 'to be separated || This separation is not helping our 

marriage. p'g".V'^^'3;'^'c^'J!]^3j'i^'".V5^'=^aj] "That couple has been 

separated for many years now. ^-Pj^'^'^^'^''']'^' '^■p'g"-V3j'^'"?5^^^'^^^l 

p''^g'^] appearance, looks || Her beautiful appearance leads many men to 

ask her to dance. 

l^aq] face down, prone || After the hooligans knocked him unconscious, 
he lay face down on the ground. |^''^'t?l'gjr|'!>'S'5^'!^5=;'5^'^'53;'q'C]ffi'^'S' 

prs^^'q] talkative || She is only talkative when she is in her mother's 

home . pw^!;-S| ws^q'^s^'3j w^'^q'N'=^'J!]l=^'P'»l!;^^J!]'«S3jl 
l^rs^'J!^*]",!] verbally unclear || He writes well but, in terms of what he says, 

I find he is verbally unclear. 

l^ql^ vulgar language || Some find his vulgar language shocking but I 
find he is highly intelligent and his vulgarity is intended to make 
important points. p-3J!]-5]'N-pq-p-q^J!]-q|j!]'N-i-q^-qY^-sr^| ^3j-^=^-=^'^-p^-^»l- 

^qj-qq-n,vpq-p-q^qj-^-<^-q-q^a,vg3j-q^3j-qq-56;^-CT;^3j-q-^!5^| His Stories are 

frequently vulgar and not fit for children to hear. R'^'Jl]^5^'g=;'aj'gaj'i]=^'R' 

p'g'S] argument, fray over || The fray over who would pay for the 

damage to the automobile quickly grew more serious. ^^^■'^p=^'".V^^==;' 


pTcf] ^ spicy; 'urgent || ' Sichuan food is hot and spicy. %|g3j'^'3'^'^=;'3j'p'cf 
^^g'^jaj'i] 'The urgent nature of his request suggested that he was in 
serious trouble . ^•igq'p'cf'S''^?['^'5i]^5i]'^=;'q^3j'f^l'N'j^J!]3j=^^3j'^5J!]''^V^J!]'^^^ 

F^^'l complete || I don't think your account of what happened last night 


is complete. You are hiding something. ^^■(i=^'^'N's^=^^'=^^^'^^'q<^'5n3;'^' 

prs^cf^] humorous speech || Her humorous speech kept us all laughing 
far into the night. p'^'p'»lcf^'|,'^'=^'^^^=^''^|'S^'q^'S'=^^=^'S'q§^ 

p''^^^'l quarrel || After not speaking to each other for five years the two 
sisters finally ended their quarrel and became reconciled. Sj^'s^'^!]^'^' 

^■(^■Jl^a^'s^s;] sincere || His voice has a sincere quality that leads other 
people to believe him. 

fT0f;] width II The box's width is one meter. §^»l-^q-p-(^=;-".v|'^-J!]5J!]'«r^l 
p'ls^l to get closed || How can we get the broken door closed? ^■§5'N'^'<3=^' 

R""^] ^match; 'response || ^I had a basketball match this afternoon. S'^^'^' 
^^^■^■'Jjz^'.f =^■^^■"S(^■<^5]3;■^^■R■(a^^|^5I] ~He made no response to my request. 

p'"^J!]'^'q^=;] flattery || She is very good at telling people what they want 
to hear but her flattery won't work with me. 

p""^^'] loquacious || After drinking several cups of liquor he becomes 

loquacious. c5=;^^'q''^J!]'Tq^=;-'|'Nl p^p-wi^^'^Jj^-y^^] 
fT^^ title, label || What is the title of your essay? 

^■£1]"^=^] to excuse, to make a pretext || ^She excused her misconduct by 
saying that she was drunk, p's^^'^^^'tn'^^^'^aj's-^s;-'^!^' 
■q|''S5=^'q'q'p'Jlj"^^] "She made a pretext that she was ill and could not 

take the exam. p'»l'^'p'»l'3j'3jM'gJ!]MW(^J!]'N'5^'^q'q^'p'J!]«j: 


f^'^^ silence, quiet || Sometimes I like loud parties but, sometimes, I 
like to be alone and enjoy a time of quiet. »lcfsi^'»lcfs^^'^'^'=^^'^^'§^'5^'| 

P'^^'^1 vapor from the mouth || The weather was so cold that the vapor 
from my mouth turned into ice on my beard. 

R"f^q| cover, lid || "I'm sorry," she said, "I broke the cover of the china 


teapot that your mother gave you." p^'"=^^^'i!'5^'S§5^] ^^'[i^'^'isM's^^' 

pr^-vq] driver || I have been a truck driver for twenty -three years. 

p'-Pj^^l cross-talk || I thought the cross-talk was very amusing. 


l^-Pj'^] ^some; 'a few || ^Some people like hot spicy food and some 
people don't. 5^-p-.P|'N-p-cf^=^''|^^3j'i'q^'g'»l'".v^^'T5?=^-<^3i-5:;-5^-p-.P|'^-5^-=^J!]qi 
'Only a few people in my village are over the age of eighty -five. ^' 


fT^di^ boast II I did not believe his boast that he knew fifteen languages. 


p'^'^q] to add II From time to time it is important to add something new 
to your life to make it continue to be interesting. aq'sl't^JTi^i (iS'^'HSp 

[Tq^'^fwq] clear, explicit || What he said he would do was very explicit. 


[^"S^ ^surplus; 'over || 'Surplus production leads to cheap prices. 53j'^^' 
"S^'5]'H^'S'^^^'^^'5]^'55r|'(^5] 'There are over twenty students who like 
to play basketball. 'a=^'t=^'f'«)T'^'^^'=^^'^^'*lW"^^'^=^l 

p^ section, part || This section of beef looks best. ^s^^'.P|'pJ!]''^=^'i^'qg!^' 

P^'S^l to blame (by shifting fault) || I don't want to blame you for this 

mistake. '^=^''^^J!T'^^^^J!]'3j'N-^'N-(i=^-".vpJ!]-=^^-5^-q^=^l 
P^'^fl^l tie responsible for || First I must be responsible for myself and 

then be responsible for my family. gJ!]'s^=^] ^^'^^^'^^'^-Vp^'f^l^^^'^^^'-n!^'^' 

pqj-q^q^ to excuse || He excuses my mistakes. p^'^q'^3j'c5'".vp^'q^^'^^| 
p^'^^ guarantee, pledge || This electric rice cooker has a one year 
guarantee and, if anything goes wrong with it for that period, you 
may bring it back and get a new one. qg^'q^^=^'^'gq'^'".V"TJ!]5^'S]'pi5[^' 


p5[j-s^2;| ^no wonder; 'pardonable || 'He was drunk so no wonder he said 
that. ■^q|-Sr=^-q'^-p''^-s'^-S-^-q.P|^-q-f^-psi]'«^| 'Your misconduct is 


pardonable because you were drunk. (i=^'ql'"^=^'^^r(i=^'^'|=^'^'5^"'^l^^"^'".V 

p^'^ rent (house) || How much rent do you pay every year? 

p^'c53j] mansion || His new house is a mansion. p'^'p^'^'^^^'^'p^'cBSj'i^^'^^Sjl 
p^'^^ roof II Children like to climb up on the roof of our house, ^'^'t^'*^' 

p^q^J!] house owner || The house owner wants me to pay more rent. 

p^'q] house II The house was made mostly of stone. 

pq] needle || I dropped my needle on the floor, ^^'pq'g^'"-!''^^^] 

Rsi'511!;;] mouthful || I ate one mouthful of bread and was no longer 
hungry . '^'N'qy^'pai-Ji^i^l'^-q-aj-'^Jij^l-^i^-s^^^-q^-g^] 

J^s^^\ 'region; 'physical condition; ^Khams area || 'Which Tibetan region 
are you from? |5^'q=^'p5^'^'J!]^'aj^'g3j] 'My physical condition couldn't 
be better. ^q'i^^'p»i'^'q^'",i'^'q^'gq^'5^2^] ^The Khams area includes parts 
of Tibet, Yunnan, Qinghai, and Sichuan. p»l'N-|-f5k'N-^^=^-^=;'N-=^=;-«J3j- 
sjsj] sisf^iji |-^3j-q5'N-|-'N-c5'p'.P|'^-qsi 

ps^^l'2;^^'] in good health || I've been in good health all my life. 

ps^s^'q:;'] healthy || It is healthy to not eat too much animal fat. 

p"1] pack II I'll help you put this pack on the horse. 

R"^'S1| pack animal || How much can this pack animal carry? 

p'^'f^iaj] 'to promise, to guarantee; 'to admit, to concede || 'When did you 
promise you would visit me? ^■^'^■^■".V'^cf5^^''^5'3js^'^=^'^=^'^'p^''^13j'^^] 
'Admitting my wrongdoing relieved my feelings of guilt. ^!;'Jr|'3jJ!]'a^' 
p'^-";i3j-^'^-q-^'^-=;q-(^-J!i^=;-s^2^-q^-q^!;-] I concede that I made some 
mistakes. !;'^'^=;'S]'N'|aj'qJ!]q'".i'^w^'q-|^!^-«i3^-|'^| 

[^■qf I curtailment || The students welcomed the curtailment in the 
number of hours that they had to be in the classroom each day. 


[^■q] juice, soup II Please have some orange juice. cf'^'s^^'f^'q'^^M] 
[^■q] paternal uncle || My father's brothers are all my paternal uncles. 

[^•^^1 fist II He tightened his fist in anger. 'p'^'^=;'^q'=;=;'f^'^^''^5]-q3;-q5!;'Nl 
l^'^^s^'q] quiet, silent, placid || She liked to read in the quiet classroom. 

l^^'s^] bag II I bought this new bag at the market. 

[^^■g] hole II I looked through the hole in the door. 

1^^^] origin, source || The Buddha's teachings are the origin of 

Buddhism. 'N=;'N-^^%q^aj-q3'^-^-3j=;-q^3j-|,-f^=;'^-«S3jl 
|^^sj-^a.i| proof II What proof can you offer that he is the criminal? 

f^^^^i^^^l searching out the origin || When I was young I was 

determined to search out the origin of the Mekong River. 

l^^^'^q't^] reliable, trustworthy || She is my reliable friend. 

f^^^ il clue II The knife left at the murder scene was an important clue 

to eventually finding the killer. J!]»r^-'^-^'5'^-qq-^-^-8^gq-5^^-".lJ!]-=^»l^-^=^-qq- 

l^^'^'s^s;] baseless || The rumors about her stealing other people's crops 
are baseless. fW)-J!](^3j-|,-qg-^J!]'N-qif^'N-qq-^^-|,-q(i^-J!]^»l-".Vf^=;'N-s^=^] 

[^^^■qsaj] reliable, authentic || What he says is reliable because of his 
knowledge in that field. ^J!]-J!](^^-^^-^^-aj'N-p^'^V^'N-553j-Sr=^-qq-|3j-|,^vp<^- 

fl^'^'3^1 basis, foundation || His book has no believable foundation. 

[^=^'q] burden, load || The load on the donkey's back was so heavy that, 
at last, the donkey refused to move. 

(^=^■^1 luggage II Our train trip was made more convenient by the fact we 


had only two small pieces of luggage. f5=^'^^'^2;'^J!]^^'s^'J!]W]^'s^=^'i!" 

[^"-1] Ho pretend; 'prefecture; ''area || 'l don't want to pretend that I like 
this. ^^■'^^■'^l'=^J!]q'[^",v|,^'8^'q^] "What prefecture are you from? jS^'f^"-!' 
Jj^^aj^'^^q'^aj] ^ The area that I am from has very cold winters and a 

lot of snow. '^■«F;-'^q-'N-f^".v^-^^3j-p-q(iJ!]-5=^'P'q'»i=^^'^qqi 

R] profit II His profit last year in business was nearly fifty thousand 

RMB . aj-^=;-pq-sf=;-p-".vs5".vi^-^^-s?(|-<^w^l 
p'53j] profitable || He obtained his considerable wealth through a 

profitable business with mostly Tibetans. 

P q^'^l profit II How much profit did you earn in the business? 

[^■^^aj] benefit || What is the benefit for me in your plan? (i^'^''^^'^'^'^'|g=^' 

^^q=\] right, authority || It's the people's right to select the leader of 

their township. J!]?iJ!]-J!]q-=^q3j^'^^»l'N-q-^-5^-=^»l=;'N-|-p-=^q=;-"^3j] 
p'ft^'] trade, business || There is much trade between farmers and 

nomads. ^=;-q-=^=;-q|j!]-qq-q^-aj-p-sf=;-»i=;^w^l 
p'".l^] business enterprise || Starting a new business enterprise can be 

difficult. ^■"i'^'5!]'^^-q-^J!]-qqi^»i-^-^-=^'T]q-5rTSSaj'"r^'ii 
R^n'^I to be proud, to be full of || I am proud of my Tibetan culture, 

history, and religion. =;^=^-|-^J!]-J!]3j'N-^=;-'T^'^ll'^-'5J!]'N-q^!^-".v'^q'N-q'^- 

R^^'^R] modest || She is modest about her appearance and abilities. 


[^^^■^^»l| haughty speech || His haughty speech matched his earlier 

arrogance. p'^'p=;'^'J!]^»l'^^'pq'|3^-5'^-5'=;'^".V»lc53Jl 
P^^'5^^1 conceit, haughtiness || Her haughtiness has led to many of her 

friends deserting her. pw-p!^'s)-|J!]'N-|'N-^J!]M^5^^^=^^-qg".vq^-q§J!] 
1^^] riddle || 'What first walks on four legs, then two legs, and finally on 

three legs?' The answer to this riddle is a human being. 'gJ!]'5^=^'if|Rq' 



psj'^] Ho snuggle up; 'to lean || ^On dark, cold winter nights, my 
children like to snuggle up to their mother and me. ^J!]'3jJ!]'5^'5]^'^=^' 

i'qq'Slcfaj'Sr^l |,^'q'^=;'=^:;"p"i'^-B>)-5]-ZT|^?)-'T|<^-S:^-"l-p3j-q3;-:^q^q| "After a long 

walk gathering yak dung she leaned tiredly against a tree. gJl]'^!]''^'^''^' 
q^'S'^'^'^^^'ql^^'I^N] pWg=;-c5=^'3^!^-^=;^^J!]-".vp3jl He was tired and 
leaned against the tree. p^g^'c5=^'aj'^'W'^^'".V|^3jl 
Rq'^] to be covered || The hill is covered by grass during summer. 

P^31 spoon II This silver spoon was made by the silversmith in our 

village . ^".v|,-p»l-g-q^-^-=;-§Sq-^-qq-:^5n.V»iq^^-|^^l-q5^^1-qT^3j| 

P^S^l single, alone || She remained single, became a nun, and chose to 
live alone in a mountain cave. 

p^'Jjja^l individual business || What she does during her vacation is her 
individual business and it has nothing to do with our factory. 

p=^'".iq] talk to oneself || I talk to myself when I am alone. 

1^1 he, him || He can speak perfect Tibetan. p^'q^'^^'^s^'^^"q-P|^'-^^l 
p'5^ they, them || They want to help themselves by offering to help us. 

p'^^1 himself || He cut himself when he was sharpening the knife. 

fTgtn'ois] certainly, have/has to || This is certainly true, '^^■q^aj'^l'irgtri'^^aj] 
p'5^'c5^] sure, to decide || I'm sure you can learn English if you decide 

to try hard. J!]".iy|^=;-qf3j-|=^-g-$5]!^-gq|-q^!^-^] j|':^-|s]-;^|jgj-!!^qj-|'q-^q-q^-:;s]- 

p'3j] solely, only || I am truly happy only when I am with my wife and 
my children. R-^=^-»l-=^=;-|'^-q-^»l'^-=^=;-q^J!]'N-qq-^q'^-p^3j-".11 ^^-qp^'^c^-Sia]?)^ 


p'q] I, me II I want you to tell me why you are often late for class. 

p^ she, her || Did you invite her to the party? (i=^-|'N-p?W§&]'N-".l^^-'N»l| 
R'^^'l himself || He doesn't think about anyone but himself R'^'=^^''^=>'rT3r 


pj!j'J!^^»l] real thought || I don't know what his real thought was. 

pJ!]'^R] hollow II There is a hollow tree near our village. 

p^'^^] upper part of the body || Only the upper part of my body was dry 

after I crossed the river. ^•q^5i^-q^".v|'N'=;q'pJ!]'^=^'p^3j'^»1^3;-a|!^-(^^i:;| 
R'31'=J| stomach || When I'm hungry my stomach aches. 5]S'^''3^^'?V'^'^'^' 

p^'t^'^^'^l narrow minded, bigot || His decision to punish the students 
shows just how narrow minded he really is. p^■^]q■5^■^5^^■".l■c5=^■^■^5^■ 

P^^^l lower part of the body || The road was so dusty that, after 
walking for one hour, the lower part of his body was covered with 
dust. "i»i''S5-sn,v|^'N'p=;'N'Sr=^'q'Nl ^=;'g=;'".v^- 

p^'g'^l scheming, planning || His scheming was, in the end, not 

successful. 'p^'pj!]'|'N-q^q-q-^-»igq-»i=^-i^Ji]'N-q5]q-»i-^=;-l 
p^'^".l] decayed || The wood in the roof is old and decayed. 

p^'] he II He did not tell her what was troubling him. 

P^'Hj anger, indignation || His anger over the wrong way that he had 

been treated grew in intensity. 

pR^J!]=;] to sneer || Don't sneer at me when I make mistakes. 

p^■=^■^=^] to be accomplished, to master || After years of study he has 
mastered Tibetan history. 


p^'^l part of, belong to || This place is part of Qinghai Province. 

p^'^'s^l member || He is a new member of our class. 



P^'^^'^l to include || Our dinner includes mutton, bread, cooked 
vegetables, and yogurt. '^•c^'g'»iq'pk'N'^'.P|'^=;'^^] ^-^nj-^-^^-giSi] ^qs'^' 

pS'S^'^'^^l flat, level || The flat fields may be irrigated. 

ps^] idle, free || In winter the peasants were free from fieldwork and 
remained idle. ^^Sj'P^l ^'^■q'^5^'N'»?aj5^'".l'N'p'»l''5Ic;-gc;-3;!5i-^!5l-!^aj-^-qj3j's)| 

ps^'q^l free time, spare time | || I have some spare time on Monday 
afternoon so I can teach you English then. 5ng(^'^'q(^'g"5^'s;"nj'|^5]'aj!:;- 

p^] his II His brother is a very handsome young man. 

p^t^Jj] environment, surrounding || Tree-covered mountains surrounded 
the grassy valley creating a beautiful environment. 3;5r|!5i'=^!5^'^''S!:,'5r|5^' 

p".V«^] boiled II I want some boiled water to drink, ^^'^'p'^vs^'qii^''^^^] 
|i'5^] (aj'-flz^'l) firewood || As time passes firewood becomes increasingly 

difficult to get. S'^-515;-(^:^!5l-q-:^Rq^3j-3j'Nl (i'»l''^l'^»l'q^3i't-=^'']'^'5'5,^l 

(i^l difference || I don't think there is a big difference between 
Australian and New Zealand English. 

[i^'S'^l characteristic, feature || His distinguishing characteristic was 

intellectual curiosity. p'^'(i=^'I'^'S^T3j-J!]'N'^V^--Pi'N-253j-qq-5^cf^-5^5^'N-^-^^^ 
|g=;'=;=;'q] to discriminate || To discriminate against others because of their 

skin color or ethnicity is wrong. 

[i^'t^^] difference, distinction || I want to make a distinction between 

these two ideas. '^'N-<^-^".vq^-J!]|'N-q^-|,-(i=^-q^-=^|,-q^^l 
(i=^'q^'53jl special || This food is special, g'si'^^^'li^'q^'saj'^^!]'^^! 
fi=^■'^^'^] outstanding || Of all the performances her song was the most 

outstanding. t=^'s5<^'«i'^3i'cf=^'»l^'5]'^'^l p^^'^'^^^'^^r^'i'^'^'^'^'a^'q'^:!]' 

[iS'si^l no different || This book is no different than that one. 


|g=;'J!]'^=;] solving, overcome || The solving of that problem is the key to 

success. J!]3j=^^3j-^-(i=^-J!]^=^-|,=^-a-^-^".Vp<^-J!]3j=^-qJ!]J!]-'^3jl 

(i^l to spread, to become popular || Modem music has quickly become 

popular all over the world. ^=;-^q'^-^-=^^=;'N-»l|J!]'N-sr^-q^»l-|=;™-".V(iqi 
[gq'p^^] field, sphere || What field of knowledge do you think you 

would like to study? ji=^'|'N--Pi'N-^q-(iq-pk'N-J!]^-^J!]-".V|^-qf3j-|=^-q^^| 
(gq'qaqj'^] announcement, propaganda || The latest announcement 

encouraged people to save water and electricity. 

|iq'c5] widespread, broad || This plant is widespread over the grassland. 

|5q'J!]=;".l] widespread || That folktale is widespread in Tibetan areas. 


(5^ q"~'l popularize, spread || The use of solar cookers needs to be 
popularized in areas where firewood is scant. 


|g5^'5^'|g5^'5^| rock, sway || In the fast-running water the boat began to rock 

and sway, f g3i'5^^^'^S'3j'N-5]-^=^'(i5^'«^'^»l's^'^'^l 
^1 dog II Our family's dog likes to chew on bones. 

|3'5^1 female dog || That black female dog will soon be ten years old. 

^■5?3j qj^-frq^^-nTaj-ai-'^ 1 

[35^] house, home || The rooms that make up our home are made of 
adobe and wood. ^=^'cf=^'S]'p=;'5]qi-J«!;!^-^!^J!]-=^!;-^!;-qi^!^-aj!^-qg!^-q-S3^] 

fis^'^S] family lineage || After studying our family lineage he concluded 
that our ancestors came here from Central Tibet about three hundred 
years ago. 'p''^'=^-§gq-^5^-^=^-n,v^q-q|J!]-^^-1'Nl =;'c^'s^'^^s5".vi^'"5^^5^'q^'«^'^' 


|g5^'q=;j!^ head of the family || He, not his son, is head of the family. 


|35^'q] layman || Though he was deeply religious, he was a layman. 

|gs^'s^] family member || Our oldest family member is Grandmother, who 
will be eighty -one in July. ^=^'^!;'S|"|5]-5]-i'N'^3j'q'^'^TS]3j-q-;^c,-|-qc3j-q;^- 


p'«^'".vqffi'^':|'^'^%J!]'«J'^q'5l'(^5] My family member went abroad last 
month. ^=^'cf=^'^'§5]-^-S5]!^-|-^3j-»l^-|-^",Vf\v'^2;-] 
[is^'cf^'] family || That family has opened a small shop in our village. 

l^s^'s^j^M] neighbor || How long has your neighbor been in Lhasa? 

igs^'q^l house work || I would rather watch television and read than do 

house work. '^■^'^■^»i'".i'^-|=^-q-".i'N-q^3j-q| 3j-".vq<^-q-=^!;-=^q-c5'^J!]-q^^] 
|gs^'qjM^| new family || The new family moved here last year. 

^5^'"2] family god || Every year we hold a ritual to delight our family 

god. =;'§f'N''T53;-l^qj-Sa,v3j!Sj-^»i-ra-:^q^q-^-q|qj 

^^^ (^^^ ^^^'^l jl^^l) to fasten, to bind || We will bind the top of the 
bag with string before we leave. ^■§f5^'^^'3]k'[^J!]'5^'^^'p'q^J!]'^'^aj] 

|3] 'group; '^army of (something) || 'Last week on Tuesday a group of 
doctors and nurses cleaned the hospital grounds. J!]3'^''^p=^'^3j's^^'J!]g'T 

army of ants was busy taking food to their ant hole. 5!^'5^'|i'(^^'p'*^' 


|i=^■5^=^] devouring || The devouring of our crops by the insects was a 

disaster. 5!i^^-qg-"^'^-fT^J!]-(i^-5^=^-q^=;-q-^-J!i^^-|3j-^J!]-5;2^] 
|3=^1 you II Can you help me lift this box? 


(S^^^l yourself || Take care of yourself and we will see you again soon. 


|3'^ husband || My husband works at the British Embassy in Beijing as a 

|3'-P|^ married couple || Our neighbors, a young married couple, live a 
quiet, ordinary life. 

|i^] you II When did you say the party will begin? 

fi3j| 'all; 'size || 'All of China is working to carry out economic reform. 


^Rqy^-|f3^-Hrz;!5i-^-=^qq-q|=^-q5'si-|^-n,iq^-q^^-|:^-q^3j-Sr=^| "What is the size 
of your apartment? ^S■^■^P|^■cf^■^■(33j■".l■^■§f^■"^=^] 
(i3j'c51 extensive || She has an extensive knowledge of Tibetan hterature. 

H3j'q^5^'^| in all, all together || In all, about twenty students passed the 

examination. ^3j-q^s^'N-q'N-^q-5^y-P|-'^5i]-^'N-^J!]'N-q|=^l 
igajw]^'^] vast II The forest that once seemed so vast has now become just 

a few trees. |3j-c5=^'^''^5'l'^3j'«^=^'N-qq-3jJ!]'N-cf'^V§-:Q'^--=^-'^-^=;^qJ!]q^^^ 
|53j'"^^^] over all, entire || The entire region has few people. 

(^(^1 multicolored || The multicolored stone sparkled in the water. 5'(^(^S' 

1^^ blood II Blood from his injury flowed down his arm. |]'p'".l'^'53j'^'S'(g^' 

l^^'^SJl blood circulation || This medicine improves blood circulation. 

l^^'g] blood vessels || He was so thin that his blood vessels were easily 

visible . f^=9-5=;'^»1^5j3j-qs]-|gqj-gTq:;-»ig':;Aj| 

(^^■-Pj^l blood pressure || I have high blood pressure so I don't put salt in 

my tea. =;-'^v(gJ!]--Pi=^-5^g3j^w^-q'^-^:;-S|-^q-3j=;-s-c^5^-q^q'^i 
l^q] armor || I saw amour once in a museum. 

^s^^] liar II He doesn't tell the truth because he is a liar. 

(g"-!] tax, duty || Does the price include tax? ^3j-3]k-^q-3j=;-S-(g".ViXrqs^l 
[5] throne; ten thousand || He vowed that his descendants would control 

the throne for ten thousand years. 


jg^^'l^^'^] probably, precisely || I can probably visit you next week. 


1^5^^] law II Every country needs the rule of law. 

igs^s^'p^l court of law || He was tried in a court of law and sentenced to 
death. p^'^-^»l'N-p=;-^-^Jl]-S=^'q5=^| 


||5^s]'qj!jn,l| illegal, illicit || Buying and selling drugs is illegal. 

|g»l^'J!]5^] judgment || I don't agree with the court's judgment. 

igs^'^'cB^] legal penalty || There is a legal penalty for not paying taxes. 

jls^'N-s^ajl legal II Is that legal? ^■^■(|5^'N-5^3j-«Saj-aj5^1 

jg5^«j'5^2;'<^J!j'^'5^=;| outrageous || After he becomes drunk his behavior is 

outrageous. p^ql'lM] pq-»l^=^-q-^5^M-s^=^-'5J!]M-9J=^-3J!]-5,:^| 
j|5^'^'=^] court II Their quarrel became so serious that they went to court. 

^s^'^'njJl^^l legal system || It is important to strengthen the legal system 
by ensuring adequate law enforcement. 

^s^'^'Sj",!] laws and regulations || Every society needs laws and 
regulations in order to function smoothly. 

|g".V^=;] jeering, laughing at || When we were jeering at him we forgot 
just how much we were hurting his feelings. 

|g".l■5^=^] shameless || Your shameless behavior was a disgrace. 

|g".l■"^=^] appreciative || He is an appreciative person and likes to help 

others. [^■5^'(g'^V"r=^'3^'^3j-".V5^-J!](^3j-".vTj!]'N-|=^-q^-=^J!]qi 
H] cast iron || My mother's old cast iron pot has cooked hundreds of 

sheep in the past sixty years. 

l^^s^'^l great rage/fury || When he learned that he had been cheated, he 
was in a great rage. p''^-3;c;-n,v»iqy^^-gq'N-q-^'N-q-3j-^^»l'^-i3j^q^3jl 

l^^s^'^] angry expression || The angry expression on his face showed just 
how upset he was. pq-Jji^^^-^j-^^si'^-^'^-p^-q^q-^'^'N-^'^-q-si^aji 

S^l Hnside; 'among || ^The bottle was inside my drawer. ^"-V^s^'^^'^^^aj' 
a5^'3j^'3j'"^^] 'Among all the students I have ever had, this little girl is 
the cleverest. =;-"l-Sr=^-^=;-qq-|q-5^-^=;-5^q-^=^-3j'N| g-sra=;'S=;''^^'^'^Jl]'q'i'N^3j^ 


I^Sj'^l well (water) || The well produced a good supply of clean water. 

1^5^] market, bazaar || I bought the chili at the vegetable market. 

l^s^'^^l demonstration || The workers' demonstration for higher salaries 
took place last month in the United States. 

s^pf^'f^g]".!] ^aviation; 'air freight || ^The aviation industry greatly 

expanded its operation after 1980. 9^-<^onrq-|'N'^'»ipq'q5]'^vql^|^l'N'^'qp=^' 
g^■E:s=^■qg=^] 'This package will be sent to London from Lhasa as air 
freight. ^T'^^Ji]-q^-s^pq-q5]q-'\vq'^3j'3j'N'™''N'3j'N'"r3j'i23j'".i"q^^"^'^^l 

SJP'^'S'^I air attack || Our coastal areas are well protected from naval 
attack, but we still need to worry about an air attack. s^§P'^5]5^'^'[^".V^' 

^P'^^S^'^l ^sky; 'space || ^The birds were so many that they seemed to 
fill the sky. q^q-c5J!]'N-5^=;^'^-»ipq-=^|,=;'^-p=;'N-Sr^-q-q51 'The star flew 
through space and fell into the calm ocean, ^^'s^'^'s^p'^'^^^^'^''^^' 

»l|^q'2;5^J!j air force || After he graduated from senior middle school he 
joined the air force and became a pilot. 


si|JiqTMSi| air route || The air route from Xining to Beijing passes near 

Xi'an. l'":i=;'3j'N'q'53j'q^'|,'»ipq".l»l'^'^'i3M3j'§y'N3;-q^2^-q^ 
5^p^] ^wall; 'castle || ^The city walls were made of packed earth. 5!^'(5^' 

^■s^p=^'3j'§'J!]'i!^'q3^] 'An old castle used to be on top of that mountain. 

5^p^'5]R] city (walled) || The outline of the old walled city can't be seen 

anymore. s^p^-^=^-|'^-qq-q'fi=^-q-^-^-'^-«^g=;-5^-^qi 
s^p^'^R] fortress || The city, perched on a hill and surrounded by thick 

walls, resembled a fortress. ^<^-i;;-^-i5;|!^-^-5]^q|w^J!]^'^-q^^-qq-^2;- 

5^ra"l's^| kidney || After he became ill and was hospitalized, the doctors 


had to remove one of his kidneys. 

s^pM] skilful, proficient || He is a skilful dancer. p'(^q'^'g'gJ!]'q^'s^p'^] 
s^p'^'s^cB^ authoritative scholar || He is one of the most authoritative 
scholars in the field of Tibetan linguistics. 

s^p'^'q] expert, scholar || Next October there will be an international 
meeting for Tibetan language experts. 

5]p5?)"q^'(^m^'qi to excel II Excelling in the study of classical Tibetan is 
his goal. q!^-§-5;|3i(^-Sq|-^zT|-q-a]-5]p5?)-q:^-(^^-s-^-f?^-'^5]5i]'5i-a^aj-S3^| 

s^p^l'^s^l conceited || His high level of education and great wealth have 
not made him conceited. 


s^l^^'ft'^] cheeks || The very cold weather turned her cheeks bright red. 

5^p'c5'^] 'necessities; 'equipment || 'Food and clothing are necessities. 3^' 

J!]^'3j's^p'c5^'"^3jl "The factory's old equipment needs to be replaced. 

^PSSl supplying, furnishing || That village has been supplying barley to 

the local nomads for more than fifty years. 

5^f33j] to know/understand (h) || The Living Buddha understood the 
importance of compassion. S".va^'l^'|'S'^".vi3j'=^^'q^aj'5^(|ajl 

s^ig^'^'q] hard, solid || The water in the lake had frozen solid so we drove 
our jeep across it. 

'^f^'^'l C^f "^'1 '^f ^"^D to be offended, to complain || We must complain 
about our poor working conditions. 

f^p^'^^l complaint || His complaint about the poor quality of what he 
bought is justified. 

'^fl^l C^fl^l '^f^^'^p to wince, to shrink || When he thrust his hands into 


the scalding water, he winced in pain. 

'W^] to cany (on back) || He carried the heavy sack of barley flour on 
his back from the shop to his home. 

qj^qj (S^"-!] ^'^"i] p"-!]) to twist, to weave, to spin || While he is out on the 
grassland he twists wool into thread. 

qpq'qgj!^ 'textile; 'spinning and weaving || 'The United States is a big 
textile market. i3M-5^-S,-p-^-qpa,vqgq^-g'3j-^s]-|-jf:;-^--63jif^q^-!^3j| -Everyday 
those women are spinning and weaving wool. ft3j'5^'^'^'s^'^'^J!]'§^^'q",V 

qpaj'qg]^] quarrel || The two brothers quickly forgot their quarrel. 

qpijl to hate, to fight || I hate to fight. =;-qp3j-q^-5^-=^J!]qi 

qp3j'".13j] revenge, vengeance || Acts of revenge lead to more violence. 

(^j?3;'$5]?<| hatred || His hatred for me is based on jealousy. pM'^'"1'(^j^3;' 

qpqj to become numb (from cold) || My hands have become numb from 

the cold. =;q'".iJ!]-q-5]=;-3j'^-q^qi 
qp^] 'to rotate (spontaneously); "retinue, attendant || 'The paper prayer 

wheel above the stove turned slowly when the stove was hot. '^J!]^'^^' 

famous politician was surrounded by a large retinue of assistants, sq' 

qp=^'q^=;] circulation || This medicine will help your blood circulation. 

qp^^'^J!]'^] direction of rotation || What is the direction of the sun's 

rotation? ^■»iq'qp'^'!|?!]M'^'5'^^'^3Jl 
qp^'q] transmigratory existence, samsara || Humans suffer a 

transmigratory existence. s^q'^J!]^'^'^'qp=^'q'".1^'f^'^^'] 
qp=^'J!]"JJ!] servant || He had been a servant many years ago. ^'s^^'qq'^aj'S' 



qp^'".l] wheel || The wooden wheel soon wore out. 

'^(i^ C^(5^ '^(S^'^D to become cold || I don't want to become cold so I'll 

put on this heavy coat. ^K,'^=^''^(iJ!]'5^''^'^=^'i!'^l '^'^•"sjq'iaj^q^'^aj] 
'^(5^'^^ cold II It's not hot, it's cold. q^-cfs?5]3^-q5;-q|gq^^]^5,:^| 
'^(i^'^'^s^l ice II The river ice was not very thick. S'q'l''^|i^^'=^5^'=9'5^'s^^' 

'^(i^l C^fi^l '^(i^^l) to wander || He had no money so he had to wander 

from place to place. p'^-|'^-5fs^=^-q'N-|i!]M-ajM-§J!]'N-^-q(is^-=^qi'^-^^-| 
'^(is^'^^l vagabond, tramp || That tramp has visited many cities. 

'^^"i] to become puddled || The water dripped through the roof and 

puddled on the floor. ^•p!;'^=^'nj!^-q^J!]'^'3i!^'(i»l'^'^'q^".ll 
'^|3=^] to embrace, to hug || He hugged his old friend. 

'^(i^l ('^(i^l (i^l (i^l) to take, to bring || I want to bring you some fresh 

meat. =;'^'(i=^'".V.P|'J!]'^^'q'q(i^'«r=;'q'^»ll 
'^[i^ to be crooked || After lying in the rain and sunshine the piece of 

wood became crooked. •^■S^'|g'^'-P|^'?is^'^''^(5^'^^'5,^l 
'^(i^'^l zigzag, crooked || The zigzag mountain road is dangerous. 

^^] to stagger || After he was drunk he staggered down the stairs. 


njgq] to act, to perform || I love to watch that dancer perform. 
qjgq's^pajl actor, performer || This movie has not a single famous actor. 


n|gq'^3j] performance || Will you go to see the evening performance? 

n|gq'cf3j] the program (of performance) || The program lasted too long so 

we left. q(gq-cf3j-^-^=;-5J!]'N-q'N-=;-s?^-3^-3i!^-g=^-'^=;-l 
qjgq'jjjs^l script || The play was all right but the script could have been 

better. |^v^^'^'5i'55n-s'si!^-5j!^-'??3j-^!;-q|gq-J!](a!;-t'"iJ!]^v^'J^^^ 
nsj (nsj ^^]) to get coiled around || The snake was coiled around a 


small tree. |".v^-^=;-g3^-^J!]-",vq(|'N] 
n|gJ!]'i!] sexual intercourse, copulation || Beds are places for sexual 

intercourse . »l"-V^%'^^^'|=^'|'^''^<^-5;]3^!5l-'^3jl 
n^Sj C^^l (1^1 (1^1) to lead, to guide || He wants to guide us around 

Lhasa. 'pM'=;'§f™Aiqyqpk-n,vq^=^-q^=^] 
^^ C^^ '^(^^^l) to fight II I don't want to fight with you. 

n|gJ!]'i]] war, fight || War always leads to many deaths. 

n|g",l] to mistake || I often mistake the younger brother for the older 

brother. !;'^aj'q^'g's-q|^!^-5i3^-^3^-",vq(|",vq^ 
q|g",V^R] illusion || What is illusion and what is reality? 

qjgn,i| (2^^n,i] ^^^q] |gn,i]) to play (a music instrument) || Can you play the 
piano? (i=^'|'^-1^|=^'^^"-Vi^l'-^'Nl 


^^'W how much, how many || How many children do you have? 

tn'waia'oi!:,'! whenever || Whenever I hear that song I weep. 

^^■] what, which || What languages do you speak? (i^'^'^'^^'^^'^'S'i^^'il 
^^■'3=^] anyway, in any case || Although he did make a mistake I love 

him anyway. f^"-l^^''^§^'^=^'5=^'l ^=^''^^'^=^'=^'f^"-V=^^'^l 
^^■^=^'5'^=^] as far as possible, as much as one can || Try as far as possible 

to speak English each day. ^=^l^'5'^^'|'N'|3j'^=^'=^|j3j'^^'^-P|^'^^^l 
^'=:3i\ Where? || Where is your home? ^=^'|'^"-l'^'^'3j'^=^l 
Jjj^gjjj person || That person should not be allowed to take a bath in the 

public swimming pool. ^'^■5^'^''^v|'|=^'(|'N'|!;'3j!;'(|'N'|,^'S'(^^5;|'5^'q'^l 


^^■"^^■] anything || I don't want to own anything you offered. 

^'^W^l whatever there is || I'U eat whatever there is. !;'^'J!]=;w^'qg'T^'«S3jl 
^^■^^'1 anything, whichever || We can see whichever movie we like to 

see. =;'i''N'q'^'qY^'qq'W!^'q^3j'J!]=;'^!;'".vq<^'lJ!] 
'J]^'"!] where || I did not know where you went last night. 

'^^Ws] everywhere || Everywhere I go I believe I can make friends and 
enjoy myself '^■J!1'^ab-|3j-«J!^-1 ^^ll'N^^Jll-a^i^-l'^^l'^-^q-q^-^JRn.V'^'^-i^-i^s^l 

^^'^l snow II The water was all frozen so we had to collect snow and 
melt it for our drinking water. 

^^'^■53jl Tibet || Tibet has many tall mountains covered with snow. 

^^^■^] snow mountain || The snow mountain east of here is very tall. 

^S'^^^1 garbage, rubbish || Please throw your garbage here. 

^^'5^1 laughter || When I heard her laughter, I also laughed. 

^S's^'Jj^'l to joke, to make people laugh || I like to joke and make people 

laugh. =;-5^-q|(oj3^-n,Vqj2^-55^=;-q^-2^qjq] 

^3j'g] contract, written agreement || Did you sign a contract with your 

^^^1 by, near || The lake is near a mountain. «^S<^'^'3;'=^'(^^'^''^''5l^'2r=>| 
J!]=^'5^p3j] dancer, performer || The dancer was tired after her 

performance. JJl^-s^paj's^-qigq-^aj-^^-'I'N-g^-cB'^l 
^".Vc5] important || I don't think what he said is important. 

'J]"!'^] if, in case || If he gets angry he'll probably fight. 

^■^^■sj] 'narrow; 'parochial || 'The mountain road is narrow. =^'".15^'^'^'=;J!]' 

'^^] "That is a very parochial view. ^■3j'<^'q'=9'3^'^'^5n'q'(^J!j'^2^] 
OTu^^^jj 'spacious, roomy; "forgiveness || 'The kitchen in Tibetan homes 


is spacious. q=^■(g»^■^■5q■cf^"^■^'"J^'^] 'His forgiveness was something 
that I wanted. ^^•^•"^=^'N'5n^:;'g'^-!;<^-$-q'S3;] 
W\^] crook II My leg has a crook because I broke it when I was a child. 

^^■sa'=^^''^^'^| communism || Communism has changed the lives of 
many people. ^'^■(g3j-^'^-'3J!]'N-|M-5^-s^^^q-qs?q-q5^-|^-^^l 

^^ lunch II Where did you buy lunch? ji=^'|'^-^=;-g'N-J!]=;-^y)l 

^3i| loss II The company's loss of five million ywaw means that it will go 
bankrupt. 'T|^'l'^'|^=^'^3j'|'^''N-«^-<^^^'N-'Ti=;-|q-5^-§-^=;'N-q3;-^3;-^ 

^=^] tent II The tent is made of black yak hair. 

^'sj-qjT]^| respect, reverence || We have much respect for our teachers. 


^"^■"-laj] return of a salute || If he salutes me I will return the salute. 

OTsj'jjn,!] custom of etiquette || Not leaving food in your bowl is a Tibetan 
custom of etiquette. ^'T]^-Sr".V3j=;-g'^-™J!]-5^-qSJ!]-q-^^^-|-^^-^"1-^3j| 

^ to hear || I can hear you when you speak loudly. 

Jj^'^q'^] opportunity, chance || We now have a good opportunity to 

practice our English, ^''^•'^'sf f^V^liSj'Si^-f ;;-!:!?5;-|:^-q<^-qywqsj-qg:;^^q^-{jj':^| 

^■5'53j] person who has quick access to information || Because of his job 
in the news agency he is a person who has quick access to 
information. p''^'J!]'^^-q^^-p=;-^-".l'^-'T]-|,=^-q^aj-Sr=^-q'^l p^-9S-^^-33j-^J!]-«S3j] 

^■S=^] Useful; 'competent, valid || 'The computer is a useful tool. ^^'^S' 
^■"I^'c5'^'c5^'5^'"^3j] 'The point that you made is valid, but I don't agree 

with you. ^^■|'N-qyaj-qq-<^-q'N-qiw^-5?'^l q3j-^!^-!^-^3;-5^-qg:^| 

Jr|'S'>'^=;'q<^3;| efficiency || That medicine's efficiency is less than that 

one. |]^-^a-^^-q-^-||^-^<^3^-^-".l^-=^s^ajl 
^'S^'^l consciousness, awareness, understanding || I have little 

understanding of the meaning of life. 

^■^3j] meaning || What is the meaning of these new words? 


^■■3^ contrary, opposite || 'Tall' and 'short' are opposite in meaning. 


'Jl'^Ej ^notification; "meaning || 'The notification that we would have a 
holiday came yesterday. p-!5)!;-!;-^q-q]3j!;-q-Srs^-qq-qyq^-q^2^] -The 
meaning of what he said could be interpreted in several ways. 

^'aj^l misunderstanding || I'm sorry that there was a misunderstanding 

between us. '^^'^'N-q-si-sfsil =;-§?q-q^-S-^^-^=^-^=^| 
^■^3j^l position, rank || What is that soldier's rank? 

^■q] comprehension || My English reading comprehension is better than 
my ability to speak English. '^<^'^|)Sj'"^^'^'^^'<^^3i'^'^'f'^'^'^|;Sj'^^'i'^'^' 

^■q'53j] intelligent, wise || He may be old but he is not wise. 


^■s^■c5=^] to be useless || When I'm old I don't want to be useless. ■5,k,'«)' 
^■'^?".l] misunderstanding || Their misunderstanding became a quarrel. 


^■a»1] order in sequence; steps/stages || Please order these books in 
sequence. ^'^■c5''^^'^^'^'^s^''3^'|3^^] Learning English well requires 
several stages. =^|3j-'^q]-'^lJ!]'N-q^-|'=;-q-n,V^S,»i-qq^q-;^q^s]| The first step in 
learning English is to learn the alphabet. '>g3;'aiJr|'^!;'!:](^'^'^5]'!;!;,'q'3;' 

^■^] bread || I bought fresh bread yesterday. p'^^^'^'^'Jlj'^'^^^^'q'^^] 
^^\ 'price; 'above || 'What is the price for this new coat? "sjq'J!]^=^'q' 
q=;q'J!^R=;'^3j] 'The family that lives in the apartment above ours has 
several small children. '^•§f'^'3Y^'Sl'-P|J!]'cf'^'^'^'^'q'l'^«^'cdk-^-".v|,^-q-^!;-^!;- 

^^■q^^l esteem, respect || That scholar has much respect, s^p'^'i]'^'"-!'^^' 
q^^'c53j''^'5q] We have much respect for old people in our village. 
^■*^'$'q'^5^'^3j''^'".V'^Jn'S'fcq^^'^s;] Local people have much respect 
for that Living Buddha. t^".V5^'N-|".v^-^-".v?[!;-q^3;-i3j^|=^l 

4l^'S3j| expensive || The expensive gold ring costs more than I can 


afford. J!]^^-|,-»i^q-=^^'N-^=;-i3j-^-=;'Ny^q-q-^J!]'5^3jl 
^^■^v] above, up || I want to repeat the point I mentioned above. 

^^q"~'l promote, advance || Promoting our culture will benefit us all. 

qj^T^a,i| progress, development || China has made much progress in the 

last ten years. ^■qq-"fq§q-^=;-^=;-3f".v3Y;-q^".vi3j^^=;-l 
^^'5^1 ^emperor; "previous || ^Who is the most famous Tibetan emperor? 

^^ ¥^^^^^' 5!^^'S3j'3j'^'"^3j] "The previous paragraph was written very 

well . '^aj-cf3j'^=^'5^'^'|'^-q-=9-5=;-qg=;-l 
J!]RJ!]'^",l] above mentioned || The above mentioned facts are true. 

^S'pi disaster, loss || When did the livestock last experience a disaster? 

^3j] to put on II I don't want to put on these heavy clothes. ^'^'Jljaj'^I'sj^sri' 

^3j-q] clothes II I don't like to wear red clothes. =;-3]3j-q-^»l^-q^g3^-q^-5^-=^J!]qi 
Jjjs^'qg]^] ^step, pace; 'gait || ^For every step he takes, I have to make two 

steps. p'^-^»l-q-J!]=;-^'^-q-'^| =^'^-^5]-q-J!]|'N-'^=^^^] -Everyone likes to ride 

that brown horse because it has a smooth gait. 


^s^'^] 'to get used to; 'to be adroit/deft || 'l soon got used to the low 
oxygen at high altitude locations. '^■»iqy»ig^'s)q-:^^c,s]-;^gi;!^s]-;^5^q-sfa,v:;-5^- 
f^^'^'^'q^'^Tq'^l "He is adroit at making leather boots. p^™»l'ql^q^'3]5^'^l 
q^s^^j'q^'^l accustom, getting used to || I am now getting used to living at 

high altitude, ^■'^■'^■^'^■'^■siqfsig^'^q-nsfq^-^si'^-q^'^-^!^-] 
J!^»l'^'J!^.?j'^| habit, custom || It is my custom to drink coffee in the 

morning. i55n!^-q^-p%qi2=;-q-^-!;q-q]'»l'N'J!]-Pj'N'«Saj] 
^=^■^=^1 round || He made a round dough ball. p^'^'^J!]'J!]=^'J!]=^'(^J!]'q5'^l 
^'^l garments, clothes || I bought new clothes yesterday. 

^'^'iajl silk II This silk dress is expensive. ^^■553j'^'^3j'^''^^'3j'J!]^'^'T]'^] 
^] wall II I painted the wall green and white. ^^■^^■".V§§3j''3^'=^'']^'^^'^] 
^^1 to retreat || The enemy's fierce attack made us retreat. 


^3jl upwards || I looked upwards and saw a bright star. ^'^■ai-^'q'3'^'i!'3j'^=^' 
^3j'^^] up and down || Running up and down the stairs made me pant. 
^3j'"l^'^] uprising, revoh || The mihtary quickly put down the uprising. 
^^■^3j] losses II His losses from gambling were very large. ffi3;'^Jr|!5^'q''^!5^' 

%Sf^] dispute, quarrel || The dispute between the two families became 

violent. ^«^-sf^-^^^-q^-tl^f^'^5'^'5'|^l 
^2;'J!j(^] law case || The law case dragged on for two years and still was 

not settled. |=^'J!]^'^''TJ!]|'N-q3]'^-wi=;-=^-^=;-gJ!]-J!]5^-^'^-s^=^l 
^^■"^1 defendant || The defendant could not hire a lawyer and lost the 

law case. |^^-«^-^M-^»l'N-f=^-q-^-»l-%q-q'N-J!]^J!]-q^^-".l'N-s5»ll 
^3j] to wear, to put on || My little daughter did not want to put on her 

shoes. =i'S'g'«?^=^'^=^'^'^-™»l-|^3j-5^-q^=^l 
^"-Vq] crippled, lame || He is lame in his right foot because of a tractor 

accident. '^lJ!]-|'=^-qp'^-'^q-c5J!]'|^^J!]''^l'N-f^^-if^=^'q'J!]"^'N-q-|f^^==^-^^ 
5]'|3^ preparation || Passing examinations requires many hours of 

preparation. ^^'N-q^^-q-".VS'^-§?=^-»l=;^^-5]-^J!]-|,=^-^^'^l 
^■q] monk II He became a monk at the age of five. ".V<3'l'^^'|^'^!q'S'H^'| 
5!^ (5!^ 5!^^1) ^to make sound, to speak; 'to be renowned || ^At what age 

did you begin to speak? ^^^'I'N-f^rqi-gi^-^^-p-^iq^^j-qqyq^s^M-qtSlaji "When I 

was a young monk I wanted to be renowned for my knowledge of 

the scriptures. '^•q§3j'i!'§=^'§=^'^J!]'5Saj'S^l l'^'J!](g=;'nj--n!^-|-3q-5?-3l3^-3^!5i-5]S3i' 

^j^'^'SSj] famous, renowned || He is a famous teller of folktales. 


5]^'l cold II I felt cold last night because I didn't have a quilt. 

3]^'^^] coldness, chilly air 1 1 Chilly air blew through the broken window. 

gj^'5^1 cold II You look cold so please put on another sweater. q'S^'Sk'^'N' 


3]=\'^''T] number, quantity || The number of students in our village school 
has increased in the last five years. 

5]^'^'^^'] decimal point || I first learned to use decimal points when I 
studied primary school math. 

gj^^'a^s^'^J!]'^] minority nationalities || China has fifty -five minority 

nationalities. ^'^■^".V5]'^'N-g^-5^-^J!]'N-^-<^-Sr=^l 
5]^^'s^=;] countless, innumerable || There are countless yaks on the 

grassland in summer. ^^^■p^'^'5^'S'^'«^'5]^^'5^^'"^^l 
5]^^"cf'^] quantity || Is quantity or quality more important? 

^js^'t^l river bank, river bed || The river bank was eroded after the 

summer floods. =^^^'p5;-^-nrq^-gz;-3jsi-5]»i-q-q,P|s]| 
3]".l] line, row || I ordered the students to stand in a line. 


5]".V=^«^] class II I come from a poor social class. 

gj'^l sort, kind || What sort of plant is that? ^■^•|'.f|=;'^5i]'^'5i]2;'S|'5]'^'^'J!]yJ!]'^l 
5]'^"^1 among, in || There is one white sheep among the black ones. 

^] knife || This knife is blunt and needs to be sharpened. 

3]'=^^'] sword II Under his robe you could see the handle of his sword. 

5]'-P|qM] knife sheath || My knife sheath is made of leather. 


^q'5^] shadow II The tree cast a long shadow across the valley. 

^s^^] intelligent || Everyone agrees that he is the most intelligent of all 

the monks. 5^-cf=^-»l'^-p-J!]5J!]'i2'p^'q§3j'=^'S'5]'^'^'i'^-^»l^'^3j-q^-q^=^l 
5]] boat II The boat slowly made its way across the swiftly running river. 



5]'^ comer || This room has four comers. p^'q''^^'".V5]'J!]'q^'^=^] 

5]'p] port, harbor || After sailing for three months across the ocean the 

ship reached the port. |'q'J!]^5^'^!;-5]i-(^aj-g^-5]g^-5]-^-5]-p^-q|i^] 
5]'s^p3j] boatman || Like his father he is also a boatman. 

5]'c5^1 drizzle || The drizzle lasted two hours. 3]'S=^'^^'6f^'J!]|'N''^vqq'Nl 
5]'^'^3j] captain (of a ship) || The captain had never before commanded a 

ship . 5]'^sr3j'|,'^'^3j'c5=^'5]'q^^J!]'".vp''T^'^-»l-^=;-l 
5]'S1] elbow II I feel pain in my right elbow every morning and evening. 

5]'q(^] square || The four sides of a square are all equal. 5]'q(^'5](^'5]g(^" 

5]'q(^'3j=^'5^] rectangular || My house is rectangular. 


gj'jj^g^^l ship II The ship had sailed across the Pacific Ocean seven times. 


5]^''^] clever, intelligent || The clever boy knew how to read before he 
entered school. |,'^'=^'5!=^^'^-^q-^-".V»l-'r=;-^=;-^J!]-q^aj-|,=^-^q-^=;-l 

5]^] Ho form; "to consist of || ^People's personalities are formed when 
they are children. 5^-^»l'N-|-J!]-Pj'^-'T]-^-p^§?|,^-qt^3j-S^-5]q-q-5S3j] "My next 
novel will consist of love and tragedy. ^^■a^'J!]™'^(5^'«^'3j'^J!]'^'g'J!]^^' 


5]q'c51 element || Oxygen is a basic element. =^^^■=^g^^■^■3]q■S■^^^^^'^3j] 
5]q'c53j] saint || Her life of generosity and love made her a saint, p'3^^' 

5]q'5J!]^] magic power || People believed that he had magic power. 


gjq's^gq] religious sect, denomination || Which denomination of 
Buddhism does your village follow? 


3]q''^g'N| achievement, result || I will know the result of my examination 

next week. J!]gq-qpk-|'N-»l^-=;'N-^J!]'^-|-»l|Ji]-qg«)-^'^-q^ 
3]'^] throat || The strong liquor made my throat bum. 


5]] wheat || How many kilograms of wheat did you seU last year? 

3]'p] provision for a journey || Dried meat is the main provision for my 
journey to the holy mountain. 

5]^'5^] ant II Ants are small but industrious. 5]^'5^'3j'^^'^^'qg'3j''^5]'^'£51 
3]^'=^^'] ravine, gully || The gully became larger with every hard rain. 

5]^M'^] friend || She is the best friend I have ever had. p's^'aj'^M'5]J!]M'i!' 

gjjj^'^'s^] girlfriend, female friend || I like to go shopping with my 

girlfriend on Saturdays. 3i5]-S3i-J!]g'T^3j-qq-|3j-n,V!;-^z;-S|-^q]^)-5?2^!;-»l^»l-^y 

5]^'(i^l city II Xining is a medium-sized city in Northwest China. 

5]^'|i^'q] city folk || Like most city folk he doesn't really understand 
countryside life. ^=;'(i^'q'»l=;'^'^'^=;'q5'q=^'p-^:;'^=;'J!]'^q'^'n§fq''^-S!^-'53i- 

5]^'5".l] town II The nearest town is ten kilometers away. 

5]^'f ] countryside, village || After living in the city for two months my 
mother yearned to return to the countryside. 

SJ^'sj] villager || I want to talk to the richest villager in this village. 

g]^'J!]'^q] countryside || The countryside has air that is cleaner than the 

city. ^=;'^'^q'".v^=^'(i^'".i'^'J!]^=;'qq'»ip'T=^gj!]'N'™3ji 
5]^'J!]'^q'i!] townsman || The townsman was not accustomed to life in the 

countryside. ^=;-(i^-q-^-^=;-J!]^q-|-qs?q-".V»l-^»l'^l 
^^^'N] to die (h) II He wants to die in Lhasa. [^"^''^'^^^'^V'^^'^1 
5]S'P^ stomach || After eating too much my stomach felt uncomfortable. 

5]3j'=;5".l] expenditure, expense || The expense of my trip was more than I 

expected. =;q-"l»l-pq-^3j-^5"l-^-^!;-?j-q's)»i-ii^-n,l'N-qffinj| 


5]3j'^^'l economizing, sparingly, thrift || She spent money sparingly for 
she knew that it would be a long time before she could get more 
money . pwv^^'s?5^!;^q#^v5;q^-q^-^^vt^3j-S,:;^(^m^-g-S3^-q-^s]-3js]| ^=^'s5^3j' 

5]".l] to get loose, to get out, to be freed (from danger, hardship) || I want 
to get out of the situation I am in now. ^^■^=;''^=^'^'^q'^'^=^'q'S'J!]3j'^'qq' 

5]^1 negotiation || The negotiation between the two villages over grazing 
land reached a successful conclusion. S'q'J!]^^'q=^'5'S''^'l'pJ'5]^''^'5]'^' 

gj'^'s^^aj] agreement, accord || The agreement was reached after months 

of negotiation. |-q-qJ!]q-".V^'^-sr".V^^-'|M-^^-5^3j-^=;-l 
SJ'^'f ^] discussion || Our discussion will take place in the large room on 

the sixth floor. '^'sf'^'^'^'^^'^'^Jlj'gJll'Sl'p'^'iaj-^^-aj'^-q^-^-'SSaj] 
3]^'§&]'^] meeting, conference || The meeting was to be held June 3-4 in 

Lanzhou, Gansu Province. |'(is^^'^'^':^aj'N'^'^<i^^''T]3j'^!3'^=;'i3j'|,'".13j'5]'^ 

5]'^'^^] proposal, topic for discussion || The first topic for discussion is 

how we can make more money and minimize costs. 

SJ'^'^'^s^] agenda || The agenda for our meeting will be given to each of 
you tomorrow. '^l=;-|3j-^=^-1^5^-^-^-'^V=^-§fq-^'^-S&]'N-|-^'^-R8^-^-^-S3;-^-iSS3^^ 

^1 (^1 ^'^l ^'^l) Ho hire; 'wage, fee || 'l need to hire a woman to help me 
care for my five children. =^'N-g=^-s^=^-5J!]'^'N-aj'N-5;c,-S|-|,*)-q-<^q^qi^^Tq]'N-|=^- 
\i'^''l^^'^l '^y wage each month is approximately six hundred yuan. 

^■£5] remuneration || After working for one year I realized my 

remuneration was too little to ever allow me to own an apartment. 


^■q] employee, hired hand || He paid his employee a good salary, p'^'^z;.' 


^'^^'^l salary, wage || What salary would allow you to lead a 

comfortable life? ^^J!]M-5-5S^-'^-q^3^-S-^=^-|M-n§fq-|=^^^J!]-'^"-V^qi 
^^ eagle || The eagle soaring in the blue sky impressed us all. W^s: 


^^■] bull II The bull knew that it would be slaughtered and bellowed. 

^^■c53j] elephant || Elephant tusk is now forbidden to be sold on the 

international market. ^•'^•^".v|q'cf=^'^'^^=;'i3j'|,'q''fq^!;'5^'lJ!] 
^^■^ park II While we were in the park we visited the zoo. 

^^'iaj] continent || Which continent is China on? ^^'^'^j'^^'i^j'^^'^i'^^Sl 
^^■^3j] island || Hainan Province is an island. '^'^'ajaj'i^^'iaj'aj'^^'^aj'i^Jlj'^^aj] 
^^■g] flute II Shepherd boys play the flute while herding. 

^1 song II After her song many of the audience were in tears. 

^■J!]^^'^] melody, tune || That song's melody reminds me of a song my 
mother sang to me when I was a child. 

^■q] singer || The singer cleared his throat before he began singing. 

ra^S^^l song, melody || My favorite song is a lullaby. 

^'5^1 female singer || The female singer strode confidently onto the 

stage. ^•5^'^'fq'5I''^5]!^-:^:;-q5?<''J]=^'l'J]'^-^-gc| 

^Jj^s^'qa^l volume || The library does not have Volume Number One of 

this journal. =^q-s^f=^-p'^-^-".V^^-^q-'^^^-^q-=^'^^5^=^l 
^^■] to mention, to talk || I don't want to mention anything unpleasant. 


^^■5^".l] discussion || I don't think our discussion will last more than two 

hours. =;'N'q<^'N'3j'!;'§fq'^!;'srf^V^'^'§f'^'J!]|'N'"l'^'(^fe-5^'|^l 
^^■J!](^] preface || The preface to the novel explains that it was a fine 

example of Tibetan literature. q§'S^M-|^'^-^'l-^3j-'^^^-J!]^s^-|,'N-q^s^M-|^^-^-^- 

^3j'i!] idiot, fool II I was drunk and behaved like an idiot last night. 5^^^' 

^^■] ^^W3(^^^3^'^^:^(^■!:im] He is such a fool that he did not take 

advantage of the opportunity. p'3;'5]-^3;'5qi!5c^'q'-53;'(aqi'ai3;'q!^'Jij'^q^'^' 


^aj'S^!]^] foolish behavior, stupidity || His stupidity resuhed in the 

company losing a large contract. p'^■^3j■^^'^■^'^■^^■3■".l■^!]3j•^•c53j■^■(^^■^P|=^■ 
^■q§^ My own stupidity caused this problem. ^^'^^i'S^'^'^'^'^Sj^^'^Sj' 

^^1 (^^1 ^^^1 ^^^1]) to press flat || In order to make steamed dumplings 
we first have to press flat all these small circles of dough. 

^] lung II My left lung is painful when I breathe. 

^■g^] sudden, suddenly || The wind suddenly blew my hat off my head. 

^■g,^'3;!;'^'(^nj'q| burst into || He angrily burst into my bedroom. 

^^ electricity || Our village got electricity last month. 

^^mSl electric wire || The electric wire began burning and smoking. 


^^■§^] switch (of power) || After he found the switch he turned on the 

light, n-^^'i^'^-i^-^^f 1^1 

^^■qsaj] movie || The movie was so dull that I went to sleep. 

^^''^^Sj] telegram, wire || I got a telegram yesterday from my mother. 

^J!j'2^5^^] lightning || Thunder follows lightning. ^^'(^^n'^'f^Stn'scaj-gsn' 

^^■"-1'^] electrical work || My apartment needs some electrical work. 

S^l (^^1 S^^l ^^'^D ^to search about; "to tantalize || 'if you search about 

your room, I'm sure you will find your watch. ^"-Vyi^^'^'p^'q^^'aj^'^^' 

(^^)^\ ^'=^'^'^^^^^^'^'^^W^^'^^\ 'He likes to tantalize his 

younger brother. p'^z^'tn'S'q'^-Vp'^^'q^^'^J!]'^] 
^3j] (^3j] ^3j] ^3j]) to patch, to cover up || My mother patched my trousers. 


^^^■^] refutation, objection || My main objection to your proposal is that 
you have not worked out all the details. ^M'l^'^'^'^'s^'srifg'nj'q^a'qt^'^st^st^' 

W^'^] 'to like; 'to be happy || 'l want to like my teacher but his cruel 
behavior makes it difficult. ^^■^3i'"-V^^'^'5'i'^''^^=^'^'^'l p'^'l'^'^'t^' 
^■^'^■^■■^!^'gq'5^'5]s;'q^'qg!5^i "I hope that you will be happy now that 
you are married. =^''^'^=^'^^3j'^^'^^W^'=^'N-=;'N-(i=^-'^-q^-|^-i^=;-qq-^-q-CT 

!>5r|(^'gS| enjoyment || His main enjoyment is watching television. 

S^'Tg]^!]^] spouse, lover || My spouse and I just celebrated our fiftieth 
wedding anniversary. !^q-=^q]q-^q]»J-=^!^-^=^-q]^»j-^!^'ct]^3j-|q]-§?J-ai?j-nfq]qk-™-q§- 

=;J!]'T^3j] celebration || The wedding celebration lasted several hours. ^ 

=>sr|(^'q'5is;"q] unhappiness || What is the reason for your unhappiness? 

^^TS] joy 1 1 He felt such great joy that he began singing loudly, ff'^' 

S'^^W]] recreation || In terms of recreation, I like playing basketball and 

soccer. |=^-<^^^-g=^-3^^-=;-^=;i=^-f'5I-^Rjf^R|^-|W|-q^-^J!]qi 
^^Ti^aj] love II Love cannot occur without its opposite — hate. 

^JJjT^^J!]'^] lover II Her secret lover grew tired of being able to see her 
only once a month. f^q-J!]'N=^-qq-^J!]q-Xi!]'S5-pr^^-J!]5J!]-".vg=;'N-J!]5J!]'»l' 


'^^'^^^l welcome || The village provided a warm welcome to the 

visiting Incarnate Lama. ^■q'^'5]^,a]-(^:^-^-qc;?cq^-|a,v^-n,v|^;^»ls]-qp'n,vq<^- 

^''1^1 i'W^] '^^] P^l) to separate, to set aside || I want you to set aside the 
broken boxes and bottles over here. 

^^ nine || I have nine uncles. ^■"-l'i3M'[^'=^^'^2^] 

^^■q§] ninety || My grandmother died last year at the age of ninety. ^'SJ^ 


S^'^1 ninth || The festival begins on the ninth day of the seventh lunar 

month. ^'^'^■|^;'^'|'qs3j'=^'S'JS''N'=^^'qq'|3j's^ri3j'|,'q^^J!]^il 
=;^^'^3j] blue sky || The blue sky seemed to touch the distant waters of 

Qinghai Lake. ^^=;-|3j^^-s^af|3j^q-s5-»igq-»il^p-".vq(|^-sr=^-q-q51 
=^^^■"■1] age II My son is one year old. ^'l'g'".VJ!]5^'^3jl 
^^3j] winter || When winter comes we will begin to dry meat on the roof 

of our home. ^^aj-p^S^] =;-§f'N-^=^-cf=^-Sl-p=;^J!]-^-.P|-^»l-q^5^-g-^3^1 
^^^\i'^l winter time || Winter time is a good opportunity to visit friends 

for there isn't much work to do. =^^3jf^-".l'N-'T]-s^^^5^2^-q^)-^-^-^qj^^n,V 

^^^11 winter clothes || I bought a new set of winter clothes while I was 
in town last week. 

SW^] to be crooked, to be bent || His back was crooked with age. Sj'qjj's^' 

^^■^3j] advantages and disadvantages || Before you get married at such 
an early age you should carefully weigh the advantages and 
disadvantages. (i'^''^3j''^^''^51'^'^'N'^^3j'|^'«^'^'^'f3^'^'^<^'=^^'|3j''^V^'^^^^^ 


^^■^3j] teacher || My first Tibetan language teacher was my uncle, who 
is a monk. =;q'q=^'^5n-=^qi-^3j^q]-»i-^-!;q-i3M-f^-fiS3j-a.i| p^-^j-q-^q^-uiaji 

^^■f^aj] monk II The monk chanted scriptures every afternoon. 

S^'q] ^good deeds; favor || ^What good deeds have you done in the past 
year? '^=^'^'i!'S'".V".V|5=^'^'N'=^^'q'5'(^J!]'qaq^] "Doing favors for other people 
is encouraged by Buddhism. 3j^'^^3j'^^'J!](^3j'".V^J!]'q'aq'^'q§^] 

=;5i's^cf3j] ^ auspicious/good/positive omen or symbol; "advantages || 
'please give me some examples of what Tibetans think a good omen 
is. q=^'5^'^'l'^J!]'^'=^5i-s^cf3j't^3j'=J^''^'^^'=J'S'^^^'«^cf3j'^'';''^V^^^ "The 
advantages of living in a city include convenient transportation and 

access to information, ^^'^'^'^ctl-ajsj-qa^qq-i^qjz^aj-aj^-q^sj-q^injv^qsj-q^-i^^-qiajsj- 

JsJj^'^s^'^l charity, kindness || Charity is a value that comes from a deep 

love for all beings. «^?i'^5^'N'^'^5^'N'5aj'"1'q5=;'S)-q^-q|-5S»l!S)-gq-5frns]-^:;-qq-^gj- 


g^^jj^'fijaji I won't forget your kindness. [g=^'^'^J!]^'^'^^'5^'q^=^] 
=;'J]^'5^] evening || As the sun set in the evening we began preparing our 

supper. ^Sf^-sT^ys^-^q-^^i ^■6f'N-^q]=;-g^-5]-|j!]-|=^-q3fq^s^Ml 
=^^^■&!]^] supper, dinner || We ate boiled mutton and rice for supper. 

^^^■§&]'^] evening party || The evening party began at eight o'clock and 
finished at midnight. ^^^^^'S&l'N-f §?=^-q^=^-^=;-q^q§-5^'N-3i!^-3j5^-^=;-'^-^"1| 

=;J!]^M'=;J!] apology, pardon || His apology for his misdeeds was not 
sincere . ■p^-|=^-=;3j-".V^3f^'N-^J!]-(^-q-^-^5^-=^J!]%J!]-5^3jl 

=;J!]^^'=;3j] meaning, idea || I can't understand the meaning of this essay. 

R'^^^^] thought, theory (h) || His theory is not easy to understand. 

^JI]^] (q^S] q^S] S^S]) to laugh, to giggle || What she said was so 

impossible that I had to laugh. pwi-!:!-f|'^-q<^-s'^-5-^'^q'5^'|=^'q'^J!]t^aj'q'^| 

S^S'^'^1 humorous || He is so humorous that he makes us giggle all the 

time. p^-5^-^^=^-|^q-^J!]-5S3j-q'Nl 3j*l'13i''^'c?=^^=^'^''^^ 
=^^3j■'^] monastery, remote place || The monastery is located in a remote 

place in the mountains. =^3]3j-q-^-S,-^=^-^-=^q3j-J!]3j'^'^W^l 
=^'J]'^] to need, to have to || I have to go to visit my grandfather this 

weekend. J!]gq-qp'^-q^q-»i§'^-^-=;-^".vqcf»i'N-q5-|^-s-q^^^^l 
2;j!j^'s^p| need, necessity || The need for food is shared by all creatures. 


S^l Ho stand straight; 'to bend backward || ^The soldiers must stand 
straight when their officers inspect them. =^s^J!]'=^i!3j'^'N'^s^J!]'s^'^s^^'".V<^' 
^'^^^^'^l '^^'^'^'^'^'^^'^'^S'^iT'l "I have to bend backward in order to 
do this exercise. '5'N-§-".vq^-|k-i^-=;'^-'5'^^^|,-^^^| 

^^'N'^aj] celebration, fete || The celebration at the end of the project was 
attended by many guests. ",l'N-5;]^-5^§J!]-fj!]'N-qq-=^|,^-^3j-".VS^^3j^s^'^^(^J!]'Nl 

=^3]| enemy || Sometimes it is difficult to tell who is your enemy and who 
is your friend. »lcf»l'^-»lcf»l'N-^-^=^-|-^g]-^Jl]'^-^-'^3j-q-q.P|^-=^'T]qi 

'^Sl^^^'l enemy side || One of our men was actually a traitor working for 
the enemy side. 


^5]'^] enemy || Her worst enemy is herself. p's^'l'=^5]'q'^'q'3j'p'5^'=^^'^^] 
S3]'"-13j] revenge, retaliation || Revenge is a powerful, destructive 

emotion. =^5]-'^i3j-|^^-q-^-Ji]y^-q5.J!]-i-qq-§?k-q-=;^--p|'^'N-53j-^J!]'«S3ji 
qjj^'qgjs^^l distribution, allocation || Distribution of student food tickets 

took one hour. ^q'»l'l'g'«SJ!]'q^'^^5^'N-|=^-q-".VS^-§?=^-J!]5J!]''^^^l 
q^'^1 dividend || After five years my investment earned a large 

dividend. "T<^q-|'^-^i =;q^J!]-»iq-»i-^5".v".vq3y^-i3jwii 
q^■q^P|'^] distribution, assignment || Job assignment will be announced by 

the college in a week. 

qj!^=^] (q^ qjl^s^] q^!]'^]) to divide || Please divide your food with us. 

q^l^'l (^5]^'l q^l^'^l ^5]^^l) to count, to enumerate || I want to count all the 

medicines that I have in my home. '^'^•3;c;-|5]-^-Sr=^-qq-||3j-cdk-»l-q5]!;-q^2^] 

q^^l to be old, to grow old || No one wants to grow old. 5^'^'^'^^'^=;''^=>' 

^^^^] old, aged || The aged men in our village are few in number. 

q^l'^^'l discussion || Let's have our discussion this afternoon. 

q5]=;'n.l5^] road, path || The road to town was repaired last year. 


s^^^'q] blacksmith || A blacksmith makes horseshoes. 

Sim to be appeased, to be pleased || My father will be pleased when he 

sees all his children together again. 


5^^] head, top || Please walk to the head of the line. 5]".VS^J!]'".V»5^'^^'] 
s^^'^^1 deception, trickiness || Her friends have left her because of her 

trickiness. fW)-»l^=^-q^=;-qq-^3j-|,'Nl ^^Jj^N^^si^N-sf^s^-g".!] 
5^q^-qp^| 'to be lost; "to be confused || 'l was lost in the big forest, ^'aj^^' 

cf".V553j''^q'^'^^'^'si^''^p^l "I feel confused when you speak very 

quickly . ^=^-^'N-»l|Ji]'N-Mk-q.p|=^-^q'N-=;-»l^q'p=^-(^^ 


5^J!]'g^^] Ho bend down; 'to submit, to surrender || ^When the wind blew, 
the grass bent down.^^'J!]t^^'^'i!'3j'S'5^^'§^=^] 'I surrender to your 
superior strength. ^=^'|'3'^-:g5i]'^-(i=^''^=^J!]'NW!;'N-5^^§^^-q-^3jl 

si'Jl'q^'J]'^] to capitulate, to surrender || After a long battle the losing side 
surrendered. '^3j'^=^^=^'^siJ!]'q(gJ!]'g,'^'1'N'S55^'p'^=;'|5!]'^'^'^'5^qyq^J!]Ml 

s^Jlj'^R] stupid, empty-headed || He is so stupid that he doesn't even 
know that money is valuable. ■f5^8^^=;-^3j-q'N-|'^-s?".vS>3j-g!;-Sr^-qq!;-5^-^^)] 

s^Jjj'JjjSJl] head and end || People at both the head and end of the line were 
impatient. 5]f^v|-5^^J!](^'^-3j-«r=^-q'S-5^-§f^rql=^-^q-|3j-s^=^] 

5^J!]'£«5]'qp^'q] to feel dizzy || I had not eaten and felt dizzy. 

s^^'^^^J!]'^] to be deluded, to be deceived || Don't be deceived by his 

eloquent speech. 'pq-p-q^-55^'N'ji^'nj-»l^&-gq?)-^-5]-q|J!] 
^^^'^l fast, quick, rapid || Please give a quick answer to my question. 

^l^^^'cfS] speed, velocity || A bullet travels at great speed. 

s^5!3j'i!] throat || Is your throat painful when you swallow? 

siSjaj'cfq't^l spokesman || The spokesman for our group didn't speak very 

well. =;'c^'6&]'^'qq'si^3j'cfq'i!'5i"5n^5]-q.f=|2^-q-5^-qg!;-] 
»15]3j'p^'] hotel II That hotel is too expensive for me. 

^^^xi'^^^l to invite || I want to invite you to my home tomorrow 

evening. ^N^^-^aj-^qy^-sT^^-'^'N-^^^-^^^-cdk-'^vs^^aj-s-qq'^-q^'^l 
5^5]3j'q^^ host II Who will be host of the party? 

5^5!3j'q] guest II You are my guest when you come to my home. 

^^^ Ho be hoarse; 'to block up || ^I'm hoarse from a bad cold. ^'S■^=^■c5S^■ 

q-qsj-qq^q^ "The pipe is blocked up. ^'^''^^^ 
'^JljJ!]'§] vital, key || Learning English is vital to my future. 


'^^Sjl duty, responsibility, incumbency, obligation || It is my duty to take 


care of my children. ^!;-5|-|,'^'q'^»l'^'J!i^=^'|=;'|^'q%=^'^-qJ!]3j-5)3jl || The 
Reincarnate Lama did his duty and held religious rituals once a 

month. |".V^M^'^^'I'^''3J!]'N'^'l^J!]'g=;'S)-qj%q^-^-arn-3^?)-:^c;-f|-,^q|3^-qfq!^| 

'^'J13j''^(^=^'5^p3j] person in charge || Who is the person in charge of this 

office? J!](g=;'|^q'p=;'q^q'qJ!]3j'qf^^'5^p3j'^'«S3jl 
'^J!]aj'^|^] duties, responsibility || What are my duties as a new teacher? 

'^^s^l to gobble, to eat quickly || I must gobble down my tsampa because 
I have classes in five minutes. ^^'5^'q§^'|'^'^''^'"-l'^q'(|=^'^=^'=^'^l ^^'N's;!:;- 

qjj^q'^J!^ some, several || Several years after he graduated he got married. 

'^^"-l] to be against, to be contrary || His deed is against the law. 

'^^"-Vq] contradiction || It is a contradiction that I love and hate him. 

'^^^^l (^^^ ^^^ fl^) ^to summon; "to attract; \o bend || 'News of the 
religious meeting summoned thousands of people. c5'^'§&]'^'S2;'i!^'J!]^=^' 
'^S^'S'^'^'^^'^'^^^ "The marvelous food attracted the guests. 5^'g=^' 
5^^^'s^^'s^5]3j'q'q^J!] ■'The child is bending that piece of metal into a 
hoop . |,'S5-q*)-'|J!]'N'f\iq's?^w"r!;'^J!]'yq^J!]'N'q^3j'Sr=^l 

^W^\ to move || I want to move near the window, ^'f^^l^^'^'"-!^'^'^'?^' 

'^^""'^^1 movement || There was a movement to learn a foreign 

language. |^^-fq-qq-q^".v|=^-5qTq^]^^l 

qq^^'l (S^^'l q'T]^'] p^'^D to be full of || The wooden chest is full of wheat. 

'^^^^l (^^^1 ^^\ P^^l) ^to cover; 'to conceal || 'l covered my sleeping 
son with a quilt. !;'^'^!;-S|-J!]|^'f^J!]'qq'g<^-S!;-nj'^".V^".vq'T]qi -Don't try to 
conceal your secrets from me. (i=^'^'^^^'q'^'".vs^''^5iq^] 

q^i",!] (^^"-1] q'']"-!] p"-!]) Ho impose; "to put a pack on (an animal) || 'Don't 
impose that job on me. ^■q'^'^^'^^''^V5^''^5i".l] 'Please help me put this 
pack on the yak. ^■".l^'^'^^'^"^^'"-!''^^"-!'^^'^'!^^! 

'^^I 'beginning, start; 'to infect (disease) || 'When is the beginning of the 


next school term? ^q'5!'S'^q'^q'M'1'N'5^'^'^'aj»l'a?=^''^^»l'S'5'^l "Plague can 
infect marmots and spread to humans. =^»l^'3j=;''^^'q'".V'^J!]'23=;'".VS^'".l'^^' 

'^^■(^S] leader, leadership || The leader lost his job last year. 

'^^■q^S] preface, introduction || Who wrote the preface to this book? ^^' 

qjjj'^si'q] to start, to commence (spontaneously) || What time do we start 
work tomorrow? 'N!;'|3j'=;'§§q'".lM''T]'^!^-3j5^'cf=^'q3yf 5]-^t^3j] 

qJljJ!] (=^J!]J!] ^^ p^*^l) to peel off II She peeled bark of trees to use as a 
cooking fuel. p^^''^=;'-P|3j'q'fii!]'aj'N'g=^'^!;''^vq'fi'".i] 

q^tjqj (^qjqj q^qj P^^]) to Stop, to halt, to block II The government has 
stopped the illegal marketing of drugs. 

f^Jl]^'^".!] resistance || The army met strong enemy resistance when they 
tried to cross the mountains. 

'^^^'23^1 defense, protection || This sheepskin coat is good protection 
against the cold wind. ^J!]-q-q^'N-5]=;-™J!]'^-q^J!]-23=;-qg=;^|^-^qi 

qj!^2^] (^^^1 ^'^ P^D ^to put into; 'to make a plan || ^Put the data into a 
chart. "5^5i^'S'^^'5^^'"l'p^'3^ 'Please make a plan to solve the farming 
problems in your township. (i^'§f^'(^^'S]'<^2;''^'^'^3j=^^'g^'^5=^'^=^''^c5=^' 

'^^^'^S^'^l delay, postponement || Our delay was due to the heavy rain. 

'^^^■<^g,^'<'^3'^l to delay || The snowstorm will delay our trip. 

f^JJ^^'aj^] epidemic || There was a flu epidemic here last year. 

^^] C^^'l '^S^^D to be delayed, to be postponed || The party will have 

to be postponed. Wc^l^N'^-VS^-q^'^-l'^-^qf^-^-^^^l 
'^^l (^%^] W^\) to become || Nobody wants to become poor. 

'^^^ fl^ melody || I can't forget that song's lovely melody. 


'^S^ c^ change, transformation || The change in the weather was 

sudden. ^3j«^'^-^'^''^^^''^^''^'^g^'^^'^=^l 
n^^] charity, donation, endowment || His donation of one thousand 

yuan was given to the orphanage. p'^'S=^'^^'J!]5^'^'<^'^'<^=\!^'5^S'^^'p^'".V 

^^y\ to faU down, to shp || I don't want to fall down on this ice. 

'^S^ C^S^ ^S^'^l (S^'^l) to lift, to jack up || I cannot lift this heavy box by 

myself '^■5i]S5i]-^'N-§^»l-|=^-5fq^-q|J!]-5^-^qi 
'^S^l to regret/repent || I regret telling you my secrets. 

'^S^^l remorse, regret || I feel much regret for my mistakes, ^'^z^'sri' 

'^S]^'] to be full (food) || I'm full and I can't eat anymore. 

^%S^ to compete, to contest || Do you want to compete in a wrestling 

match? ^^^'I'N-^-qi-q^iaj-f^^-l-^^^-ajM-q^iaj-aj-i^vqY^l 
'^Sl^j^l competitor, rival || He is my chief rival for her love, p^'p's^'q'q.^' 

(^jja'oi^'f^m^'qi to be rivals, to be opponents || When it comes time for 
promotions, you and I will be rivals for the top position. J!]'J!]3j^''^^=^' 

^^^\ side, by || Come and sit by my side. '^=^=^'.P|^'".V^^''^g]s^'S^'f^] 
'^S]^'^! saliva || The dark color of his saliva suggested that he was not 

well . ]^q'q5]si'^'s^'^J!]'3jJ!]^'^'pq''5'^'p»i'^'5^'^=;'N'q'5^§§3jl 
q^js^'s;] by, by the side || The shop is by the school. §f^'p^'S'^q'5!'T'^'q5]5^'S' 

^^^^\ cheeks || My cheeks were red with cold. =;q'q5]»l'q'5]=;'3j'^'^»l=^'q'^- 

qgjs^'fwqs^l to come close || I don't want to come close to the fire. 


^^5]^ to be correct || Your answer is correct. (i^'^''^l3j'q5]J!] 

^'SP\ to decline, to decrease || Our number of livestock decreased. 


qgjsi'qgjnji traffic, transport, transportation || There is a lot of traffic on 
the city's streets around noon. |3j'^^'^'^'^W.y^^'(i^'|,'f "-W^^'^^^s^' 

qg]"l| (^^"]] 5]".ll) to roU || A boulder rolled down the mountain. 

qgjq] ^^5]^] 3]^]) to achieve, to fulfill || Can you fulfill the task your 
teacher assigned? ^^■^3j'|,^'|3^-qq'".l'^'^'ji^'^'N'2rz;!^-q5]q-|!^-5q-q»l] 
qgjfW^^N'q] traveler || The traveler was tired and thirsty. 

'^'^'f'S'S'S'^l to travel, to journey || Tomorrow we will journey to town. 


q5]a,vp:;-| hotel || That hotel is cheap. '^5!"-l'p=;-^-^=;A]l 

q^'f^qj VoUing; 'wallowing || 'The horses rolling on the ground made a 
big cloud of dust. ^■q''^^''^lJ!]'q^q'3j^'E'^viaj'i!'q^]^^] "The wallowing of 
the pigs in the mud over several years made a large hole. "I's^^q^^'s^Jll' 

'^S]^'] to stand up || He stands up and answers the question. 

'^^s^l (^5]^1 ^^^1 I^^^D to spread, to display || She displayed the things 
she wanted to sell. fW)-^!;-S|!^-naf=;-q^=^-qq-=^T'^^q^»ll 

f^gjs^^'^aj] exhibition, display || Have you seen the new art exhibition? 

q^f\l•q^P|^^| explanation, annotation || I read his explanation, but I still 

can't understand it. =;sj-'pq-q^rn-q^:^TH-q<^5)-^:;-:^-^:;-qyq-a;iaj-||-^q| 

^5] (^^\ ^R] ^R]) to go II I want to go see the movie. 


'^SJ'g^l expenditure, payment || I don't think you can be reimbursed for 
that expenditure. =^'N'^=^'|''^^^''^l'^'^3j'|'^'|3j'cfq'|=^'^'^^'«^''^'^^l 

'^5!''5^'^1 customs, folkways || He is very knowledgeable about Tibetan 
customs. q=^'^''^^'5'^'N^^'3j'N'^"l'S!5i-'53i-3q-5]-2r!^| 

'^SJ^l C^5]^ '^Sl^^l) to associate, to make a relationship || I would like to 
associate more with you. ^■(5^'^^'"^^'y'^^^''^^^l 

^^"^] (S3]'^l ^^"^1 (^"^p to untie, to undo, to get loose || He was so fat he 


couldn't bend over and untie his shoes. 

^^■^] old man || The old man is more than eighty years old. 

^^'5^1 old woman || The old woman can tell many folktales. 

^3^^] the old, the senior || The senior generation in my village had a hard 
life when they were young. !;'§§q'S-qq-9J-^q!N-^3j'q'^5^'N'^'^'^=;'5'^'^''^'T|(^- 


^3j'=^q^] old generation || The old generation still wears traditional 

clothing. ^3j'^q'^-q'^-=^-s=;-^".v^3j-|,-^3j-q-^3ji 

^".vMJ!]'^] backbone, vertebra || Backbone meat is very tasty. 

SjSj to decline, to wane || The economy of that country is declining. 

a=;'sqi relief aid 11 The nomads were given relief aid after the 

snowstorm. ^'^'N-|3j-^=;-|'^-q|J!]-q-^»lM-".v^=^-|q-^'^l 
^a'^^gs^] grapes || Some wine is made from grapes. »)f^'oB^'(T,F|»)-^-5|3-qg9j-(^»j- 

^=;'^^s^] abusive speech || His abusive speech hurt everyone's feelings. 


'^^] violent, wild || He has a violent temper. p'a'sj'i^'^^^^^Ji^t^aji 
^"1] to oppose, to attack || We all oppose prejudice. 

^"^fSS] attack, assault || The army's attack on the enemy was successful. 


g■g=^l expansion, extending || The expansion of the school building will 

take two months. ^^■5!'^'P'^''^t^'^'^'|^'^^1'^'^^'^'<^^^'i'5'^l 
5'(i3j] size, scale || Tibet's size is bigger than Qinghai's. 

fi"§^] gate II Our school's new gate was expensive. ^'c^'Jiq'^^'g'g^'^'^^'q'^' 

g'cBSj's^] large, extensive, broad || The large grassland was covered with 
flowers. S-g=;-i3j^5^yij-q^^i-p!;^]-Sr=^| 


5"5^1 Han person || The Han person learned to speak Tibetan. 

^Si^ ocean || This shell is from the ocean. ^■|q'N-|-^J!]'N-q^-^-5^S?".l'N^3jl 
^•^J!^ written Chinese || I can read written Tibetan and written Chinese. 

g'^^'^l Han/Chinese (nationality) || His mother is Han but his father is 

Mongolian. pq'i3M-»i-^-g-S,q^!NTSS3j-wi!;ws5'^'»«]'^£!]'N'«S3jl 
ffi=;'%=\| to march || We will march twenty kilometers tomorrow. 

^^'1^ broadcasting || His job is in broadcasting. P^'^^'§5^'^'^'^'^'^^1 
g^'^^ distance || What's the distance from Lhasa to Shenyang? 

g^'5=^l exile, banishment || After his crime he had to go into exile. 3jJ!]'ft'^' 

^=^•^=^•1 far, distant || My home is far from yours. '^'^■'^"•V^'(5=^'cf=^''^=^'^'^'^'^'l 
fi^'-Pj"-!] telescope || I could see the moon's mountains through the 

telescope. !;'N'g=;'^".vnj!^-|'qq'^^»igk-^q] 
53JI Ho be glorified; "ornament || ^The woman is glorified by her many 

jewels and expensive clothes. p's^^'^=;'sn'^3j'q'i'2^RJ!]3j'q'J!]^'i3j'5^Rq^' 

qg3j] 'The Buddha image is covered with jewels and other 

ornaments. 'N=;'N-^'^-|-^-^-^3j^i-^=;-^3j-|,«)-qjS5jl]'^l 
gSj'cB] ornament, jewelry || She wore jade jewelry. p's^'^'^ljt^Wgaj'cB'q^^'^] 
gq] behind, back || Who is the person standing behind you? 


gq'^^l support, aid || European aid to Africa has declined. "^'^^q'^'N'iJM'g'^' 
p-f\V^q-|'^-|,=^-S'^-t-a!;-^'^2;-Sr=^] Where did he get support to build a new 

school? p^".V^q'^'^'N^'q'".lM'*q'^q'|5;-q^R3jS]^q-q-iSj3j| 

gq^qq^^l opposition || His constant opposition to my wishes made me 

hate him. ^''^■'^'^■^■q'=^=^'^3j-q^-^q-qj!]'^v|^-q-^'N-=;-p^".V(^-^=;-".i=;'N-^-q§J!] 
^q-'^^^'N] background || What is your background? ^=^'^'^q''^^'N'^'5'^J!]'«Sajl 
S^^^^l rear, back || The fire started in the rear of the building. 

g"11 to win, to overcome || We want to win the volleyball game. 



Sf^fi] victory, success || Our victory was complete. 

S^'p=^] state, country || What country has the largest population in the 

world? q^»i'|=;'S!;-8^-g]E;'M-s'N'»i!;'qq'^".vpq'^'5!]!^-'^3ji 
g"l'p^'^] nationality || I was bom in Australia and my nationality is 

Australian. '^■^wSS-(^-^-'^-i«-^|!^-q-S3^-q!^-=;q-^'\vpk'N-^w^-(|-^-^-t^3jl 
5"^'^ national anthem || Who wrote our country's national anthem? 

gn.VJj^S'^] patriotic || When he saw the national flag raised he had a strong 
patriotic feeling. ^"•v^^'q^'^'N-q-sjg!;-^!^] p^n,v^n,i-q^§s]-|-qs]si-q-^qj^|!S)| 

5"l'S^l national flag || Every country has a national flag that has a 
special meaning to the people of that country. 

5"l'3j^'l domestic, inland (China) || He's not a native, he's from inland. 

5"-Vq] king, monarch || The king died and his son became king. 

|nj-q-5;|^5]-^!^-^3^j tyrant || Hitler was a tyrant. ^•g'":v^'|'^'2rq|^-^!^-5a^- 

Sf^'^] international || International opinion is reflected in decisions made 
by the United Nations. 

g"-vg] prince || A king's son is a prince. 5"-Vq'S'g'3j'g"-Vg'^3j] 
gn.vqq^'^'l citizen, subject || She is a citizen of Great Britain. 

^a.vuj^s]| whole country, nation-wide || The radio broadcast was nation- 
wide . 5j'^''^|3j'*'^''^S^'^i'^'^"-i'^'^'^i'^-(iqi 

gl^'^qs^i dynasty || China's last dynasty was the Qing Dynasty. 

g".V^l capital II The capital of Great Britain is London. 

Sf^^^] prince || The prince's mother is the queen. 

^"-VSjSl state affairs || The president worries about state affairs. ^^j'^^j'^'N' 


§"■'23^1 (3^ P^l St^te Council || The State Council members met last 

night. »l=^=^'=^^=^'^"-v|=^'|'(iq'p=^'^''p=;'^'«'^'S5t]^"'^'q^_'^l 
5^1 to develop, to increase, to flourish || The economy is developing. 

§'^■'^1 elaborate, detailed || His elaborate plan is too complicated. 

gM'S^] extravagancy, lavishness || Extravagancy characterized his 
lifestyle until he ran out of money. 

fi'^SJl reason, cause || What is the reason you won't talk to him? 

^■c5] material || What material is this made ot7 '^=^'^'c5'5'(^^''^l^'!^3!^' 
il'^ajl Wood is good building material. •f|=;'^'q^J!]'N'^3j'g-5'qg=;^<^5;|-'^3jl 
What material is this ball made of? ^=;-":vq^-g-5-^J!]-nj'N-ql'^-q-^3jl 

g'3j^l property, wealth || He lost all his property during the war. 

g'5^cf3jl reason || What is your reason for thinking that? 

3^ (qg^ qg^^l g^^D Ho run; 'to sell well || ^I want to run from here to 

\s \s \s \s 

the mountain. ^■'^^■3j^'^'^<^'g^'^'^'^^^''^^^l 'Do you think my shop's 
goods will sell well? ^=;'^'^-c;q-^:^-|ii:^-q^-5f:;-^q^-^-5,:^-lRvq^:^| 
g^^l test, examination || Did you pass the examination? 

S^=^■^| breed || This horse is of a distinguished lineage. S'(^'>'3;'£'5=;'5];;,'5]qi!5^' 

gS'^s^l 'process; 'order || 'He had a lot of difficulties in the process of 
raising enough funds to start his business. pq'§§k'".i^'qqy^'q^'s^'g'q=^R 
'^^?'5^'|/'i'^'^'^'^'^*"'^'^'P^''^'l'^'^'^'*^'^'S^'^l "Please follow my 
instructions in order. '^^'*lC^'^3j'§=^'^5^''^^'S''^=!l'^f ^'l^'^l 

sa'S!;,'^] to continue || I want to continue to not smoke. ^'^■^=;''^=\'^'^' 


S^j'^fi^'^l maintenance, continuance || Continuance of our traditions and 
language is important. 23'^'^5i'=;^'^^'^5n!^'qi'^!^'^3j''^|5^^'^=;'g'Jl]".vi| 


S5'<^|5^'^'9'^'^1 to continue, to proceed || Please continue studying 

English every day. |3j'^^'^|;3j'«)J!]'^qwg3^'(^|5!;!^'§!^l 
g3j'<3=^] as usual || As usual he was late for class. 

gSj'^vj always, all the time || He always sleeps late in the morning. 

sa'f^^s] keeping, preservation || The preservation of traditional customs 

is important. 23"-l'^5j'g3;'(^^3;'^=^'^'3j'J!]".vi] 
gaj'^^Sj'i]] successor || Who will be the successor to the present 

president? "■I'N^Jll-^Sj-^aj^^aj-qWsj-q-^-^-^Saj-^-^,:^! 

g^'5^^] knowing little, having no familiarity || Having no familiarity 
with the subject they were discussing, I said nothing. 

|k-] (q^=;-] q^'^'N] I'^'^l) to stretch out, to extend out || Stretch out your 
hand and I'll give you some candy. 

§3] saddle || My father made this saddle some years ago. 

S^'l Hop of a mountain, summit; 'at the exact time (put after a present 
tense verb) || ^Only one tree grew on the top of the mountain. ^'q^^'Sj' 
W^^^^^'S^'^T^^'I^'S^'^] 'A guest came at the exact time we were 
having supper. '^•§f'N'=^3]k-S^J!]'^'(^^!;'q^3i-qq'§^=;'".r»l^aj^^J!]A]q'N'^=;'l 
§^5^1 box, trunk || This box is made of wood. §^5^■'^=^■^P|^■J!]^■'^1'^] 
g^J!^ (^§^^ ^§^^^1 i^^^l) to wait II I don't want to wait for you any longer. 

\s \s \s \s 

S'v] to bend down || Bend down and tie your shoelaces. 

g^f\l] (^§^"-1] ^§^"-1] §^"-1]) Ho move; 'to rotate || 'l moved the heavy stone out 
of the road. =;'Nl^|^-si^-".W^=;-3j'N-s5^-".vq§^".ll 'The river's current rotated 
the mill's grindstones. ^■^5j'|,'N'=^^''^gJ!]'^'^g=^^q§^".l] 

sq^'as^s^i enchanting guise || The moonlight cast the landscape in an 
enchanting guise. |''^=^'|'N-«J".V^=;'^-".v|Jl]-^»l'^-|''^l 

§^3fl^l window II A stone had broken the glass in the window. 

§^=^] private, individual || I don't want to tell you about my private life. 

^^''^^] dictatorship, autocratic || The world has few countries where a 
dictatorship is the form of government. '^^^'^^'S'23S''^^5j'§^=^'J!]5=;'g,' 

§^^■=^3j] private business/affair || He left this morning to do some private 

business. ^•^c;-^-5-p^|^^3j-q|^q-q^-'^=;-] 
^^■f SI] monopoly || That company has a monopoly on buying and 

selling oil. ^^'^■'^'N^|s^yik-n,v|^-Ss^-|=^l 
^'v'^Sj] private profit || The money she earns from her small shop is her 

private profit. jW^'^!;-S|-6f=;'p=;'^=;'^!;-^-'^?l-^zT|-q<^-|'^'SI^'p^q'|^'S5aj'«S3jl 
§3] door, entrance || He stood near the door, turned around, and walked 

away. p^(^5]5]-^-q=;'5^-^?)-p-q'pk-3j'N'g^''r=;'l 
§^'p] in front of the door || The watchdog was chained in front of the 

door, f l^f p-^-q^^l^-Sr^^l 
gJ'^'l egg II I want one boiled egg for breakfast. 

g^'q^aj'ljS'pR] clinic, out-patient room || I went to the clinic to buy some 

medicine. =;-|^q^3j-|3^-p=;-S-||3j-qJ!]qyq^-»r=;-l 
§^'3j] at the door || There was a bundle at the door and she took it inside. 

q^'^^^1 livestock, domestic animal || His livestock have increased in 

number. p'^'^§^'^-|-5]=;'N-'T]-'^^l 
§^^'] to put/add (firewood) || Please add some firewood to the fire. 

I'si] (q^»l] q^si'^ll'si^)]) meditation, to meditate, to think over || His 
meditation in a cave lasted one year. 

^^■^^] round || A circle is round. |»l^-^^-|'^t^3j] 

§^^'3^1 currency, money || How much money do you have in your 

pocket? ^=^-|-i3VW(gJ!]-^-3j!^-^-|'^-85l-^5]-Sr^] 
i^'3^ lazy, indolence || He is well-known for being lazy. p'|=;''^^'S'!^' 

|'s^'S^R3j| magician || The magician amazed us all with his tricks. 


I'g'"-!] art II I don't like modem art. =;-^=;-^q'N-|-|-g-".V".V9S-^J!]qi 

^■§■^1'^] artist II My brother is an artist and works for a publishing house. 

|q] (^^"^11 qg".l] g".l]) to make something fall, to overthrow || During the 
wrestling match I made him fall down. 

1^^] cannon, artillery || Cannon boomed in the distance. 

^1 sound II I like the sound of that song. ^■S'^^^^'^'^'§^''^1'^^'^1 The sound 
of the ringing bell spread throughout the village. ?'^'"^^^'^'5"^ 3'^ §i 

ga'SSj'^^l melodious sound || The melodious sound was coming from the 

radio. |^'?=^''^p'^''T'^'N-|^-^3j-s?Sjq|-5]J!]'N-^=;-l 
S'Jij^^'^] tone, pitch || That pitch is too high for me to make. a'J!]=;^^'!>'s^g' 

|3'^=;'qp^'".l] radio, radio equipment || I bought my first radio ten years 

ago . 'Tq§q'^3j'".V=;'N'g!;!^'!^!;'q5;-|^-w;^-qp':^-afSm^s]| 
s's^q'qp^'n,!] tape recorder || The tape recorder was made in Japan. 

|^z^q-qpk-nf^-q^^-q3j-3j'N^3j'| =^'^^1 
§]^S^'^1 musical sound, tune, melody || That melody is so familiar. 

sq^ (q|3^ ^S^^'^l S^^D to arrange, to put (in order/in line), to queue || The 
librarian spends much of her time putting books in order. 

a^'igs^^J] discipline || Discipline is important for a class to be successful. 


i^'c5^1 equipment || The laboratory equipment was made in the United 

States. ^q''^J!]'p=^'Sl'^J!]'c5'N-^-is^-s^-^-p-^g3i-|'^-g!^l 
i^'g=^] installation || The installation of the new system took one week. 

a^'".1«^] discipline, rule || Discipline was lax in his class. 


aJ!]'J!j.Pls^| exhibition, display || Did you see the new exhibition at the 


museum? (i=^'|'N'=^'^^'s^=^'q.f^«^'N'^3j-p=;-^-^J!]'J!]^s^-J!]'N^-q-^-B^ 
l^'^"-!] regulation, rule || That rule is too strict. ^J!]-^",V^-=^»l^5j3j-^q^si| 
|q] (qi^l q^q^l] ^q^l) to cover, to hide || Fog covered the valley. 

|5^] (q^s^l q^s^M] ^s^'N]) Ho make taut; "to concentrate || ^We pulled the 
rope taut. ^■c5M'5^''^'q|3S^'^l "Students should concentrate on studying. 

in,l] (qi"^!] qi"-!] i"^!]) Ho roll; "to combine || 'Please help me roll up the 
tent. ^■"-V^^'S"-!'^^'^'^'^! 'Let's combine these students into one class. 

S'>| fable, story || That fable teaches a moral lesson. 

^ |^-^^S]-^^)-^^-|^-|-q^]q-^-^qTqi^Rl 

a^'s^paj] storyteller || My grandmother is a good storyteller. 

S^'S^l story book || I like to read that storybook to my daughter. ^' 

l^q] (qg^q] qg^qM] |^q^)]) to do, to execute, to fulfill || What do you want to 
do this afternoon? ^'^'^'|^^'(i=^'|'^'5'^^'^§^^''^'^^l 

-s -, -N -N '^ 

s^'l (qg^'] qgS^^l §5^^1) to raise, to raise up/lift || When we reached the 
mountain top we raised a flag in the air and waved it. 
|3] feathers || The peacock has beautiful feathers. I]'^'"-VS'"^^'^'^^1 
a'q=;J!]'^] exaggeration || His account is an exaggeration of what really 
happened. p'^'5i]3^'^'^'^'5'^^'^=^'q<^'^3;-qj6=^-q-^-^-|^q^q]^)-3;c;-5,:^| 

|3^'^1 button II This button is made of silver. aJ!]mq=^'3j'=^5",V",l'^'qg!^| 
lijl (q|3jl q|3jl |ajl) to ignite, to light || It's time to light a candle. 

^3^^] lamp, lantern || The lamp gave out a strong light. 

srn| (qg"-!] qS"-!] S"l|) to liberate, to free || Machines have liberated 
humans from much hard work. q^".Vc5^'^'N'5^q'=^J!]^''^'^'f^'^'p55n'q'aj!^' 

qg] (one) hundred || One hundred is one more than ninety-nine. 


qg'cB] percent, percentage || The percentage of Tibetans who can read 
and write is increasing. q|'^J!]'|,=^'^q'qq'q=^'9Sq'q^'c5'S'cf=^''^^'q^3jW^] 

q*=^l eight II Eight boys are in my class. ^'^■'^^3j'5]'3j^'g,'q^=^'^=^] 

^S'S^Sl eight hundred || My father's salary is about eight hundred ywaw 
a month. =;q-i3M-s5q^^J!]'N'^'|'^'q^=^'q^'5Saj] 

qgS'il eighty || My mother died when she was eighty. 

qg=^■'^l eighth II This is the eighth day our teacher has been ill. 

qg^^l to faint, to become unconscious || I feel like I may faint. 

qg^l through, to, via, to transmit || I went through Lanzhou on my way 

to Chengdu. '^'"-l*l'g,^'^'"-13j'^^'^^=^'^'(|3j'S'3'"-l''5=;-l 
qg^^'^Jl] translation || This Tibetan -English translation was done very 

well . q=^'=^|)Sj'«SJ!]'q|^'^^'i!'(^^-=9'5=^'qg=^'l 

q|3J!]^'J!]ra] declaration, pronouncement || His pronouncement was 

welcomed by the masses. p^'qaJ!]'^'J!]^5^'".V5^^'§fj!]^'^'=^J!]'Tq^^] 
q|3J!]^w]J!j notification || Did you receive notification of the meeting next 


'^'] I, me II I am Norbu. =;-^^^-g'"^3jl 

^■g".l] pride, arrogance || 'Pride goes before a fall,' is a proverb. 

^E] we, us II Please don't tell us what to do. 

^■"^1 my, mine || This is my book, it's not yours. 

^■^^'1 1, myself || I told myself not to worry too much. 



^■=^^'§§] we, ourselves || We kept all the money we found for 
ourselves. =;'§f'N'^!;-^=^-§-i^'S'5;j!]-qq-^^-5?cf=^-»l-^^-J!]^J!]-^^l] 

^^■g3jl legend, oral tradition || There is a legend about a monkey and 
ogress being the origin of Tibetans. 

^^■^^■3j'^] orally, verbally || I'd like to discuss this verbally, rather than 

in writing. '^'N^3j'q^'«Sqj-gJij-aj!^-c;q|^q]-^-q^-|K,-|j^-(^^j^| 
^^■^"^1 gradually, slowly || I slowly understood more and more English. 

^^■g^l moral character, temperament || He has a good character and I 

trust him. f^".l■=;=;■^=^■qg=;^^^!]■Sk■"^•=;'s^•p^"^■^^::■i!^^■|:^| 
^^"g^s'^^'q] patient, tolerant || He is tolerant of opinions that are different 

than his. 'p^-^!^''^:;-5]'5]^3^-q<^-'a-q-!^q|-^-gq|-3^!^-c;!;-^=^-S,:;^q|3j| 
^^^^1 impatient, intolerant || When he is tired, he becomes impatient. 

'^l bad II 'Bad' is the opposite of 'good.' '=3j'^-'qg=;-'^-qJ!]".V|-«S3jl 
^3j'^",l] instigation, incitement || At his instigation, the students 

complained to the headmaster. 

^^aj'^l bad, evil || Her evil plan failed. 'pq-|'^-=;3j-q-".V=^»l-p-gq«5] 
^3j'".l^'] spoiled, pampered, coddled || Because he is an only child he is 

spoiled. 'p^'|,'^'q'J!]5J!]'g'^3i'q'N-=;3j'".F'"-V^=^l 
^3j''^5^'^] evil motive, bad-hearted || An evil motive leads to evil action. 

^^'^S] to stimulate, to have an impact || His speech stimulated the 
students to study harder. pq■JI]^»^■q^P|=^■|'N■^q■5^■^5^'N■".l■|q■|=;•g=^■^■ 


^=^'-P|J!]'^] vigor, energy || I don't seem to have any energy today. 

^".V=;q] fatigue, tiredness || His tiredness made him sleep early. 

=;".vf".l] work, labor || This work makes me tired. =;".vf".V'^^'^-=;-g;;-c5=^-S-q§J!] 
^"-Vg'^.vq] worker, laborer || My father is a worker and my mother is a 

doctor. =;q'i3^'S5'^'=;".rf"i'q'^Ji]'«jaj'"i| i3^'»i'^'^3j'q'^Ji]'«J3j| 


5'1 to cry II She began to cry when she thought of her dead mother. 

^=^1 1, me II This book belongs to me. ^^■c5''^^'^'".V^^'J]'^| 
^^'^] certain, definite || I trusted his certain answer. 

^^^^^] awareness, consciousness (of lifej || He has an awareness of 

what life really is. nsf q-=^T^-J!]3j'N-5'^J!]-«S3j-q-".vp'^-^'^-q^=;-^J!]-|'Nl 
^■] face II Do you wash your face every morning? 

^■^"-l] protest, opposition || He made a weak protest before doing what I 

told him. =;'N'^!;-S|!5l-^3i%q.P|^'q'si'!:!f q!^'^!;'p'^^".V^3j'5»l'^^l 
^^1^^ to meet, meeting in person || I want to meet you this afternoon. 

^^^Sl praise, flattery || Unfortunately, flattery is often very helpful in 

being promoted. ".I'N-sS-qg'^-q-^J!]-".!] ^'^=;-^'N-q^-'^q^=^-|'N-^3j-q^-3y=9-5=;'I'^l 
^'S^l introduction, recommendation || Can you give me an introduction 

so that I can meet that teacher? ^=^'|'N''^'^^'^3j'^'"-ll''l'=^^^=^'|=^l^'^*ll 
^■q] nature, character (of matter/objects) || Physicists are concerned with 

the nature of matter. ^T^''5£!]'N'^5;|-q-q'N'=^T^^q-5!^-^!^-aj-q|J!]-q3;-|:^| 
"^Wj Veal; "true || ^This coat is made of real leather. '^=^-"sjq^-'ffq^»l'^-q'i''^-q- 

"^3jl "Is the story that you just told really true? ^=^•^'N•q^P|=^•»^•g^!]•q<^•^I]^»^" 

^■5^^^'53j] miraculous, marvelous || She made a miraculous recovery 
from her illness. 'pwaj'^-p-aj'N-g^-q-^-^-^^-aisX-s-qJ^-^a^-^:!]-^!^! 

c;'5]^^'$'q(^'(^^^''^qi I II He experienced a miraculous change in his 

character and his life after he meditated for three years. '^'Jn^aj'^s^'ss]" 

^■".l^l] rebellion, revolt, uprising || The army quickly suppressed the 
rebellion. ^»l^'=^^=^'^'^^"W]'5'<^^«J'«J'<^g'^'^'55i]'5i]^3^'g'^l 

^■".l^'s^l ^scum; 'traitor, mutineer || 'The scum of society uses violence to 
achieve their aims. |'^Jl]'N-^^5!]-q-^'N-5Jl]-|'^-".vq'^3j-3j'N-^=;^3j-J!]^^l "We 
finally understood that the respected official was actually a 
traitor. s^g'Ts^^'=;'§f'N'3]k-q^^-gq-qq-=^sr3j^'^^3j''^5]-^^^j^^^ 

^•PM acquaintance, to know/recognize || He's not really my friend, he's 


only an acquaintance. p^'^^^-Pj^'^s^'^JJ^'^J'sl'^^^sj^s^'s^aj] 
RS^ to show II I want to show you the scar on my leg. 

^s^'^] to be satisfied/content/satiated || I am satisfied with my marriage. 

^'^l surface, face (of wall, water, etc.) || The surface of the wall was 

painted green. ^'^^^'^'t^'S'^'fl'^^'Nl 
^^■f^^Sj] recognition, identification || He showed no sign of recognition 

when I met him ten years later. "5^^^'^'1^'^'^^'S'^l p'^'^''^'?'^'33i'ac;'q(^' 

^"-1] ^silver; "money || ^I have a silver coin. ^"",V^5",V§^=^'(^J!]'«J^] "Although 
my family does not have very much money, we love each other and 
we are happy. ^^■cf=;-".V=^5".V»l=;^s^=^-^=;-l '^■sf-!^3j-^3j-".V(^3j-Sjs;-(^J-q-|2^^'^3j] 
^"-vp^^'l bank || I save my money in the bank. !;'N'^;;-S|-|'^'s?=^5".vp!;'S'q5'".ll 
^".vqs"-!] to save money in a bank, to deposit money || If you save your 
money in the bank it will be safe. 

^".Vc5^] fine || I had to pay a ten yuan fine for spitting in the 

park. =;'^-|=;-J!]<^-3i!;-'5^-q-'^=;'S)-q;^-56:^-q-^^-5fq^-S^-=^q^^l-^R| 

^"I'gajl loan II How much is the interest on your loan? 

^"-Vg] fund II That organization has a large fund for emergency relief. 


=^T^-£!]3j'^l truly, actually || I truly believe you. '^'^■^^■".V^T^-£!]3j'N-'^^-i'N-|^l 
^^'^■'J] object II He had several objects in his bag. 

^N^'^'g^'] internship, practical studies || After I graduate I will have a one 
year internship. ^q'sig^-l^-'I'Nl =;'N-fTJ!]5J!]'^!;-=^T^'|=^'|=^'=^^»)l 

^^^■J!]S|3'q] materialism || His belief in materialism kept him from being 
religious. =^T^'J!]^i'q<^'|'^'(^g!;'^'q'^^'l^'^!;'5'^5n'^'q'^5n'S'(^g^"s-'^!5i-q|^ 

2;^*]'gj!^ goods, commodities || How many goods did you sell today? 

S^'^'^l really, in actuality || In actuality, everything he said was false. 

=^T^'^'q.P|=^'aj| ^'^•q.P|=^'q'^=;'si^^'(^s5n 


s^!^!^ (s^^!^ «^^J!]^] 5^^^!]^]) to send, to designate, to entrust || I will send a 
messenger to your home tomorrow. 

5^^Jl]'q5"ll commission || My boss had given me the commission to 

implement the project. q^q'^'=;'".vql^^3j'^'".lJ!]'q^^'|,=^'^q'5^=;J!]'q5'".V^^] 
s^^'^'p^'^] territory, domination || The county's territory includes only a 

little grassland. fk-S]-»i=;q-pk'N-^-¥-'N-§=;-^5^-".l'N-s^=^| 
»l=;^'«5j sweet II Sugar is sweet. 'T]-=^-^-»l!;^-5rT^3jl 
5^^".VS^'^] to become pregnant || She wants to become pregnant and have 

a baby. 'fW5'^:;-'^-si=;".Vc5J!]'N'3j'N'|,^'q'q#5'q^=^l 
5^^3j] to appear, to become evident/visible, to show || Slowly his motive 

became evident. p'^'713j'^=^'=!]'«S^'|^'«^'^3j'S^'l 
si^3j'si(i3jl foresight, prophesy, prescient || His statement was prescient. 

^^^'^S^l materialization, realization || My success is the realization of 

my dreams. =;q'^".vp<^-gq-(^g!^-^'5;c;-S|-gq^^)-q^)»i-sj^3j'q^^'^!;'q'^-'^3j| 
5^^3j'J!]^"1] apparent, open, obvious || Your motive is apparent. 

^«| tail II The cat chased its tail. |'"-1'N'^=^'S^'^'»1'1'N''^^=^'^^1 
^3j'^l remuneration, tip || What tip should I give the waiter? 

^s^'q^=;'5aj] majestic, grand || From the summit the majestic landscape 

rolled out before us. ^(^•fz^-ai'^-aj^-q'^sj-Sl ^»l-q|=^-'^3j-qq-t^".V'|k'N-^5;]-=^-a§q- 

^s^'^s^s^l greed || His greed, despite his great wealth, continued to grow 
until it at last destroyed him. 

^s^'^»l^'3aj] selfish, greedy || To be selfish is always to want and never to 

give. ^s^'5^s^'N'53j''^v^3j'q^^q'q^^''^i'N'J!fe'q^=^'s^^l 
^q] (q^q] q^q^] ^^^l]) to inhale, to breathe || Inhaling cigarette smoke can 

cause cancer. ^'^'^^'^I^i'^i'i'^'^'l'^l 
^"-V^l sweat, perspiration || After a hard game of basketball his clothing 

was drenched in sweat. 



^] (^^'^l ^£] £?i) to stew, to cook || He works in a restaurant and stews 

mutton all day. 'p''^•g•p!;•S•".l'^•'T]•^!]^^•3^^^•|3j•^!]=;^^•'5^!]•^P|•^l 
fi^-gc;!^] pan || This pan is too hot. f=^"3!:;!^-q^-cf5J!]'Nl 
^3j] to hunt II When I go hunting I always bring my rifle. 

Xsj'^l hunter || The hunter killed a deer. X^j'^'^'-PI'^^^'^^'^'^l 
<3] five II My daughter will be five years old next month. 

'^■qg] five hundred || My new bicycle cost five hundred ywaw. ^'1''^J!]M'5' 

'yq^l fifty II The distance from here to the nearest town is fifty 

kilometers . q^'aj'^-i'Ny qq-^=;-q^".vq^-|-'^v<^-qf SJi^l 
'ycB] a fifth II A fifth of the students wanted to play rather than study. 

<^^R] five thousand || This gold ring costs five thousand ywaM. 


f'51 morning, a.m. || I exercise every morning. •^ai'^f^'^'^'K.'s^'^'s^'.f ^J'^z^' 

f '^1 before and after, past and future || Before and after his marriage, he 
drank enormous amounts of liquor. 

f '5^1 former one, earlier one || He was married twice and has two 
children by his former wife. 

^'s^'aj'^] early, long before || Long before I went abroad I studied English. 

f '==^"1] before, prior to || He graduated from university prior to getting a 
job as a government oiiicer. 5j'>'Jr|<a!;'5r|'i^5^'5](^'g'q'(aqi'^qi'q(^'^'^nj'^qi' 

f ■-Pj'^] earliest || What is the earliest you can come? 

f'Sj^-VS^l as usual || As usual I would like to have a bottle of beer with 

my supper. ^■^f^V'^^-'^'N-=^qik-&!]'N-=^^-s^^s^-^-g-c5'^-=^5^-q-J!]'^-q^^-n^=^l 
f ^ (qf ^ q^Jll'^l ^£11^) to praise, to hail || He was praised for his speech. 


f ^M] mantra || He repeated the same mantra all day. 

^=^'<3=^] as before, according to the past || I want you to do exactly what 
you did as before. ^^•^'^•^^•'^^•%5^'%q^3j'S'".l'N'^'^'=;q'5-q-^3j] 

f ^'Sj'^l from before || The bad habits he had learned from before he came 
to live with us caused much trouble. 

wqqa,i| piUow || The pillow is stuffed with feathers. 

f 3j] front, before, ahead || Please walk in front of me. ^'^■^3j''^''^^'(^J!] 

^"^^'1 green || Grass is green, ff'^'^'^^'^jaj] 

f 'E^ unripe || Unripe apples are sour. ^■-P|'^'SJ!]'"1'g=^'c5] 

f ■c5"1] vegetable || Cabbage is my favorite vegetable. 

f ^ (qf ^ q^J!]^] ?^^l) to dig, to reveal, to uncover || His misdeeds were 

uncovered. p'l'3jJ!]'^M'q^J!]^] 
^J!]''^^3j] excavation || The coal mine's excavation will be done here. 

f 3j] before, prior to || Before I was married I often did not go home at 

night. J!]^3j'|j!]'»l'^'^'^3j'".V^^=;"Sr=^"=;"^3j"q^'t^".V".VS^'q^ 

^aj'f^^J!] prevention, precaution || We had a class today in fire 

prevention. ^■^'^■'^■c?".VS^'|3j'^3i''^^Jl]'^'^q'^^'5J!]'^'^l 
^aj'f^^j'l'cB'^Sj] prerequisite, precondition || I have one prerequisite before I 

will sign the contract. 

f 3j■c5=^l previously, in the past || In the past I liked going to parties but I 

don't now. |3j-c5=^'=^Wc&]'N-".V(gJ!]'N-q^-^J!]q-^=;-l ^■'^■=;-5^-^J!]q] In the past I 

often drank liquor but I don't now. f3i'S=^'=;'^'^3j'i!^'c5=^'n^=;'^'^=^l'ff3j"5=^' 

f 3j'53j] advanced, progressive || He was recognized as an advanced 

worker. p^'".l'N'ql^q'^3j^3j'^Ji]'yq|'!^| 
f aj'^v'N] past time, former times || In former times goods were much 

cheaper than they are today. ^ajS'j'^sr^^cii-Sjqj'^^-i^K.q^^-^-i^-i^-^^a-OTc^-i^-gK.-sjl 


^3;"(^!;^] some time ago || There was a heavy snow here some time ago. 

^3j^ blue II The ocean seemed to be blue, ^'sis^'laj^ai'q'q^l 
^3j'^i!^ estimation, prognosis || My estimation is that the project will 

succeed. =;q'^3j'=^qJ!]'".vql^^3j'^'";iqj^)-q5]q-q^!;-^-5,:^l 
f 3j's^] former one, previous || My previous book on Tibetan history sold 

^aj'^^q'^'^] ancestor, forerunner || Where did your ancestor come 

q^jj^^'q^s;] compliment, praise || Thank you for that nice compliment. 

5'5] noise, chatter || Birds make a lot of noise in the morning. 

5'".1^ Hhings; 'furniture || 'What things will you take with you? (iS'^^'5' 
".1J!]'5'^J!]''^(|^'^'^3jl "My furniture is made of wood. =;q'5'".lJ!]'-Pj=;''^'N' 

3] what, whatever || Whatever you want me to do, ITl do. 

5''3'g] like what || I want a coat just like what you are wearing now. 

5'3j'^'^^'l must, by all means || You must stop smoking! 


S'a^'^'N] do as best as possible || I want to teach as best as possible. 

5'^'^^".VS1^] at the end of one's wits, hopeless || With six children, she 
always looked like she was at the end of her wits. 

5'5^'^^'] if only, how I wish || How I wish I had learned English when I 
had the chance. |aj-c5^'=;''^V^^q'N-Sr^-S^-=;'N-=^|3j-«SJ!]-q^]q'N-3j-5'»l-^=;-f 5]] 


5'^5^] how much, how many || How much money do you earn in a 
year? f5Tqj5J!]'".V^^'|'^'^^'s5^'^»l'"i3j'^q| How much does this cost? ^a: 

5'^^ what II What is your father's name? ji^'^'iJM-s^'S's^';'".!'!'^^!]'!^! 
3'"^^'] anything, everything || I like to read everything about Tibetan 

history . '^'N''^^'|'^^'^'|'|'=^'S'^=!1'^'=^;5^''^^=^1 
5'"^=^] whatever there is || Whatever there is that I can do to help you, I'll 

try my best. ^=^''^v'^J!]'N-|'^-|^-^q-qq-^-q%-Sr^-|^J!]-3j'N-=;'N-5'|J!]'N-^^^ 

S'^^^'^] all kinds/sorts || He collected all sorts of things, including coins 

and stamps. p''^-^^-»l-^=;t^J!]-^J!]'^-^5;]!^-=^T'^^-^J!]'N-^^-q^-^«51 
S'^'^^l why, for what || Why did you say that? 

§^"] a little, a few, slightly || A few drops of rain fell from the sky. 

S'^'^l so-called || His so-called 'charisma' did not attract me. R'l''<^^sr|!5i' 

^m^ '•(^»5-q-^*)-c;q-!^2^-5Ssi'^'Sl'q^J!]'^] 
5^'^] table || I bought a new table yesterday. p''^^'^^'5^'^'J!]'^=^'q'(^^'^'^] 
'^] bell, gong II He rang the bell. 'p^'sk-qs'^'Nl 
^53j'g3j] carnivorous animal || The wolf is a carnivorous animal. 

^5^] (^5=^1 q5=^] ^5=^]) to move close/near || Move near the fire and you 

will be warm. «^'p'".VJ!i5'^'=^=^'^=^^3j^=^w;'l 
«!]5^1 (^5^1 ^5^1 ^5=^1) to beat || My father said that he had to beat me 

when I was a child because I was disobedient. 


^3^ one II One plus one equals two. J!]%J!]'g^'J!]3J!]'q^aj'aj'J!]^^'"^3j| 
^S^'5^1 only, single || I am my parents' only child. 

^3^'^^] unity, unification || A country's unity is necessary for nation- 
wide stability. |,^-pq-|-J!]3J!]-^^-^-^".lw;'N-|-q^3j-q^5!]'N-".V^^^-»l(^il 

^5^'S".l] solidarity, unity || There was great solidarity between the 
students. ^q's^'§§^'q^'".V5J^3i-^".vi3i^^^-l 

^5^'^^'^^^'s^^l one after another, successively || Disasters came one 

after another. ^'^=^''^JS''J!]|j!]'|'^'J!]|'N's^=^'^'^=;'l 
^5^'5^3jl similarity, agreement || There was little similarity between the 

two brothers. f^3i'|'«!]|'^'q=^'^5J!]'5^3j''^3j'q^-S-5"'«K>'5i=^] 
J!]5^'f ^] concentration, centralization || Centralization of power 

increased efficiency. ^q^■c5■^%J!]■S=^■^^■".l^l■c5=^■%i5^■ql^^■l 
^5^'3j^] on the one hand || On the one hand I believe him, on the other 

hand I don't. 

^5^'^] single, alone, sole || That class is all girls except for the single 

boy . ^•J!]5^'g'^'»i'J!]y^'^'qW3j'^'|'^-q'g's?'^3jl 
^S^'s^^^'^] same, similar || The weather today is similar to yesterday's. 

^33j] urine || When you have hepatitis your urine becomes brown. 

tn-sa'Stn urine and feces || When I was a baby my parents cleaned away 

my urine and feces. s;-a-^-^q|-^3^-^!5i] s5-»l«5-=;q-q|S3^-|q|y^-^'^] 
J!]5^1 (J!]5^1 qs^l 1^1) to mash || I must mash the garlic. =^'N-|J!]-q-^-J!]3^-=^^'^l 
^§] (^§] ^^'^l ^^'^D to twist, to wring || Please wring out the laundry. 

^5=^'g] naked || We all are bom naked. ^'c^cf^'s^'^S^^'g^^'!^] 
^S'^l to love, to take care || Please take care of your old parents. 

^5^'g^'] taking care, looking after || I am very busy looking after my 

infant daughter. =;-^!;-S|-^-5?-J!]5'^'|k'|'^-q5;-gaj| 
^S'^'qg^^^] collection, anthology || Did you read the newest anthology of 

Tibetan short stories? ji^'|'N^=^-|-|^=;-5=;-J!]5'^-q^J!]'^-i'N-J!]'N^-q-^-q^J!]'N-'N»ll 
jjjS'^'S'^l taking good care of || Taking good care of the public good is 

emphasized in schools. 

J!]5^'"1R] coddled, pampered, indulged || He was a coddled only 

son. p^'J!]5'N-".i=;-s-q^=;-qq-g-Ji]5Ji]'^''^3jl 
^5^ (^5^ qs^ 55^^]) to break, to lower, to disobey || He broke all the 

school windows. p''^'^^'^^'^!3'f^^'cf^'s^'q5^'^l 
^S^'^^'l cliff II I couldn't walk up the steep cliff. 


^5=^] (^5^1 ^5^1 SS]) 'to cut; 'to make up one's mind; ^to give up || 

'please cut the rope into two pieces. 5^■'^■^■^■^^'^■".l■c5=^l 'I made up my 
mind and I don't want to go. ^'^'^'g^'^S^'^aj] ^■'^5]'5^''^=^=^] "'l want to 
give up smoking. ^'^■=;■q■J!]5^■'^=^=^l 

qST^si'^l law II This is a new law. q^-^-q3q-^»l'N-£!]'N^-q-^J!]-«S3j] 

qs^^'^^g]"-!] liberation || Liberation of China occurred in 1940s. 

q§l ten II Ten divided by two is five. q§-J!]|M-".vqqi''^-^-™t^3jl 

q§'^^ nineteen || Nineteen times two is thirty-eight. 

q§'^3^ eleven || Thirty-one minus eleven is twenty. 

q^'S] a tenth || A tenth of one hundred is ten. q^'c5^'q§'^'q§'g»l'=J'")3j] 

q§'^^^] twelve II Each year has twelve months. ".VJ!]5J!]'".V^'q'q§'J!]^^'^=;] 

q§'5^ sixteen || Sixteen plus sixteen is thirty-two. 

q§'qS3j] seventeen || She married when she was seventeen. 

q§'q] the tenth || The tenth person in the line suddenly fainted from the 

heat. 5]".vS!;-q]-S^-q§-q-^-cf2^-q-n,l^)-53j-q-q^".ll 

q^'qi^] fourteen || He dropped out of school when he was fourteen. 


q§'^^s^| thirteen || Many Westerners think that thirteen is an unlucky 

number. aq-|i!]'N-q-»l=;^'^-qfJ!]^»l-^-5]=;'N-'T]-p-9S^q-^J!]-yq^^l 
q§^] 'essence; 'nutrition || 'This book contains the essence of Tibetan 

folklore. =^^'c5''^^'S'3j=;'^^=^'|'=^5^=^'N-^=^-f5^-^J!]-^-q§=^-qS'^] 'Candy has little 

nutrition. 'T]'^'".vq§^'g3i-g,-^5]-aj!^-5^2^] 
qS'qgSl eighteen || You legally become an adult when you are eighteen. 

qs''^] fifteen || I'm fifteen and my sister is two years older. 

qs^'qg^l reform, amelioration || The legal system needs reform. 



qs'^'s^l fraudulent, hypocritical, false || His attitude is hypocritical. 
^^'^l metal; iron || Aluminum, steel, silver, gold, and iron are all metals. 
"^jjj^'S^Jlj^] blacksmith || The blacksmith had a big right arm. '|^'^'s^5!]==;'^'"l' 
'^i^'f^-mi^ fetter, manacle || The fetter was around his ankle. 
'3^'^'S] bicycle, bike || My bicycle has a flat tire. 

i^jj^^'gq] metal stove || I bought a new metal stove for winter. 

5^^ ®^ pen II Does your pen have ink in it? 

<^J!j»j'n,15^| railway, railroad || The railroad near our village was finished 

last year. 3j-^=;-=;-S^-S-q2^q^)-|-'|q]^)-n,w^-?z;!^-q5]q-HK,-] 
'm'Si] wife II My wife is younger than me. ^'^■'^«^'5^'^'".l^'".VJ!](^3j] 
■S's^] heavy || My daughter is so heavy that I can't carry her for very long 

without being tired. 


■S] tongue II He was so shy that he lowered his head and stuck out his 

tongue, 'p^cfi'q^j-si^g^^-a^isi-l-qi^l 
^q] (^q] ^q»)] ^=^^]) to kill oneself, to commit suicide, to take one's life || 

Everyone was surprised when she committed suicide. 


c5'53jl condition, factors || A number of factors explain why he is 

alcoholic . fS^-cB'^'^n-V^Jlj-^Ssj-q-^aj-s^^^^M-s^sfajl 
cB''^^^'^] well matched, well paired up || The newly-weds are well 

matched. ^-P|J!]'J!]'^^-q-^-c5''^^J!]^^^l 


cB'g'^l familiarity || He has great familiarity with local culture. 

c5'^3^ one pair, a pair || I bought one pair of new shoes. 

S'S] in pairs, in twos || The students sit at the desks in pairs. 

c5'S5^^] average, equal || On average, three students are absent daily from 

class. c5''^»i'N-^^-3ji ^3j-^^-^q-»i-J!]^»i-^-^q-^=^-".Vc5=^''^^ 
c5■s^=^] single || The deranged man wore only a single shoe. 

c5'cf^'l complete, whole || We ate nearly a whole sheep in one week. 

S'si^^'^] Ho be equal in size/shape; 'same, similar || 'These two pieces of 
meat are nearly equal in size. .P|''^iq'«^'q^'J!]^^'^'i'^^'^".vi=^'c5'5^^^»)' 
■^Sj] ^My idea is similar to yours. ^'^■5n^!^-^-'^-q-5-s]^!;!^| 

c5'sic53j'3j] for example/instance || Some people, for example my brother 
and sister, like sleeping late in the morning. 

c5■"^=^] familiar || I saw this movie before so no wonder it seems so 

familiar. =;'N-^J!]-q^3j-q^-'^V^3j-c5=^'q<^'^'|5]^q'^3j-|,^-^J!]-q^aj-^-^^^ 

55''^^'^] the style of dress, fashion || This sort of pants is the latest 

fashion. ;if^=;-|5^-q^-^-5^J!]-^q-c5''5J!]'^-^=^l 
c5^'^l broken pieces || The broken pieces of the plate lay scattered on the 

floor. S^-»l^-56J!]-'^g!;-n,i^^] 
c5^'§^l accident, calamity, misfortune || Two people died in the car 

accident. 5j'^'^-qp'^-|,-c5J!]'^||'^'9S'J!]|'^-^ 
cB^^'t^] lust II He could not control his lust once he was drunk. q3'^' 


c5^'l liquor, alcohol || He said he could drink one bottle of liquor. 


cB'^'P'^'l bar, tavern || Where is the nearest bar? gJ!]'i'^yqq'c5=^'p=^'^=;'3jW^l 
S^'^aj] feast, drinking party || My classmates have a feast once a year. 


c5^] to owe, to be broken of || I don't like to owe anyone anything. 

c5=^■'^l penalty, fine || The fine is ten pounds. 

cBq'SjS] politics II Politics is the use of power. 

S^'SjS'^l politician || He was a famous politician. 

^Si'^] cold II My cold got worse so I stayed in bed. 

c5=^| rain || After a long drought the rain was welcome. 

c5^'^] rainwater || I like to drink rainwater. ^'S^^'S'^^t^^'^^^^'^^'^] 
c5^'^=W]'^l umbrella || This umbrella is made of plastic and cloth. 

S^'^^'] one thousand || The plane ticket cost one thousand dollars. 

c5^'qg] one hundred || One hundred sheep were sold yesterday. 

cB^'ngs^] one hundred thousand || One hundred thousand people came to 

the monastery yesterday. p'!5l=;'5^'£5J!]'ng»l'^^3j'q'".l'Sr=;'l 
c5^^'"^^ treaty || The two nations signed a treaty yesterday. 

^] water || I drink cold water when I'm thirsty. ^s^'S'^l ^'^'^'^(i^'^'^ii^'l 
^■jf|l irrigation ditch || The irrigation ditch was dry. ^■^■=;'^3j'c5^'^5^''^'^^] 
§S"~'l swimming || Swimming in Qinghai Lake is something I greatly 

enjoy. s^§f^3j^^'3j'^'^'^'^".v|,=^'i!'^'=^'5;c;-s'^-|'-q<^-^3^-^J!]T^3j] 
^•pn.V5^] boiled water || Only drink boiled water. ^'pHvs^'p^aj'^^^'^J!^ 
^■c53j] big river || We must cross a big river tomorrow. 

§■^^^'1 to irrigate || If we can't irrigate our crops soon they will die. 

^■^^'^l drop of water || The drop of water fell on his face. 


^"'^^^l irrigation, watering || He taught new irrigation techniques to the 
farmers. p''^'^=;'q'^s^'N''^V^'q53j''^lJ!]'§'f\vi5;-|-fl!^-g-q^^B-q-qc5=^| 

^■q] river || What is the name of that river? ^■q'=^'l's^^'".V5'i=^] 

S'5^] irrigated area, area under irrigation || What is the area of land under 
irrigation in your county? ^■c^'^^'^'^'s^''^'S'^'J!]^'"S3j] 

^'Sl^ spring || Water flowed out of the spring. ^■»l^''^5^'^'q?'^| 

S■^'^] level, standard || What is the level of your 
English? ^=^'^'=^|3j'^^'^'^'6B=^'l:q5'^3ji 

^•s^'C^;] reservoir || Our city gets its drinking water from a reservoir. 

^■^3=^] water rapids || Steering a boat through the water rapids is not 

easy. ^■Jl]g^-".l'^-5]-^=;-".vp-"Tq|^-^'T]qi 
^■^=^1 irrigation canal || The irrigation canal supplies water to all our 

village's fields. ^■'^^■^■".I'N-'^-a^-S-qq-'^-^i^-n.v^-q^aj] 
^■^^^] dike II After the heavy rain the dike was broken. 

5'^q^l wave II The waves of the river got bigger and bigger as the 
intensity of the rain increased. 


^•",15^1 waterway, shipping route || The Yangtze River is one of China's 
most important waterways. '^g'^'aj'^^'J!]'S'^'"-wi^'J!]".vi3j'5]'^'^'J!]5^'^3jl 

^■"-1^ flood II The flood increased for three days inundating the entire 
city . ^•"W]'|3j'J!]^»i'".vgq'^'5]g^-^2;-|g^-sr=;'^'^'q|q'^l 

^^■] small, little, tiny || Tiny drops of sweat appeared on his nose. 

^^■g]^'^] childhood friend || I married my childhood friend. 

^^■=v|'^] when (someone) is young || When I was young I played that 

game. ^^■^^■^■^■|^-«5^-|-q^-=^^'^l 
^RS^I wife II My wife is younger than me. ^^'^^'Sl'^'".!'^'".!'^^'] 
S^'^^] smallest || This is the smallest size we have. '^^■^■^'sf^-l'^'il'S'j]'^'^' 

^=;'g«j| waste, squander || Wasting the money that your parents send you 
is something that you should stop doing, |i=^■^'^■^^^■^^■^■5^'^■q^=^■q^■§3==^■s^■ 

^==^■^1 cheese || The cheese smeUed bad but tasted great. 

55] big, large || I have a large home. ^'"-Vp^'q'is'q'i^J!]'"^^] 
£5'^^'] size II What size hat do you wear? ji^'^^'i^'Sfi'S^'^'^^'^aj] 
S'q] ^big; "advantage, merits (of someone, something) || 'l want the big 
one. ^■".l■c5■q■=^■=^^^] 'What advantage does doing that give you? =n3;'^' 

c5=^] for (the purpose of), in order to || I need to study hard in order to 

pass the examination. =^'N-^J!]'N-q|'=^-i=^-^q-|k-".vqq=^-q-|^-=^3]'^] 
c5=^■^^^] professional, specialized || He is a professional athlete. 

c5=^■=^] for the purpose of, specially || I came here specially to take the 

examination. f'^'^''^'§^'N'|=^'i=^'S'q^'".lw;-q-'^3j] 
S^'".l^] special job/work || He has a special job that requires him to work 

ten hours a day. p^f\v|3j-53;-^-§f=^-q^<^-^K,-a,i5)-:^qjk]-qq--6:^-a,is]-^qj-S5':^| 

c53j''^] great, big || The big earthquake was destructive. 

JB'^l ^most; 'to trust || 'He is the most important leader, p^■<^^■(|=^■j5'^■^^^5■ 

■^Sj] -I do want to trust you. =^'N-^=^-".1^»l's)-^^-i'N-|=^-q^=^l 
S"^ ritual, rite || The religious ritual held at the temple will last about 

three hours. =^3]3j-qq-1^5!]-^-'^-=9-".l»l-^-sf=^-J!]^»l-q^=^-^-^^l 
c5'^'l wailing || After the death of her husband her wailing did not cease 

for three weeks. ^^''^^^'N-I^N] prq-l^-J!]gq-qp'^-£!]^5^-".V^3j-»l-c5^| 
S''^^'^!] magic II His magic tricks impressed his audience. 

c5^ can, to be allowed, to be permitted || Am I permitted to smoke 

here? =;'^'q^'3j'N'g'»lJ!]'qg3j'3j'c§J!]'J!]»ll 
c5^'5^c53jl approval, authorization || I was unable to get approval for the 

new project. ".l'N^3j'JI]'S)^-q-^q^-a,iS]-q^-:;-a.v^q^-5|563j^q'5^'^qi 

cB^'-Pj'^] contentment || His family gives him great contentment. 


S^'^3j] stipulation, decision || I don't agree with my boss's decision. ^■■^^' 


c5^''^»l'^l resolution, tenacity, determination || I admired his tenacity 
under pressure. 

c55^'if|3j] robber, bandit || The robber was caught by the pohce. 

^^] rehgion || What religion do you believe in? (i^'^'N'c5M'^^''^V=^=^'^'^^] 
c5^■^=^] 'law; 'regularity || 'it is a natural law that every person will 
die. 5^'^^'«^''^£5'ci'^'=^^'^^'S]'^'^=^'5^'^3j] "There is a certain regularity to 
the sun rising every morning. •^3i'$(^'i55n!^-q^ys^'.P|^'q'f\vl'^'|=^'^M'33j'^Jl^' 

S'^'q] religious practitioner || He is the only religious practitioner in my 

village . 'p^-=;-§?q-^-qq-l^]-q-q^sqj-gt^3j| 
c5^'^".V5^p3j] missionary || The missionary was trying to learn Tibetan. 


S'^'^^'^1 religious side || From the religious side, this life is preparation 
for what will follow in the next life. 

c5^''^^'^] religion, religious doctrine || The Buddhist religious doctrine 
that all life should be respected deserves serious study. 

s^c53j''^5]"1] explanation, annotation || This text's explanation is very clear. 

5^55] (sic5] »lc5^) 'to have; 'to exist; ""there is/are || 'He has a mole on his 
face, near his right eye. p'^-9SJ!]-J!]«^'N-qq-f^J!]'N-3j-|-^q]-s^£5^)] "No 
convincing evidence exists that would allow the man to be charged 
with stealing. 5^'^'^-if^-^'^-q-J!]^J!]-J!]-Pi^-|=^-q^-q^3j-=^q=;-f^=;'N-q^^-q-»l-»l£5'^l 
^There is a book on the table. T^'3q'^=^'3j-=^q'oB'^^'9^5^l 
s^laj'i!] liver || I like to eat beef liver. '^■^s^'N-l-s^laj-q-g-q^-^J!]^] 
5^^] 'lip; 'beak || 'Blood oozed from a blister from his lower lip. f^^'s^' 
»l^'S'^=^'S]'^'g^''^'N'(gJ!]'qWk] -The bird's beak was red. ^•^q'»l^'^'=^»l^^ 

s^S^I to spread out; developed into many branches || The disease soon 
spread out everywhere. 5^''^^^^'q=^'3j=^'^^'J!]^'^=^'5^i=^l After the 
Buddha's death Buddhism developed into many branches, ^^^'g^'g' 

5^c5^ the best, the most outstanding, superior || This cloth is superior to 
that red cloth. '^'^■'^^■==^'^'^»1==^^'"1'^'5^Ij!] 

5^55^'^=^] ^most outstanding; "highest || ^The most outstanding student in 
that class is my son. '^^3j'5]'^^'3j^'J!l'^]q's^'s^c5^'^^'3j'^^'g'"^3j] "He received 
the highest honor my country can give. jrq'R^'^fwpq'^'N's^cfsj'^aj's^lJ!]' 

sw^] (sw^^ sw^^] sw^^]) to jump II I jumped over the fallen tree. 

»^c5^■q^=^l 'advancement; 'leap forward || 'Education leads to social 
advancement. ^■^'^^■|'cf^^'5'S3i'f^'§''^5''S'§^I 'China has made a 
great leap forward since 1949 in terms of the quality of life. 

qafqq-qi3^!^-^aj^q^-3j!S)-q^:^-3j| 9^<i>^f^3j'N'q|!;'^!;'q]''^'Sl^=;'|'^'i3j^q^3jl 

5^c5=^] to consecrate, to offer || I want to offer butter at our village temple 

this evening. '^^3]=;-=;'N-=^-§?S-qq-;^qj'3j-q-^5^^-»l^;^-q'^;^| 
Slc5=^■p^■] shrine || Our village built a new mountain god shrine this 

summer. =^'"rq'^^^'p^'=;'c^'S-q^)-q]^-q:^q^-q]-»ll2^-p!;-q]'s)^-q-^q^-q(^:;s]| 

s^c5=^■qS3j] stupa II The stupa has a sharp point and is painted white. 

5^c5=^■'Jl offering || What offering will you bring? 

siS^'5^] butter lamp for offering || The butter lamp gave off a pleasant 

smell. »lI'=^-s^-n.i'N-5-^»l-'^=;-l 
nc5^ (^c5^ '^cB^M]) to form || Ice forms during winter. ^^3j'pi==^'=;==^''^o5'J]'^| 
S^] to break || When we pulled on the rope it broke. 

rioBS^] C^cBS^l ^^£55^^] ^^cBS^M]) 'to perform; 'to dance || 'Will you perform in 
tonight's play? ^■'^^^■^■'^^■^3j'S'|f'^'<^=!l'^'^'^v5S3j] 'Please dance for us 
at our party. =;-§?q-=^3Y;-§&]'^-^=;-=;-S?".v1^ql'»l'Nl 

^^£55^^] to agree || All of the people agreed on that decision. 

nS'^] (^^^ '^cB^l nc5]) to chew, to munch || I like to munch on dry bread, 
f^f^l (qs^^l qs^l S^p 'to draw up, to make; "to vow || 'We will draw up 

some plans to solve the problem. '>'^^''^c5=^'^^''^^'^'q3^vaj^V^aj=^^'^'g^' 
^^^^^^^^1 '^ t)oy vows never to marry before becoming a monk. 

nc5^] (S^l -P|=^]) to appear, to rise || The sun began to rise above the 

mountain. |'»l'^'f ■^ncB^'^^^qg's^'Nl 
qc5^■'^^=^] planning || Planning my family's move to Beijing is taking all 

my time. ^=^'cf=;'q'53j'^'^=^'^'S''^c5^''^3f=^'|^'q^'^=;'S]'^^'§f=^'5^^ 
qs=^'^^] plan || What is your plan for tomorrow? 

qc5^'Jn<3(^'5]'g] draft of plan || He did not approve the draft of the plan. 

HcB'^'q] loafer, prodigal/promiscuous man || He has the reputation of 

being a loafer. 'f^5^'qo6"^^^«!]'^3j'q-^3i-'^-5]5;|!^| 
nl] (q|] $\) to die || I don't want to die. =;-q£5-5^-q^=^l 
HcB'p] the point of death || He was starved to the point of death. 

HcB'q] death || My father's death made me very sad. 

^'^] (qs^^'l qs^^'N] ^'^^\) to tie, to fasten, to bind || Please bind this box. 

HcBq] (q^q] qsq^] cSq'^l) to ride || Let's ride horses out on the grassland. 

n^] (q§] q^'N] ^'^D 'to take water; "to ladle out || 'I'll take some water 
from the well. ^'^■|g5^''J'3j'^'^'q§'g'"^3j] "Ladle some tea into the guests' 
bowls. si^aj^q-^^'Tj^-srn.vaj!;-^-^^*^! 

n^aj] (^^Sjl ^^Sjl ^Sjl) to discipline, to control || I don't want to control my 
students, I want to help them. ^M'^Jz^-Sj-^q-s^-^s^'N-Jlj^aj-sS-qY^l '^^^^■"^y 

ns=^] (^^^] -P|^]) to lose control/one's own mind || If you are drunk you 
may lose control of your behavior. 

HcB"-!] (qS"^!] qS"^!] nc5".l]) to save, to deposit, to ask help, to entrust || I save 
my money in the bank. =;'^'^!;-S|-^^'s?^5".vp=^'^'q5'"1| 


^] tea II I like tea in the morning. 3j^^'s^=^'^'^'"l'^si]'^| 
^p^'] kitchen, dining room || The Tibetan kitchen is big. q^'^'^p^'^'65] 
^3(^ black tea II I like black tea better than green tea. !;'|^^".l'N'^3j5t]'".V^5t]q| 
^s^l cook II My father is a cook in that restaurant. 

^^■if|3j] robber, brigand || The police arrested the robber last year. 

^'3^'=;] just as, exactly || I want to sing this song just as you do. 

%'^^] how, how about || How did you do that? ^=^'|'N-^'%'^^'".l'N-q-5S3jl 
^5^'^q(^3j| exactly, just like || I want a hat just like this one. 

^■qas] like, as || The situation is the same as you said. 

§'N''^J!]=;'i!] strategist, planner || He worked as a planner in the water and 
electricity office for ten years. P'^'^'^^'^'^^'§5^'P^'^'"-l'q^(^'^!;'5'^''^J!]^'i!' 

^'N'^aj] intrigue, plot || Fortunately, his evil plot failed. 

^'N'^!]^^'^] interference || His interference meant that the couple did not 

marry. p''^'§'N-J!]yJ!]^V^^-q-^^V^-P|'^-^-J!]|^VJ!]^3j-q^J!]'N-s^=^-q-^ 
^'N'J!]!^] scheme, program || The government has a program to help poor 

people . ^2^-J!]S!;-",V5^-=^g".i^^Tj!]'^'^»l-|,=^-qq-§^-J!]^-^J!]-sr2^] 
e:^^'] to become smaller || The number of people who like it is smaller 

than before. q^-".V=^J!]q-qq-9S-5]=;M-|3j-c5=^'=^=^'q^^'«%P|=^'^^l 
KSi^] to become bigger, greater || The crime problem has become 

bigger. ajJ!]'^'N'^'J!]3j=^^3j'sq'^'53^'^'g5;| 
e:(^3j] to be worse || Her illness was worse than we thought. 



^si] nun II She became a nun last year, aj'^^'p's^'^s^'^'^j 

5^^q| (5^^",1] s^^",l] s^^",l]) to meet || I would like to meet you tomorrow near 

the irrigation ditch. ^N^-^Sj-^-f ifiq-q5]5^-^-^=^-=^^-s^^".vq^-q^=^l 
5^^n,vq^=;] meeting (not a formal official one) || Let's have a meeting later 

this month. |-q^q-»i5J!]-f\V!;-§f »iRn.vq^=^-|,=^] 
5^R".V".13j] return visit || We will make a return visit to our relatives next 

month. |'|'^'5^^'=^'§f'^-5;K,-S|-^-^-^5]!5)-q-«^q-q3j-^^-^-«Sajl 
siR^'^l neck || Her neck is surprisingly long. 

»15^ the end, final, last || This is the final class. '^^%5]^=!]'5jg<^-^'(|=^t^ajl 
^§^''^(5^'^1 continuing thoroughly || Continuing to thoroughly study 
English is important for progress. ^^'"^^''^Vl^'q'ajg'^'ga'Jy^'Sa;' 

^5^§^"^1 to end, to conclude || It is time for us to conclude this meeting. 

^5^§]1 t^il feathers || The bird's tail feathers were long and beautiful. 

^5%^1 ^t the end || I was very tired at the end of the trip. 

5^^J!]'^5^] conclusion || The conclusion of the story was that the two 
lovers lived happily ever after. 

^S^?^'^! to end, to finish || We have to finish the fieldwork tomorrow. 

SW] penis, male reproductive organs || The medical sketch depicted the 
male reproductive organs. ||3j'=^q'^'55^'^'»lt'^q'q|'^'^W^l 

qRq^^]| (5[j5^^] qs^^] c5^'^l) to remember by heart || In order to learn 
English well, you must remember many new words by heart. 


q^q| (q^q| q^q^^] q^q'^]) to walk stealthily, to ambush/hide, to sneak || I 
sneaked up on her and frightened her. 

q^q'^".l] guerrilla attack, ambush || The ambush was well planned. 



'^^s^'^] mild, smooth || The ice is so smooth that I can skate very fast. 

^^ rainbow || The rainbow was colorful, f^^f^'sa'sai'q^'qj] 
'^^"-l] Ho measure; 'to compensate || ^Let's measure you and see how tall 
you are. ^'^•^•J!]|J!]'N'q<^-^:;-S'^-".V5'5»lw^'i!'q^".vq^'gi "The insurance 
company compensated him for the damage the fire did to his home. 

q^qj (^^^ q^^ -^^^1) to ruin, to devastate, to destroy || The earthquake 

destroyed the house. ^■q^".v|,'N'p^'q'q-PjJ!] 
q^qj (^^^ q^^ -^^^D to break, to demolish, to put down, to destroy || He 

wanted to break the window. P^'^!3'fl^'^-P|^''^^^l 
q^^"S3j] physical world, universe || The universe is vast. 

qE:J!]'53j'i!] laymen || We are not monks, we are laymen, ^'cb^'q^aj'il's^aj'q^' 

qE:Jij^'^Jl] fear, dread || My fear of thunder and lightning is very great. 

q^^'^'^'^^'q] dreadful, terrifying, appalling || Last night's murder was 

terrifying. w^^-^^qf^-Sj-^^si^-qi^^^-^^a^-la^-^-^-qlqi^-^-^^-q-^qT^^^l 
q^q] (^^q] q^q^] q^q^]) to suck || I like to suck on ice. 

'^^s^'^l mud image || His mud image of our teacher was very funny. 

'^l C^l '^'^1 '^'^D to hold, to catch || Please hold my hand and I will 
pull you up. =;q-".iJ!]-q-".vq|^-=^=;-=;'N-^=^-wi^-n,iT^3ji 

q|] (qs] qs^)] m\) ko melt; "to digest || 'The hot sunlight melted the 
butter. |'q=^'cf5r^'5^^'q(5^'q5;-g!^| The ice will melt in the hot sun. |'<5^' 
'53j^'qJ!]'c5q'^'(5'q^ "Fat meat takes some time to be digested. -Pj'cfaj^ 
'^^^\i'^ "^^^^ '^^^'^^'^l Vegetables are easier to digest than meat. 


qgJlj (^S^!] q§J!] S^'^j) 'to put into; "to have someone make; "'to follow || 
'Please put this food into the refrigerator. 5'5^''^^''^(i^'§^5^'^'3j^'?l'^^^l 
■^ITl have my wife make supper for us. ^'^■^z^'tn'^^s^^'^af n,V=^q]k'gM'".lM' 
^■q5^'|,'"^3j| ^Most Tibetans follow Buddhist teachings. q=^-9|-5^=;-?i'^-3i=;- 


qgsi'Nl (q§»ll q§»l'^l m'^]) Ho pinch; "to tighten || ^I jumped when he 

pinched me. p^^^'l■^P|■q§5^^■=^'^■^■^3j5^■'^l■'2^■l "Tighten the rope around 

that yak. J!]"^J!]-S]-^q-".vgJ!]-q-^»l'^l 
^^] to appear, to emerge || The new crop of barley slowly began to 

emerge from the soil. 3j'N'^'|J!]'J!]^3jAvqJ!]'3jM'(^g,!^'q^q§'5^'N] 
qRq^'q] euphonious, melodious || The melodious song made everyone 

happy . f 3;'<^^q'^'|'^'=^^'^'N'^'N'5^<^-$5]!^-W^-q§J!] 
q1] (q^ q^M] ^^]) to milk || Milk the yaks this evening. 

q^q^ (^f^^ qi^^ f^^) to appoint, to place || I will appoint you to be the 

new class monitor. =;'S)-j|':^-q^3j-^q-q3^-7r]c;-qjS]^-q-a,vqgq^-^-i^3j| 

q^3j'g^'] ability, capability, competence || He has a good ability to sing. 

q^Sj'tJ] competent, capable || He has a competent knowledge of Tibetan 

history. 'p^".l^=^'^'"f^'N'g'^-^'N'^'(^^5]!^-q-3r!^] 
q^s^^l] (J!](^5^] q5«^l c5«^'^l) to destroy, to ruin, to loot, to sack || The enemy 

soldiers will destroy our village. =^5]'=^5^J!]'S]^'^'c^'S'q'J!]^'^'^^] 
SS^] lean, thin || After her illness she was very thin. 

^1 (q^l q^'^l ^'^l) to change, to exchange || I want to change my big coat 

for a smaller one. =^'N-^=^-"sji3j^-^=^'q'^J!]'"-Vq|'^''^3jl 
SS] (^^Sj ^^Sl) to forget || I don't want to forget to take my money. 

^3j'i!=^'q=;3j] to reveal, to expose || He said he would expose my secret life. 


^'^l Hater; 'after; ''print || HTI visit you later when I have some free time. 
giSl-^-p'si-q-^!;-^] !;«5'^=^'".vqcf»l'N'q5'|,^l "After you learn English you will 
have more opportunities. =^|;Sj-«SJ!]-|=;'N-1'Nl ^'^■"•V^^q'^-»l=;^W^-|=^l ^The 
policemen found the thief's fingerprints in the burgled apartment. 

^^■^aj] commemoration, remembrance || These gifts are in 

commemoration of your good deeds. "i^^'|'^''^S'S^'3j'(iS'^'5^^'^'g^'t^' 



^s^'q^;!;] chasing || The cat is chasing a mouse. 

^'^•qg^q] disciples, followers || He has only a few disciples today. 


^^■«^] ^last, final; 'the latter || 'l was the last person in line. ^'aj'gj^-V^^'Jlj's^' 
^^'s^'^ajl 'I agree with your former point but I don't agree with your 
latter point. =^'^^'|''^'q'^3i'*l^''^5=^l %^=^'^^'|''^'q''|'N'»l'"-V=^'5^'ng^l 

I'N-si^l later, next time || Next time I'll pay for dinner. 1'N-»l^-=;'N-g'N-S:3j-^^] 

^^■q^aj'il] successors, followers || His followers do everything he asks 
them to. pq-|'N-ql3j-q'N-p'^-5-J!]^=;-cf=^-5^'|^qi 

$^'^3^] to catch up with || I will run fast and catch up with you. ^'^^^'g-^' 


^'^'^'^1 backward, underdeveloped || The economy of that country is 

underdeveloped. ^".vpq-^q-=^q".vq|=^-^-|'^-'5'N-5S3j] 
^^•-P|n.l| remains, legacy || There were still a few remains from the old 

building. p=^-q|j!]'N-|=;-qq-|'N--P|".vqJ!]q^-^=^-^!5i-sr=^l 
^'^■^l afterward, later || Afterward he apologized for his mistakes. ^' 

^=^1 (q^=^] q^=^] ^=^]) to say, to talk, to speak || I want to talk to you tonight. 

'3^'3j^ dark green || The grassland is dark green in summer. 

'^'n'^J!]'?] ^heavy; 'sluggish; ^sullen || ^"'After the heavy meal I felt 

sluggish. g'5^'|^'^J!]'?i'^J!]''S''^'1'N'=;'".VJ!]|^'f^5!j 'After being criticized I felt 
sullen. =;-".v|3j-q1'=^-^'^-|'N-=;q-q'N»i-q-|^-^J!]-5i^-g^i 

■S^'s^] heavy || This box is too heavy to carry. 

^=^'cf^l weight II My weight is more than yours. ^q'*^'^'^^'^=^'cf'^'(i=^'"-l^'i] 
■3^^] region, area || What region of China are you from? 

"^^^■g'q] traveler || The traveler stopped at a small inn for the night. 

q^=;'a»l^] majestic looking/guise || Her very large body made her 
majestic looking. p^q''^^'q;^!^'iaj^'N'pw".rq|=^'^»l'N'|?<] 


^I^'^l majestic, grand || His colorful clothing and long beard gave him a 
majestic appearance. 

q^'^^1 to alternate, to exchange, to take turns || Let's take turns cooking 

supper. '^•§f'N'5!^-5]!^-!;!;-g!^'J!]S5^q^",v^] 
^^^\i*'^'^l subtle, inexpressible || The meaning is too subtle to express. 

^^S'=>3\'5]=N^'!^^'5^| summary || This is a summary of that short story. 

q^S'^1 content, theme, main idea || The main theme of his work is 
tragedy. p^'qg'5^'^'l^v|-q'|'^-g^-|^^J!]-5S3j] The theme of his historical 
study is the rise and fall of empires. |^<^''^'S'^'<^^'<^^'T|'sr|'q^=>'g'3;'ffinj' 

q1=^'^'J!^^ theme || What is the theme of that novel? 

qlS'^i^l fundamental thesis, theme, the topic which is mentioned || The 

fundamental thesis of his writings is that evil will be punished. 


^1 fish II The dead fish floated on top of the water. ^'-Pj'q'^'^'P^'^^^'l 
^■q] fisherman || He lived near the sea and made his life as a fisherman. 

^■"1^1 fishing work || He did fishing work at Qinghai Lake for ten years 

before moving to Xining. 


^■-Pj fish meat || My grandmother will never eat fish meat because she 

believes it is taboo. =;q•^^^y^P|•g•q•^•^5^•^5^'N•^^!]•yq^^5^^^■3^^^■3^s^■a^c;■5]■g] 
^3j] to listen to || I like to listen to modem music. 


ftaj'»ipaj] audience || The audience for the speaker's lecture numbered 
about four hundred. nc5=^'5^p3j'^q'=^q'^=^'".V^3j'»ip3j'=9'".l»l'5^'q^'q^W^l 

^s^'^^'] 'humble; 'weak || 'He's not proud, he's humble. p'3j'^'g".l'g'^'q(^'5]' 
^»l'^=^'Sjq|-fiS3j] -Don't bully weak people. 5^'^»l'^=^'".V^q'cf=^'»l'|=^l 

as^'gjjj'q] miserable, destitute || He became destitute when his wife died. 

^si^'^S] to decline || His health declined after he became sixty years old. 

a»l'^'=;s^'^] decline || The decline in his health was rapid. 

^s^'^l 'appearance; "to decline || 'She has a beautiful external 

appearance. [*i"s^"".V^'ft'^V^'^5^^'"^J!]'i!'(^J!]'"^^] The rich family began to 
decline after the death of the father. i3M-s5'q^'N'1'^'^»l'cf=^'^J!]^<^'f q^^' 

•^5m^^'^ to be aware of, to be cognizant || He is aware of the difficulty of 
living in this world. q|j!]-'^3j-q^-3j'N-na?qq-^J!]-q^".V".vp^^»l's)-5):^-^:;-| 

as^^'J!^^] renovation, restoration, rehabilitation || The monastery's 
renovation cost one million ywaw. =^^3j■'^■^5^'^■^'^■^=^■^^■5]3;■'^^'^■ 

y^] 'to manage; 'to keep, to save || 'l manage the company's money. 
!;^)-^!;iq-|'^-5f^^] -I keep my valuables in a safe. '^'^'^z^-^j-'^T^^g'isj- 

^".1] 'to go to bed; "to lie down || 'l go to bed at ten p.m. every night. •^5' 

^(^■5]^3;-^^-z:;-^z;-^-S'^-q^-q<^-$s;-'^aj-q-§3;i "I feel ill and want to lie 

down. =;q''5'N^5^'q^'q'^'^".vq^^l 
^"^'I^^n] 'dormitory room; "bedroom || 'There are six students in my 

dormitory room. ^^■»l",vpR^A]q's^'5J!]'"J=;] "My parents sleep in the big 

bedroom. =;q-s5-»i-^".vp=;-i3j-55^q-aj=;-s-^".il 
^"-V^l bed II My bed collapsed last night. »l^=;-^^=;-=;q-^".V^-q^q'^l 
^".V^'^1 quilt, bedding || I washed my quilt today. ^•^=;'=;'^'5;K,-S|-^n,vq]'M-q^!sj] 
^"1'c5'^] bed linen, bedding || The bed linen was made of silk. ^"1'c5^'^'3j'^=^' 

q[^-|^)-ql'M] Put your bedding on this bed. ^=^'|'^"-VS'^'»1"-V^''^^'S'^'^'S'(^^ 
^'s^l sun II The sun shone through the hole in the roof p^'qq'^'Tj^'i^^yJJs;- 


^'3=^1 rays of the sun || The rays of the sun shone on my face. 

Y^S] sunhght, sunshine || During winter there are few hours of sunlight. 

^■-P|l twenty || I've told him at least twenty times not to play with 

matches. =^'N-p^f\vqq^-(g3j-|^-|=^-s^-|=^%'N-R=;-»ig^-aj!;-g=;'Ny:Q^-q.p|=^-^'^| 
^^■[^] juice II Do you like orange juice? (i^'cf'^'s^'l'^^'f^'".!'!?^'^^'^] 
^^■"1^ parts of people's bodies || The eyes and ears are parts of people's 
bodies that let them see and hear. 

|3jl day II What day did you arrive? ^=^'3j»l'^3j''^^'q'^3jl 

ft3j'=;'T]=^] daytime || Daytime television programs are not interesting. 

ftaj'J!]^'q] all day || We will harvest the crops all day. 

^3j'^^'l midday, noon || It was very hot at noon. ^3j'^^'cfq'=9'S^'c5] 
ft3j'<3=^] everyday (in sequence), daily || I take a vitamin tablet daily. 

^3j^ diary || Don't read my diary. ^'S'^aj'g's^'JJJ!]^^ 
•^3;'(^!>'!>5r|'i^| in these days || In these days I'm feeling tired and 

depressed. ^3^-(^^-!^q|-'^-!;-^!5i-$5]!5i-^q-3^!^-^-5i5]-Hs;-| 
^Sj'^S] half day || Yesterday I worked only a half day. 


^3j's^^'^^'] noon II Let's eat lunch together at noon. 

^3j'«^] day, daytime || I can't sleep in the daytime. ^3j's^^'R",VJ!]^^'s^'[^J!] 
ftaj's^cfej] day and night || He worked day and night until the work was 

finished. ".l'N''T]'q^'".l'N'cf^'^J!]'q^'^l p'^'|3j'»lcf3j'5^=^'i!^'".l'N''T]'".l's)| 
ft3j'q(^3j] day by day, day after day || It rained day after day. 


^3j'=^] every day, each day || Speak English every day. ft3j'=^=^'^^'^^'.P|^] 
^"-1] to collapse, to fall down || I don't want the roof to fall down on the 

students. =;'^f'^-q^-^^q'N-^q-s^q-^^-^-|".v|!;-3j-9S-q^=^l 
^'^''^^^1 double, two times || The double of six is twelve. 


aM'qf'J!]'^] Hwo stories; 'double-fold || ^The house is two stories tall, p^'^' 
q^qw^!^-n.v|'N'q|J!]MW^l "Please unfold all the double-folded paper. 

3^51 small amount, few || That is a small amount of money. 


a^sigq] minimum || What is the minimum salary you will work for? 

as;:5^g^| at least || I have at least one hundred sheep. 

g^^'^sil a little II Please add a little sugar to my tea. =;<^-?3j=;-^-'T]-^-a!;-^»i-l3j] 
a^'.P|'^] a few, smaller part of (something) || Do you want many or a few 

books to read? ^=^'|'^-=^q-c5'»l=;^J!]-^-5S3j-3j»i-wi!;-3j-a=^-.P|'^-q-q'^-^tSS3j| 
?f^] to saunter, to roam about || I don't want you to roam about the town 


^] near || I was cold so I sat near the stove. ^'^■5]^'H=^'q'^X'qq''']^y'^^'qf =^] 
S'qp^l ^close by; "retinue || ^There is a forest close by the city. 5!^'(i^'^' 
^'^P^^'^^^^""''^^^^! 'There were many people in his retinue, p^y 

^■'^^js^l nearby, close by || The people walked nearby the sleeping yak. 

^■f 3j] latest, lately, in the latest time || Have you heard the latest news? 

^'S^l recently, lately || It has been very dry recently. ^■c5=^'53j'^'=9'5^'S| 
^'?j] relatives, kinsman || Where are your relatives living now? 

'^'^R^^] vicinity, nearby || There are wild yaks in the vicinity. 

^^^'SS'^l to be intimate || I want to be intimate with you and 

understand how you think. '^■ji=^'=^K>"'^"C]^"g^"3j's)-j|'2^-^-q^)»l-^aj-^!^-q^2^| 
^■^^■] ^near and far; 'discrimination || 'He was famous near and far. 

p'^'^R^3;'K^=^'5]J!]'^'i] "The mother loves her children without 

discrimination. i3M-5^-^-3;c;-^-|s]-q-^5^^-a,iy^!^-5^;^-q^-g3j| 
ft'"is^| 'recently, lately; 'short-cut || 'Have you been watching the 


television news lately? ^■".l»l'ji=^'|'N'q^3j''^^3j'J!]'N^''^^^'".vq'^''^»ll "This 
road is a shortcut to town. ".l»l'q^'^'^=;'q^".VS'qg3j'qqy".l»l'^J!]'^3jl 
^■'^1 nearby, near || She used to live nearby us. '^3j'c5=^'pW=^'§S^'^''N5;-q^:^-255j| 
If you can't hear, come nearer to the speaker. ^"iy(iS'^'N'S'q'5^'»l'J!]'^] 

^=^] (»i^] s^^^N] s^^'N]) to rub, to twist || My father is rubbing leather to 

make it soft. !;q'i3vi-!^'N''fyq'»i^'N'3j'N'|'sr^'J!iy;'q^3j'Sr=^l 
^3j'p] danger, jeopardy, risk || There is some danger in lending him 

money. (^"-V^^^-Sfql'N-^-^-^aj-p-i] 
^3j'p'53j] dangerous, risky, precarious || Riding a motorcycle can be 

dangerous. ^J!]'^J!]''^p'^''T".vq|3j'q'^'^3j'p'53j'^J!]'«S3j'|=^l 
aaj'S^'p^'] police station || That town has only one police station. 


ftaj'S^'i!] policeman || The policeman was wearing a new uniform. 

^aj'qs alarm, warning || When he saw the building burning he shouted 

an alarm. [^'^•f^!^-q|J!]'^-s^-n.v^^-q-5]gz:;-q-3^-^2^-5k-i3j^^-^3j-q^-q^qi 
^aj'33j] guarding against, be wary of, precautionary measures || Be wary 

when he asks to borrow some money. p'^'§^^'s^'J!]"^^'^(^'s^'^R^^'^3j'g3j' 

•^a'snHTaj-q] refugee || He is a war refugee. p^'=^s^^'n|gJ!]'|g=>"^"'^3;"5n2r'^'q'^^' 
a^'s^pi necessities || Tea and salt are necessities. ^^^■c^'Jr|'^!5i'3j'a=^'s^p(^'!>:;5^' 
'h^''^ twenty-five || Please look at Lesson Twenty-Five. 

a^'gaj] fault, mistake, offence, crime || It was my mistake and I'm sorry. 

^■^■=;q-^'N-|3j-«S3j-q'Nl =;'N-=^3]k'^-^J!TCT He was sentenced to death for the 

crime of murder. f5§-5]'5i]^'^''^'^'|3^'«J''^5]5i]'5l"3i'5l"JTaj-fq|-§5]!5i-q^:^| 
a^'|g»l^] criminal code || The criminal code has recently been revised. 

R'^'f^Jlj",!] attributing falseness/sin to someone || I attribute the sin of 

immoral behavior to him. =^'^-p^".V#>.V9S3j-|,-|'^-q<^-^'^-qq]".V^^| 
^^■53j| criminal || The criminal had to go to jail. 


^^'65^] punishment, penalty || The punishment was cruel. 

^^■^] crime, sin || What crime are you charged with? [i^'^'^'^'S'i^^'^.V^i^^' 

J!]^^-^^] Killing is a sin. 5]-q|^!^-q-^-^!^-q-(^q|-S3^| 
^'^'il'SSj] criminal, offender || The criminal was executed. 

^^1^1 criminal action, sinful behavior || He was punished for his 

criminal behavior. ■p^-^'N-|=^-".l'N-q^-c5^-q-q5^1 
asj's^s;] innocent || I am innocent of these criminal charges. 

■^ (^yy^yy^]) to buy II I want to buy that hat. =;'^-(^-s5^yq^=^| 
ft's^paj] buyer, customer || The customer bought only a hat. 

^'55] shopping, something for buying || Let's go shopping tomorrow 

afternoon. 'N=^'|3j'|^^yc5'^''l'^''^^ 
^■*^'] trade, business || He made a lot of money in business. 

^■ft^'p^'l commercial exchange office || The new commercial exchange 
office was built just outside town. '^6§k'|^=\'^'^'qS".V^'|,^V^^'^^'S' 

^^ to be confused, to be dopey, turbid || I am confused in my math 

class. t'^'^^'^'^q'^^'f^'^'^'=i'S'5^^^ 
aaj's^^'^] lust, amorous feeling || He kept his lust disguised. 

^ft'^'J!]3j3j] oppression, coercion || The landlords' oppression infuriated 

the peasants. ^'^■q=^J!]-^-J!]^q-J!i^3j-|,^-^^-q-^5^'N-pk-^n,l!^M-^-q|J!] 
^^^] sleep II I had a very nice sleep. ^■'^■^•^^■y-5^'g'^'5'<^^'|^^'H^'I 
^^^1 to sleep II I want to sleep now. ^■=^'<^'J!]^=^''^=^=^] 
^^^ f^^ to fall asleep || I don't want to fall asleep when I'm driving. 

^^=^■c5^ insomnia, sleepless || I never had insomnia when I was younger. 

Jlia^'Jll^s^l sleep talk || What he says when he's asleep (sleep talk) makes 


no sense. f^J!]|=^-^-«J^-qq-^s]-^qs]-^-q^:^-qS-qj|:^-qj^Sl-n,i^3j-|:^-^:^| 

J!]a=;'gq^] to feel sleepy || I began to feel sleepy after drinking a large 

bowl of meat soup. .P|-f^-^'T]^-Sr".VJ!]'^-q^^'N-1'N-^-".VJ!]|=^-gq'Nl 
^^^1 two II Please buy two pencils for me. ^''^V'^'S^'^^^'^^'^^'l 
^^■'^ both II Are you both Tibetan? ^^■J!]|'N-'T]^^-q-5S3j-3j5^] 
^^^■^] second || I'm the second tallest in my class. 

^^^■^] the two II The two of us should get married. ^^'^^'^'^^^j'SJ!]'^'^''^^] 
Jjjaaj'gjJ!^'^] bosom friend, affectionate friend || She has been my bosom 

friend for two decades. '^■-P|q-^=;-".vpw^-=;q-J!]^3j-^J!]'N-«S3j] 
q^aaj'gjJlj marriage || His marriage ended in divorce. piq'tt]^^'g^| 
^^3j'^] close relatives || My close relatives all live in my home place. 

Jljaaj'^aj] wedding || Few people attended the wedding ceremony. 

^^^] to manage || Who do you want to manage your shop? 

Jjja^'s^] wrinkles || The wrinkles in his face suggested he was very old. 

^^5^'^^'] amiable, gentle || His amiable personality won him many 
friends. pq'^=;'Jl]^'N'J!]y»l'^'^'^'^q'N'^'N'p^".V^5!]'s)^»i:;^S5£^| 

s^'hSi] ^equal; 'in parallel; "'flat || ^We have equal amounts of money, ^'cf 
n,v|'^-s5q-5]=;'^-'T]-»l^»l^W^l -These two lines are parallel. gJJl-q^-JJ^I'N-^- 
»l^»l-(^^-^3^] ^The farmland in the valley is flat. '^'^'l^J!]-^-!^^!;-^-^-'?!?!- 

s^as^'q^J!^ heed, attention || When the teacher lectures, give him your 

attention. ^5i-^3j-|,<^)-^q-^=^-|=^-^q!^-5^^5^-qSJ!]-|,Ml 
»ias^'J!^a^] co-operative management, joint stock || The company's spirit 

of co-operative management was successful. 


5^as^'J!]^^'^",V=;^^^] orchestra music || He likes to listen to orchestra music 

in the afternoon. |^^-p^»l^»l-J!iy;Tn,v=^^!;'N-".V^3j-q^-=^J!]qi 
^^^\il together with || I want to go shopping together with you. 


5^fts^'J!]aj'^] coexistence || I hope we can live together in peaceful 
coexistence. '^'^•^•q^'»1^5^'J!]3j'^'^'^=^'R'=;'c?qc?5n3^!^-5q-q(^-$-q-(^^3;| 

s^as^'qgq] combined, united, allied || Letters are combined to make 
words. '^•5i-aj!^'g'^=^'5]qi 

si^si-q|f\V^n,vij!]'Nl United Nations || The United Nations is in New York. 

5^as^'".l^] co-operation || I hope our mutual co-operation will help us 

both. !;q'^'q'^'=;'c^'S^^S^''^l^V^^v'|j!]'N'J!]|'N''^V^^'S^cf3j'qS3^'§'^'5S3j^ 

si^3j'c51 flexibility, pliability || The flexibility of his views surprised me. 

si?,^] flexible, limber || Rubber is flexible. '^|,J!]'^'5^^3j^'^3jl 
S'^'S^'^1 old (used to describe objects, for example, clothes), rags || 
Yesterday I threw away my old clothes and bought new ones. 

S'>'1 ('^IS^'l ^S^'^l S'>'^1) to have stomach cramps, to have diarrhea || I don't 
want to eat that because I don't want to have diarrhea. 


S^'3j^] diarrhea || After two days of diarrhea I was very weak. 

sq] (qsq] qgq'^l ^q'^]) to fumble || In the darkness I fumbled for my 

flashlight. ^3j-3jJ!]-Sl-3j=;-s-=;'^-".lJ!]-q^q'N-3^!^-^J!]-q5'^l 
l^'s^] ancient, old || The ancient relic is very valuable. 

5^'(^3j] conservative || His attitude is very conservative. 

5^1 (^SS] ^i^l) to wilt, to wither || The hot weather made the grass wilt. 

1f^] to find II I want to find my lost ring. =;'N-^=;-S^^=^-|3j-qq-5^^q-=^^'N-^^-q^=^l 
SJj^'q^R] ^confusion; 'complexity, intricacy || ^What he said caused a lot 
of confusion. p^J'tn^aj'^J^'SJj^'q^^iaj'q'qg^] "I don't like to read his 
books because of the complexity of his language. p^'S'Jn'^^'nj'5J!]'5'c5' 

^^^fil^^'^ to frame a case against someone, to vilify, to slander || When I 
was a child my mother said, "The desire to slander someone else 


will eventually hurt you more than them." ^'^'^•^'S'^'^l t?l'5]!5i-"5^'J!](^3j'".v 

S3jl melodious || The melodious sounds of the herding boys' flutes 
drifted across the mountain. ^^'^•^■g,'^=^'^<^'|'^'g^'|^'S3j'^''3=^'^=;'^'^'(iqi 

S5j'3]^'^| reputation, fame, prestige || He has a reputation for being 
dishonest. 'f^5;K,-!^-5:;-q^(a:;-5:;-5]3^-q-^3^-aj-5]q|!5l-2r:^j 

^3j'5]^^'5ajl famous, well-known, renowned || He is a famous poet. 

SSj'^^ poetry, verse || How many lines of poetry can you recite? 

SSj'^^'s^pSjl poet II Who is the most famous Tibetan poet? 

SSi'^^^q^l melodious, harmonious sounding || Our singing was 

melodious. =;-§f'N-^-q=;'N-q-".V^3j-q1q'N-'^ajl 
SSj'S'^'^"-!! to report || I want to report what I did last night. s^=;R=;Jlj^'^!^" 

^3^^] pleasant, melodious || I can remember my mother's pleasant voice 
telling us stories in the evening. 

S3j'§'5^1 poetry || I don't like modem poetry very much. 

S3j'(5] report, petition, account || I will write a report about my activities 
last year. 3j-^=^-=;'^-5;K,-S|!^-5-^q]-n,i^)-qq-^^-n,v^3j-(a-^q]-q|-^-fiS3j| 

S5^] to think, to imagine || I think you are a good student. 

S'^l (qS"-!] qS"-!] S"-!]) 'to have someone sleep, to put someone to sleep; 

'to ferment || 'The mother's lullaby put the baby to sleep. i^M's^q-^aj's^' 

S'"^^'^''^''^'^'^^'^'^^^ "I want the barley to ferment so that I can have 

some liquor. ^'N-3j'N-q^f^-3j'^-66'^-q^J!]-^q-|-|!;-3j-'^'^=^l 
S^'^'s^] sediment, deposits, residue || The beer bottle had much sediment 

in the bottom. ™-c5=^'=^»l'q'S'(^q'^-^-|j!]'N-»l-»l=;^W^l 
l^^'l heart || She died of a broken heart. pW^5]!^-|-5q|!^-3^!^--fl 
S^'5]JI1'^| bosom friend, intimate/affectionate friend || He is my bosom 


friend. p^-=;q-|=;-^J!]'N-5)3j] 
S^'^^S] essence, extract || The essence of his philosophy is easy to 

understand. p'^'5]-5|-'^-q<^-|=;-q§=^-^-3f^vq-^J!]-'^3jl 
S^'^^'l timid, cowardly || Don't be timid, be brave. 

S^'^1 mercy, kindness, charity, compassion || The Buddha's mercy is 

boundless. 'N=;'N-^'N-|-g5]!^-|!;-|-n.V(^<!^-»igq-5^2^] 
S^'^'c53j'i!] merciful, compassionate || Be merciful, don't be cruel. 

S^'^'q] cute, lovely, pretty || That little girl is so cute. 

S^'^'^"-!] merciless, unsympathetic, inhuman || His decision was 

merciless. p^^'gJ!]'J!]5'=^'^'|=^'|'g"-Vq'^J!]'^^l 
S^'Jlj^s^] secrets, innermost feelings || I told her all my secrets. 

S^'^q^l spirit, courage, bravery || I admire his courage. 

S^'^q^'53j] brave, courageous || Though there was every reason to be 
frightened, he was courageous. 

^^■gj!]'q] earnest, sincere || He is my sincere friend. 

S^'=;3j] essential/fundamental meaning, significance || I'm not sure that I 
understand the significance of what you are saying. (i^'^'N'-Jl'^'qi^aj'i!^' 

^^■^^ 'lover; "beautiful || 'He was my lover before I married. ^■J!]^3j'aJ!]' 

5^'^^'J!]^'p'3j'^'S'S^'SJ!]'"^3j] "She is not as beautiful as she was a decade 

ago . p^'"Tq§^'|3j'|,'^''^5^'|';'f ^•5^'»1'^=^1 
S^'SjS] 'hatred; 'heart disease || 'He has much hatred for injustice, p'^'^^' 

qi^'8^3i'^TH'SR3j=;'553j^q5^^] "The doctor diagnosed his problem as heart 

disease. ^3j-q'^-pq-3j=^-J!]^-^-|=;-aj=^-S3^-q3;^!^-q|:;-| 
S^'3j^] truly, really, sincerely, genuinely, from the heart || He genuinely 

wishes to help those who are poorer than he is. p'^'^i^'^^'^^'^s^'gJlj'qq' 


i^'^^'<5^'^<^l pitiful, pathetic, sympathetic || Her life was a pathetic 

story . jS^q'nif q'^'|!;'1^-(5^-q<^-5!]^»l'^^'|=^'S'g=^l 
S^'^'^l diligence, unremitting, industry, persistence || His persistence in 

seeing a job through to the end is commendable. 

S^'^'^'53j] diligent, industrious || Like her mother, she is a diligent wife 
and mother, j^qwa^'^^^^'q^q^] p^'(|»l'q=^J!]'»l'=^=;'i3M-»i'|!;'^'N'53j'^J!]'«S3i| 

S"^] (qS"-!] qS"-!]) to break down, to collapse, to destroy || The strong 
wind may destroy some buildings. 


%^] (^^^1 ^S^^l ^^^1) to reduce, to lessen || How can we reduce 
livestock death due to snowstorms? 

S^'l to become ill, to be sick || My father became ill because he was too 

busy . !;qws5'|".vn#i'c5'5J!]'N'aj'N''5'N'£!]^'S'^'l 
S^'^^1 disease, sickness || This disease has already killed several 

people. s'^-J!]^-q^'N-5^-qJ!]q-jg^J!]-q=;'Ni 
^Jlj (q^J!^ ^^^'^l ^^^D to pursue, to follow, to run after || I want to follow 

her wherever she goes. p'5^'^^''^^'^'3i'^'^'^^'q^^''^^^l 
SSJl (^SSjl qS3jl S3jl) to be close, to be intimate, to come near || I want to 

be close with you. ^'(iS'^^'q^^j''^'^^] 
^^^ (^^^ ^^^^1 ^'^'^]) to stir (the water until it is dirty), to blend || Don't 

stir the water in the spring. ^'S^^'S^'S^'^] 
%S] (^^^1 ^^^1 ^^1) to feed, to take care of || I take care of my children. 

Sq] (q^q] q^q^l ^q^l) to fumble || He fumbled when he picked up the 

book in the darkness. p'^-=^q-c5-"i3j-^q'N-^J!]-ajJ!]-3j^-".V^5!]-q^-q^q'^| 
^si] (^^m^ ^^m^]^m^\) to level || We will level the schoolyard tomorrow. 

^i3j'(^33i''^^"-lc5^1 television, TV set || My television is made in Japan. 

^^S'^S^'^l accusation || The accusation that he had stolen money was 

false. p'^'|'^'s?q^'N-qq-q^=^-q^J!]'N-^-|3j-^=^l 
qsaj'q^^l reverence, treatment that comes out of esteem || The Buddha is 


held in much reverence. ^^^■^'M'".vq^3j'q^=^'i3j'i!'^=^] 


'^'^'^ only, exactly || I only want to buy three of these. 

^^■] party (political party) || The Communist Party has a long history. 

^3j'^^ earnest, serious || His earnest presentation convinced us he was 
telling the truth. f?^-^3^-^5i|-S|-^'^-qs3^-q-^^-!;-S'«J'f?'^'5i]^5]-5s;-q-q^:^-q^3^- 

^aj'^Jn'tn^^i earnestly, seriously || He earnestly listened to the speech. 

y^A^ telegram || Where can I send a telegram? =;'N-J!]=;-3j'N-^^-5Sq^-q]y;-^q| 
^^■f^^aj] meditation || Solitary meditation was something he did every 
year for a week. 5^cf5^^r^=^'^=;'ql3j'^''p^V"r5,^-qjgq-qpk-J!]5^'^!;" 

^^'55^] a little, a small amount || I want just a little salt in my milk tea. 

^^^ (^^^^1 ^^^'^l ^5^) to beat, to lash, to whip || I want to beat my fur 

coat. '^^N-^K^-Sj-^qjq-qi^Jij-q^^l 
J!]^3j'5]^'^] permanent friend, spouse || My spouse is the same age as my 

brother. =;q-J!]^3j-^J!]'N-^=;-^3j^-J!]|'N-^-aj^-5S3jl 
^^aj'^J!]^!] ban, prohibition, proscription || Owning guns is not banned in 

America. s^'»l=^'^'|^''^^3j'|,=^q'^WS^-S:-fJr^J!]^3j-qq]J!]-5^-|2^] 
^^^\il forever, for perpetuity, constant || I will believe in Buddhism 

forever. =;M-3j=;q^3j-".VJ!]^3j-S-=^=^-q-|,=^-^-5S3j] 
^^aj'aj'^] at all, never || I don't believe anything he says at all. 

J!]^3j'^qqM] decision, determination || Her decision is final. 

^^Sj'^^'^'^^^'q] logic II Did you study logic at the monastery? 


^^3j'23".l] theorem || This math theorem is hard for me to understand. 

^™] speech, talk || His speech was too long. p'^'Jl]™'^^^'^^!]^''^^'] 

^W] (^^5^1 ^^s^'^l 55^^]) to bargain || I bargained and got a cheaper price. 

Jjjra'g^;] legend, fable, tale || I can tell several interesting fables. 

^^5^'^3j] bad news || Bad news! Your sister had an accident. 

^5^'^3j] good news, pleasant talk || Good news! You passed the 

examination. J!]™-^3j-^J!]-".ll ^^'|'N-^^'N-q|=^-»r=;-l 
Jljra'2;q] proverb, saying || He used a lot of proverbs in his speech, p'^'^!^' 

Jjj^s^'qg^] good news || I haven't had any good news in a long time. 

Jjj^s^'q-Pj^'i!] spokesman || He has been our spokesman for two years. 

^^TS^] mortgage || How much is your house mortgage? 

^^^ (q^^ q^^ ^^^^D to drop, to drip, to trickle || The doctor dropped 

medicine in my eyes. ^j3j'i!^'^^'5^J!]'3j^'S'^|3j'^'q^^ 
^^^■] bottom, depths, deep || The bucket fell to the well bottom. ^ 

=^^-3f^] deeply, at all || He deeply loves me. 'fT^K,-^-ai-5i5]!5i-J!]^!;-3j'N'=^J!]q] 
J!j^R5^'c5=;] to be unsure of the complete reason || I'm unsure of the 

complete reason as to why he committed suicide. 

'^'^^] depth II What is the lake's depth? »l^^'Jl]^=;'cf^'^'J!]'§§=^'«S3jl 
Jj^^^'gq] deep, intense || She has a deep feeling for music. 

^\?^ (^1?^ ^i7^'^l ^i?^^l) t° reach, to meet, to beat || I want to meet you 

tomorrow. '^=;-|3j-=;-^=^-".V^i^-q^=^l 
^i^^'^-PI^I prosecution, charge || The criminal charge against him is 


serious. f^'^K,-'^|".vq'S'3jJ!]-^'N-J!]i2^-J!]^^-^-^-=9'5=^'cfq'N'il 
^5^1 (^5^1 ^S^'^l ^S'^'^^l) to cut up II I'll cut up the meat. '^'^V.P|-J!]^q-^-^3j] 
^ra'f^S".!] ^rumors; "meaningless talk || ^ There were many rumors about 
her romantic adventures. 'p^q-^»lsj-^=;-sicf^^^-^^-3j'^-J!]^»l-nc5"-V»l=^^5^i=^l 
"I don't like to engage in meaningless talk. ^■^^«^■^c5".l■-P|^■^=^■5^■=^^'^| 
^W't^] brutal, cruel || That cruel man often beats his horse. 

^1^^ 1^1 violent/cruel/brutal/savage behavior || His wife divorced him 
because of his violent behavior. p^'^J^s^'l^^'^'^^q^'^^'p'^'^^'s^'p^^^'tn'^ai' 

^yq] ringleader, agitator, chief conspirator, prime culprit || He is the 
ringleader of that criminal group. p^'3jJ!]'^^'§&]^'pJ!]'^'S'J!]^^q^3j] 

5I1^=^'R] mineral/ore deposit, mine || There is a large mineral deposit in 
those mountains. ^^'^^•c^'^^'^'^^^'p'iaj^^^W^l 

^^^■^^'^l minerals || Gold and silver are valuable minerals. ^'^=^'^".VJn'^5^' 

Jlj^^'s^'Sk] treasury || The national treasury is well -protected. 

^W]'^] to belong to || This land belongs to me. ^■^^■'^^■^■".VJ!]^^!]^] 
'^^\ ('']5'>'l ^5'>'1 ^^'^D to free, to send, to dispatch || Please send my 

telegram as soon as possible. ^q'^^'^J!]'J!]R5^^J!]^'^'5^^J!]^'^^'g^^] 
'^^vf^ generosity || I like his generosity. ^■p'^'^^^'^=^'".V=^J!]'^] 
Jlj^^'2^=;'53j] generous, charitable, philanthropic || She is charitable toward 

beggars. p^-|=^^".VJ!]y^^=^'51 
qjy^] (Jjjy^] ^'^ '%'%) 'to believe; "to put in charge of, to direct || ^No 

one would believe that flowers can bloom in the sky. ^9j-9^pq-^s^-^q|- 

q(^=^-.5q-q3;-^5j-^!;,-fil=^-9J-q]y=^| "She was put in charge of that class of 

students. q'k3j-^-'^q-qq]3j-f^=;-'iT9Fq-q|^=^| 
^^^] to scatter, to take apart, to separate, to destroy || I had to take apart 

the clock because it wasn't working. ^■§§=^''^pk'"F(^^aj'j!^'5]-g!5cq!5r^^'^' 

^^^■^^^ destruction, ruin || The destruction of the old building was 

complete. gJ!lf'^'|'^'q'^'§'q'aj'N-£!]y^-q5.J!]-gq!^l 
^5^'^^^1 impartiality, neutrality || Even though one of the people was 


his brother, he maintained his impartiality. p^sS^'jj'sr^-q^^Ji^'^'pq'^aj'"^' 

S] horse || I led the horse to the river for a drink. ^'^■S'^'p^'n|g=;] 
S'g^ horse racing || I liked horse racing when I was young. 

^'^ saddle || This saddle is too small for me. ^'q^'^^'^'^'^-ra^'^J!]^] 

S'5^c5^ fine horse || This fine horse is too expensive for me. S■s^S^■'^=^■^■"^■ 

S'^] horse herdsman || He became a horse herdsman at the age of 

thirteen. ^q§-qi^51-^Rp^^-|-^q]-^-|^l 
^^'W always || Don't always be unhappy. ^^'Ji'^s^'^'f^'s^'^Sl 
S^^] mark, symbol, signal || What does that symbol mean? 

S^^'5^] medal, emblem || He wore the medal pinned to his chest, p'"-!'^!^' 

%^] bottom, end || How deep is the bottom of the lake? 5^^<5^'"1'^^^'^^'5' 

5^'51 fart II His fart smelled bad. p'^'^^'5'"-V5''^3i'|j 

S^'^] excrement, shit, manure || The excrement was collected and used 

as fertilizer. S^'^^'^^'N-aj'^-'^'^-f M-^-q'f]'".!] 
S3j] (qS3j] qsaj] SSj]) to depend on, to rely on, foundation || I depend on my 

children now that I'm old. ^■=^'3j'^W^'=J'Nl ^=;-5]-|^-q-^".vq'^3j-2r=^l 
S3j'^(^] basis, foundation || What is the basis for your argument? 

^'^S^S] investigation, research || The investigation will require at least 
six months. '^J!]-=^^=^-|=^-q^-a!;-»ig^-«]!;^-q-5J!]-=^q]'«)l 

£Jr|'<3C]] inspection, examination || After the inspection of our factory we 
were all relieved. =;-§?q-q'S^^-".V£5;]-<3iq-^^-1'Nl =;-§fcf=^-5^<^-^»l'N-q^-5r^-g3;| The 
inspection of the factory revealed several violations of safety 
regulations. ql^5]<^'^5i]'^!^''^'N-q^''^^^'N-^J!]-^f^V'^!;-qJ!]'^vq<^-5i]3^!^-^'^-qJ!]q-^=^l 

5qi-(aq-q| inspector, investigator || He is a safety inspector. p'Sj'q^;''^^^'^' 

S^'q^] ^fabrication, making up, 'exaggeration || ^He is very good at the 
fabrication of stories. p'3j'a^'Jl]^5^'5Jl]'q^'|,=;'s^=^'«^p^| "That story is an 


exaggeration. J!]^«^'^=^'^'^'=^q'q^J!]^'-PjJ!]'^^] 
S^'^l to understand, to comprehend || I can't understand any French. 

^^^■s^] enlightenment, understanding, comprehension || I achieved a new 
understanding of the purpose of life after hearing him talk. 

S3j] (qS3j] qsaj] 53j]) to believe, to trust || I believe what you say. 

f^] (q^".!] qf"-llf"-ll) Ho bore (holes); "to reveal || ^He bored holes in the 
wood. P'^'-Pj^'^-Vf^^'g'^^"-!] 'He revealed several secrets about his past. 

^\ (qf^l q<^^] <^^]) to look at, to see || Do you want to look at my new 

house? ^=^'|'^-=;q-p=;-q-J!]'^^-q-".vq<^wq^=^l 
'S'g^'] taking care of, looking after || Who is looking after your baby 

daughter? (i=^-|'g'«5'"-l'^'^''^'|^'|^'^3i'^=^l 
'3'5^p3j] audience, onlooker || The audience did not like the performance. 

"S'S^ surveillance, supervision || My parents are old now and I am busy 

taking care of them every day. =^''^'S5'5^'5;|^!^-'T|-^'N'Sr=^'q'Nl '^'N'^aj'^^'p^sf".!' 

'S'q] ideology, view || Few people could agree with his ideology. 

'3'#^1] viewpoint, standpoint, perspective || What is your viewpoint on 

this question? ^3j=^^3j'^^<^'g'^'"-l'^^'|''^'^"-l%'^5'^3il 
'S'l^q] supervision, direction, investigation || I am constantly under my 

wife's supervision. §=;-»l'^-=;-".V5^cf»l'^-5^=^-q^-'^-^q-|=^-|3j-Sr=^l 
'^=^■s^] scene, spectacle, performance || Did you see the dance 

performance last week? ^=^-|'N-J!]gq-qp'^-^3j-5^<^-(^q'N-1^".ViXvq<^'^l 
"S^'s^'q] audience, onlooker || The audience numbered at least one 

hundred. '^^■s?q-ft=^-»ig^-«^=;-q^-g5^-qw^l 
'3==\| according to, in accordance with, as || I did this according to your 

instructions. =;'^-^=^-|-J!]=^»i'^-q-<^^-^-q-q^-q|^q'^i 
'W^\ omen || What are good omens according to Tibetan culture? 


"S'^^l center, core, middle || The center of the earth is very hot. 

(^qj (^'^^] ^'^^^] ^^^\) to fold || I want you to fold the sheets and put 

them in this drawer. ^^■^'^■^«!]'i^q''^q'3j'N-'^aj-§^»l-3j=;-S-qSJ!]-^^-=;'N-^-q-|^l 
'3sm'\ to ripple || The water will ripple when I drop this stone. 

'S'^'^] food and clothes || Everyone needs enough food and clothes. 

"^^^1 to be hungry || I don't like to be hungry. '>''3^M'aj'5^''^=;^] 
<3^'q5^] relative || Truth is a relative concept. 

"^^'s^^l absolute || Nothing is absolute. '^^■s^^-'^3j-q-J!]5J!]'^=^'5^^1 
^■iJlSjl preparation, making ready || How long will your preparation 

require? ^^■^'^■^■^3j'|^'q^'f§§=^'J!]'§§=^''^3]'^'^-5,:^| 

S'==;] axe II I need to sharpen my axe. ^'^■^■=^'qs=^'=;J!]'^| 
W^ tiger II I saw a tiger in the zoo on Sunday. 

^^'5^1 tigress || The tigress lunged at the rabbit. ^J!]'5^^'=^'q^'".VJ!]^'N] 
^^^] way /manner/style of (action) || Her manner makes her more 

attractive . 'p^q-|=^-^=;'N-|'N-p^-q'^-^=^-q^J!]-q^-q^=;-l 
^q^] 'posture, stance; 'because || 'Slouching is not good posture. ^Y^' 

c5J!]'^»l'^-?|k-|,-qSJ!]-^q'^-^-qg=;^5^ajl -Pm tired because I played 

basketball for two hours. a=;'|=^'f''5I-^'§§=^'J!]|'^'".v|'N'^q'N'=;'^=;'g!;'c5=^l 
^q'^'»l'f\lJ!j'^'q| by accident, unfortunate || It is unfortunate that he did not 

finish school. 'p'^-^q-5!-qy3j-5^-cf^-q-^-^q'^-»i-'^iJ!]'^-q-^J!]-^^l 
^q^'n.lJ!^^'3j^] fortunately, luckily || Fortunately, when I needed help you 

were there. ^q'N-'^lJ!]'^-q-Sjq|-n,l] Ra,v'^q^!Sj-|'^-»ip^qq-cs]-^;^-^:;-^q^s]-^-1gj| 

^=^] (q^^l q^^] ^^]) to queue, to sand in line/in order || Students queued 
outside the dining hall. J!]wl|J!]'N-p=;-^-|^".vaj-^q-»l-§f5]".V".vq^^] 

^'^^] compact, thick, dense || The dense earth was difficult to dig 
through. 'N-^J!]^-^^'T]qi 

^^] (q^S] q^S] ^S]) to continue, to do successively || I will continue to 

study. ^^■q|=^-3j^-f^f^-|=^'|^3il 
^3j] (q^SJl q^3j] ^3j]) to cater to, to submit, to compromise, to do in 


concession, according to || I don't want to cater to your unreasonable 

demands. =;'N'^=^'^''5J!]'N'5^3j'5^3j'qq'n^=^'q'=^=;'q^aj'5^'n^^l 
R^'^'31 platform || The platform was made of wood. ^^'^■g'^'.P|^'".l^'qg^] 
^^■| on, on top of || Few sheep graze on top of the mountain. '^!i]"'5!i]«j'^^'|' 

^^■3j'^] in terms of || In terms of study he was a good student. 

^3j] (q^SJl q^Sjl ^SjD to depend on || I'm so ill that I must depend on 

medicine to get well. ^■3j-q'N-^3j-".vq^3j-3jM-aj=^-5J!]-yq|J!]-^^'^| 
^^1 to give, to hand || I will give you my dictionary next week. 

^R] (^R] ^^^]) to be bankrupt, to fail economically || The factory went 

bankrupt. ql^^q's^'g-'^'^'Nl 
W^\ thousand; 'empty || ^I have one thousand ywaw. ^■".V§^=^'5^'^^'J!]5^' 

"^S] 'Please pour some tea m my empty cup. ^'^■=^=^'q'^^'q'^'3j^'=;'^'3Jl]' 

^!;:q^q| to compensate for murder || He had to pay a large fine to 
compensate for the murder of his enemy. 

^RJI]^5^] meaningless conversation/speech || I'm tired of all this 

meaningless conversation. R^RJ!]™'q^'^Jl]'s)-n,v^3j-gR|sj| 
^^■q] empty, void || I looked into the cave and saw a dark void. 

^Rq'^s^l Utopian thought, romantic idea, fantasy || Your idea about love 
is only a fantasy. (i=^-|'N-q|'S=;-".vq5=;'^-qq-q!5l5]-^aj-^-^-^=;-q'N»l-|5^3i-^=^| 

^S] upper part || The upper part of the valley is very dry. 

■^=^1 (^=^1 q^^l'^^D to fly into the air || The bird flew into the air. 


^^■f^JljJ!] T-shirt II My new T-shirt was made in Shanghai. 

^3j| (q^^il q^SJl ^3)1) Ho point/direct; 'to appear, to reveal || ^Don't point at 

other people with your finger, ^i^aj'^-l's^^q'^'^'s^'^aj] 'Please reveal one 

of your secrets. |iS'^'^^^'q'f^^'^3j'=;^'| 


^3^'^ autumn, fall (season) || It is cool in autumn, ^aj'^r^^'ajs^'^'q^",!] 
^aj'^f 1 autumn harvest || We had a good autumn harvest this year. 

^3^^] Buddha || Beseech the Buddha for knowledge. '^3j-q-".l'N-^'N-^-CT 
^3j''^'S'c5^''5^^1 Buddhism || Buddhism has many believers in Asia. 

^3j's^] feast, party, banquet || I missed the party last night because I was 

ill. '^•".Vaj'cf^'^'q'Nl »l=^!^'=^^=;'S]'^3j'5r^'(gJ!]'^'5]-^q] 

^3j'".lMl harvest work || The harvest work made me tired. 

^q^l strength, power || He has much power in his arms. p'S'^^^'^q'^'cB] 
^q'^''^^] might and wealth, power in property || His might and wealth 

made him a powerful force. pq-^q'^-q|^^-|,'^-(^^=;-".V^q'N--P|'^'N-i3j^q|p.ll 
^q^'f^^'cB'q] rich, powerful, prosperous || My uncle is rich. ^^'[^'q^aj'S]' 

^q^'-PjJ!]^] strength, force, power || The strength of his personality 

impresses everyone. pq'^!;'J!]-Pj'N'".l'^'^=;'qq'^q'N'-P|J!]'N'^'^'5^'^»l'N'".vqJ!]'c5J!]'N' 

qs^'gq'^l diagnosis method, way of examination || His diagnosis method 

follows Traditional Tibetan Medicine theory. 

^^''I'iS^l examination, research, test || The examination results showed 
that there were some problems. 

qsaj's^] steady, stable, permanent || He has a stable personality. 

q<3M-q^q^ comparably, relatively || Her English is relatively better than 

his. pw'=^|,3j'«SJ!]'q<^^'q&]'S]'^'p^".i'^'qg!;'l 
q^aj'qs'^] treatise, work, religious texts || He spent many years writing 

his treatise. 'p^'"T5^=^^q'fi'".V5]g^-^!:;-S|-q^3j-q5'^-q§-»l's)| 
qsa'q-fltri'^'qi mischievous || That mischievous student often makes 

other students laugh in class. 

q^=^| Ho practice, to conduct; 'to stand in a line || ^He practices medicine 


in a village. p^'S-q-^q^-^-^jaj-ajm-aJa:-^!^! "The students stand in a line to 
get food from the school kitchen. ^q-»l-^»l'N'5]".V".vq^^'3j'^'^q'^q'J!]W 

qs!;'5]^] in succession, successively, continually || He read ten books in 
succession. pM'q^'^'5]^'=^q'c5'q^'q^^^| He had six jobs successively. 
ps^-qsi^-si^'^'q'^Jlj'Jlj^^] He was continually late for class. p'qs=>'5]^- 

^^^1 to praise, to eulogize, to compliment || This song praises Qinghai 

Lake. ^■^^'^'N-q^M-5^§^3j^".vq'^^l 
qwc-qwq^s]| praise, eulogize, compliment || The praise you sang last night 

to your parents moved everyone. s^^^^'^S^^'jg^'^^'^z^'tn's^'s^'fWq^'^'qq'q^' 



^■^'vj scattered, strewn || Broken glass was strewn all over the floor. 

5■=^=^| separate, different, dissimilar || Black and white are different 

colors. 3jJ!]^=^=;-=^'T]^-q^5;]^!^-^-pYl'^''^^'^^l 
g'3j] even, as far as || I'm so fat I can't even bend over to tie my shoes. 


g's^'p] cigarettes, tobacco || I quit smoking cigarettes two years ago. 

5'^^ warning, ultimatum || We ignored his ultimatum so let's see what 

happens next. =;-§fM-pq-g-&!]-".v9S-^3j-q=^-|^-»i=^%-q^=;-".vq'^-=^=^-| 
g'^'g'^] scattered, sparse || The grass was sparse on the mountainside. 

^'-fjiq] worst, bad, degenerated || That is the worst handwriting I've ever 
seen. q^'^'^^'N'sigk-qq-fiSq^-q^iq^iN-iiN-g-^aj-^,:^! She is very beautiful but a 
degenerated woman. p's^'3j'|^'(^g'^'i'^'5n^qi!^'S^cf^'^Rg,!^'5i!^'g'-f|iq'(^J!j'^2^] 

5^ Mistance; 'to evaporate || ^What's the distance from Xining to 
Lhasa? l'"1=;'aj'^'™''N<^-q^-'q5]-qqj-i-^5]-Sr2^] 'Water evaporates quickly in 


the hot sun. ^•»iq'cf5^"<S5i]'^'»l|5!]'N'sr^'gJ!] 
5^■^5=^] Mecision; 'to decide || 'it is difficult to make a decision without 
more information. ^3j's)-#kV5^!;^s!^-3r3^-5]-g!^-q^-gJ!]-J!]5=^-|,2^-S-=^'T]qi "I want 
you to decide now if you wiU marry me or not. 

^^'^''^l near place || No, my relative doesn't live far away, she lives in a 

near place. s^Sj] =;'iy^'gJ!]'^=^'3j-s^=^] pWgJ!]y'^5;-S5i^] 
^^^\ rope II The rope is made of nylon. ^^'^■'^^'^■'^Sj'^'N'q^'N] 
gjjj'^^q] distant, far away || The stars in the sky at night seem so far 

away. 5]^3;w-sip'T=^|,=;'N'^'^^'»l<^'S5n'^'=9'5=^'|K,'gJ!]'^=;'q<^''^^'5n3;'5i-2r!^-q^- 

5^"^ Tibetan painting || Tibetan painting utilizes numerous bright colors 
that are used to depict many deities. q=^'^'g^'^=^'<2'^^3j'5^^^'^|'q^'§§3j'.f ' 

5^■c5=^] to be tired/exhausted || I was exhausted after not sleeping for 

many hours, f §?=^-»l=;^^-»l-J!]|^-q'N-=;-g=;-c5=^l 
^^■c53jl square, large plain || The large plain was covered with grazing 

yaks. g=;-iaj-^^yg-q^3j-qq^^-§'^-p=;'Ni 
g^'^^'] desert, uninhabited place, wilderness || The desert behind the 

mountain has no inhabitants. ^^'^q'^'g^'^^'^'aj'^^^-VS^'s^^] 
^^'5^] crops for milling || These crops are for milling. '^^■^J!]'3j'g^'5^'"^3j| 
g^wj^'^'i!] large/expansive plain || The large plain between those two 

mountains is too dry to grow much grass. 

^=^] about, concerning, for || I want to learn as much as possible about 
Tibetan history. q=^'|''T^'N-g=^-§--n!^-g-=;'N-5-5'^-|'N-|k-q^=^] 

5^''']=^] directly || "Go directly home after school," the mother told her 
son. "^q'^'^f^v|'N'g=^''T]^'t^'^vf\v»r=;"'(^'^'B^-5]!^-g-f\VJ!]=^si^i-q-^'^| 

gaj'gaj] drought II The crops died because of the drought. 

^5^'W^] bad/unfortunate omen || The bad omen made everyone feel 

depressed. gaj-'^'^-^'^-cf'^-si'^^^'SJJlj'Kq^'^ 
^3^^] drought II The drought was so serious that the river stopped 

flowing. g3j-q-#i'N-i-q'N-s'q'^'q(5^'§3j-c5=^| 


W^'^ stove, fireplace || Don't put bones in the stove. 

gq'".!'^] cooking II She does aU the cooking for her family. 

g^^'^] means, way, method || What's the best way to learn English? 

gq^'s^p^lj skilful, dexterous, ingenious || He was skilful in repairing 
anything mechanical. 


gqs^'qg'^^'^R] by all sorts of means || He will try to get what he wants by 
all sorts of means. p'M-gq'N-q^-§'N-^=;-^'N-^:;-^=^-^-q^^-q-q|^q-^'N-5S3j] 

gq^'^^l] strategy, policy || What's the best strategy to get students to 
study well? ^q-s^-^s^'N-f\v^q-|=;-qg=;^|^-^-q|J!]-^q-gq'N-§<^-s^IJ!]-?i^-^ ■%^- 

gq'^'gj;! to be at the end of one's wits, to be helpless || The problem was 
so difficult I felt helpless. J!]3j=^^3j-^-=^'T]q-5J!]'s)-q5^-!;-q-qq5^-g:^] 

^si''^ seal II I had a plastic seal made yesterday with my name. 

gs^^'S^] all, whole || Do you want all this bread or just half? 

5=^1 to get rid of, to escape, to get free of || When I graduated from 
college I was glad to get rid of the pressure of studying. 

^q'5]'iaj's?3j'N'»ig^'|;3j'^q'Nl ^;;-^'^-^q'|'=;-§]-J!]^q-J!i^3j-q'N'g^'q^'=;''^v=^J!]qW|'Nl 
g=^'",l»l] way out, outlet, extractable way || There must be a way out of 

this problem. J!]aj=^^aj-q^-".vg^-".W^J!]-^'N-q^-S-Sr=^-^'N-«S3jl 
gn.V^J!^^] excessive, undue || The pressure you are putting on your 

students is excessive. ^=^'|'N-^q-5^q-^=;-".V5;]^3^-:Q5i]!^-$^-!:!-^-g".V5J!]'^l 
g".vs^] palm II I've got a blister on my palm. ^'^■g".VS^^'^^'".V^'g=^'qgq] 
5^ 'line, string; 'zero || 'We hung up a string to put our wet clothes on. 

^'^■'J]3j'=J''^?i"l'^^'".VS^'(^J!]''^g3j] "Zero is the smallest number. ^^'aj'^j^^'^Tj' 

g^'"i] 'zero; "center || 'Two minus two is zero. J!]^'^'".l^'J!]^^''^g3j'3j'gJ!]''^V"J3j] 

'The arrow struck the center of the target. s^=^'^'5^'qq3j'^'gJ!]'"i'".l'=^^ 
gJli'.P|R| ruler, yard-stick || The ruler is made of plastic, not wood. 


^^'^''^l drop II A drop of water flew into my eye. 

^8^1 to sink, to infiltrate, to absorb || Slowly the ship sank in the ocean. 

^^] main || The main criminal in several recent crimes was sentenced to 

death. ^•nj5]-3jJ!]-^'N-qJi]q-qs5J!]'^-qq-^'N'53j'^^'".V^J!]'(|»l'^'q5=^l 
^^3] to meet, to touch || I want to meet that singer. ^^■q'^'!^:;'^J!]'q=^=^] 
.^^■^] noodle || Our school dining room just bought a new noodle 
machine . =;-§?q-^q-5]q-g-p=;-S]'N-^'^-qq-q^"1-S's)-q]'s)3;-q-^q^y^| 

^^''^^Sj visit, meeting || What time is our afternoon meeting? 

^''1'^ fS^l concern, care, worry (h) || I understand your worry, but I can't 
help you. ^=^-|'^l^^-fl^-|^-^--^'^-«r=^l%^^-^^-^^-'^V^^^-|^-5^iqi 

.^^'^'^'cB] thankful, grateful || I'm very grateful to you for your help. 

^^■^■] short II The short man married a tall woman. 

.§3j] dosage, dose, meal || How much of this liquid medicine is one dose? 

%3^^^] common, public, communal || A common idea is that everyone 
should marry and have children. 

^q] 'to be able to do, can; "to tolerate || 'l can speak English. ^^l'=;^'^=;' 
q-Pj^'^q] "I tolerate his strange behavior because he is my friend. R'3j' 

^q'SS] bullying || His bullying personality means that he has few friends. 


^=^] downhill, down || The horse raced downhill. ^■q'^'K'^'^^'"^!'^^'^] 
.^^■^vj down, downward || The rock rolled down the mountain. ^q'F^'q'l' 
^^■=;''^^".l] The water ran downward across the grassland to the river. 

%^'^] chopsticks II These chopsticks are made of ivory. 



5] to include, to belong to || I want to include you in my next party. =;<^' 

g'^'^l interference, intervention, impediment || China does not welcome 
interference in its internal affairs. 

5*3^] Moubt; "hesitancy || His doubts about the students' ability were 
not proved true. ^q-s^q-qS3j-g=;-'^vp'^-g-§f5^-q5=;'N-q-^^-q^3j-qq-^-#^-»i-^=;-l 
'His hesitancy in investing money typified his conservative approach 

tolife. p''^'«^'=^5f^V^y^'q5;-g-§f5^-q|3j-q-^^Vp^Vq§fq<^-g:^-^-<^-q-|^-(^3j^ 

5^ to tolerate, to endure, be able to || He can tolerate great pain. 

gJ!]'cf^l capacity || What is the capacity of that vat?'S^q'^'l'gJ!]'cf=^'J!]'§§=^'«S3Jl 
^^'^l time, frequency, number of times || What is the number of times 

you have been to Beijing? ^'^•^•53j''^vg'^'N'S-^5]-'^!;-] 
g^'^''^^!]'^] several times || I've been to Beijing several times. 

g^'s^'s^^l many times || I've been to Lhasa many times. ^■™''^'".vg^'^'s^^''^^'] 
5^] to be torn, to worn-out || The old shirt was worn-out. 


^^'t^l old and shabby || My shoes are now old and shabby. 

53jl to tend, to be intimate, to be inclined || Don't be too intimate with 

your relatives. (i^'^y5'"-Vg3j'|'g'^'Si'5J!]'N] 
^q'^] to get, to suffer || I suffer from hepatitis. ^■".V«^c5aj'aj=^'gqM] 
gq'N-^ fund, trust || How much money is in that fund? gq'^-g'^-"l-|'^-sfi- 

g^^'f^'^aj] exposure, revealing || Exposure of his past mistakes destroyed 

him. 'p^'^aj-c5=^'|^^'|3j'g^''^'^3j-^^-q-^'N-p^q5.J!]'Nl 
g^'5^] wool cloth, fabric made of wool, serge || This gray wool cloth is 

expensive. g=^'s^'^^'^=^'=^'T]'^] 
^''^^S] registration || Tomorrow is the day for class registration. 

g^ in, on, above, top of || The moon seemed to be on top of the house. 



gj!^'s^gq'q^'J!^«j5^"^| from beginning to end, thoroughly, aU the time || I paid 
attention to what she said from beginning to end. pwvs=>'S'%'=^-P|^'^'^' 

^'Jl'Sj'^l in terms of, about || In terms of my own financial ability, I can 

afford it. ^^;■?|■^q".l•q^^•|,•5i'N•qq^^!]•3j'N•q^P|=^•3jl '^'N'^y^^i 
5^'SI] origin, beginning, commencement, first || What is the origin of the 

universe? q|j!]-'^3j-|,^J!]-»l-^-5-^J!]-«S3jl 
g^-q^^a,i| a plow II The plow was made of wood. g^'J!].P|".V^'.P|^'".l'^'qg'5i] 
g3j'^=;] production || Production at the factory has increased under new 

management. '^=^s^'J!]'N^-qq-'qJ!]-^-ql^5]q-g3j-|=^-".vq^".V^^-^=;-l 
g3j'[^^^] resource || Water is a valuable resource. ^■3j'g3j'[^5^'g'i3j'(^J!]'"^3j] 
53j■cf'^] rate of production || What is your factory's rate of production? 

gaj'^^] products II How many products does your shop sell? 

^q'^"-!] portion || My portion is smaller than yours. 


^q'^^'] 'right; "title, position || 'it is my right to think what I want, ^z^' 

q=^=^'q^5^'q'3j'^q'gq'g^'«jaj] "After my promotion I now have a new title. 

s^gq'qpq] sparsely populated area || Mngasris is a sparsely populated 

area. »l!;'TS:^)-^-5^-a!;-qq-t^n.V5]-^qjt^3jl 
s^g^^'JljS^'i^] without exception, absolutely, completely, totally || I totally 

agree with you. ^■^=^'^'<^'q'".vs^g'^'^5^'y^g^l 
5^gq'5]^J!j the end, the last || I didn't hear the last thing he said. p<^'5]g(^' 

s^gt^'aj^J!]'™ at last, finally, at the end || At the end of the class we were 

all very tired. ^q'(|=^'|'»ig'Tq|J!]-i2'=^'c?cf=^'»l'g=;'c5=^l 
»igq'qg^l| result || What was your examination result? (i^'^'^^'^''^5'^'^''il'<^5' 

siqq'5^1 last, end, final, ultimate || The last day of the month is tomorrow. 

s^gq'»l^| finally, at last || I finally was able to go to Lhasa. 


»ig^'J!]KJ!]«^'3j] in the final analysis, at bottom || In the final analysis, she 

doesn't care what I think. »ig^'J!]^J!]'^'3jl p^'^'=;'^'5'q^'q'".1^|=;'5^'|,=^l 
^^^'^^1 to graduate || I graduate next month. ^'li^'s^^'RS^g^'^Sj'^^ 
5^§=^'gl light blue II I like this light blue cloth. =;-^'N-5^g=;-^-q^-".V=^J!]qi 
5^g",l] ^center; 'bottom || ^He threw a rock into the center of the pond. ]^' 
|^-^q-9^|a]-aj^l^ct|-q!i]^5j| "The ship sank to the bottom of the ocean. «6f 3' 

5^g".V^] thorough, complete || Let's make a thorough cleaning of the 

apartment. ^■§fMf'^-q-".VJ!]5X-^J!]-5^gn,v|^-^J!]-^] 
s^'si^l powerless, incompetent, incapable || He was powerless to change 

what had been decided. f^".vgJ!]-q5^i3j-q-q|^-^q-s^-5^=^l 
s^'g'"-!] power, might, strength || That religious practitioner has great 

power. I'^-q-".vs^-i3j^Sj':^l 
s^i^^ thick II 'Thick' is the opposite of 'thin. ' 's^J!]^'^-'23q-srq-''^J!]^-5S3j 
5^^'^'>] thickness || I was surprised at the thickness of the book. 

5^3jl to be the same/similar, to be in harmony /concord || Your idea and 

my idea are really the same. (i^'^''^'q'^^'^^''^'q'^'s^^'5^3jl 
s^aj'jaj] advantage || To be tall is an advantage. 

s^aj''^^^ harmony || Human beings should live in harmony. 

5^3j'|3"11 unity || The unity of our country is important. 

si^Sj'g^l adjustment || An adjustment was made in how we divide 

responsibility for work. =;-§?q-".l'N-qJ!]3j-|-'^^-q^^q^J!]-3jM-s^3j-|'=^-^J!]-^«)| 
5^5'q^'] big toe, thumb || A horse stepped on my big toe. 

s^^q'^^'l little finger || I don't wear a ring on my little finger. 

5^5] 'high; 'loud; 'the span measured by the distance between thumb and 
middle finger when extended || 'The mountain is so high that I can't 
climb it. ^■=^'s^g'55n!^'q'^'Rs^^'qj!]'s^'^q] "That singer s voice is so loud 
that everyone can hear her. ^■5^^'^=;'5^^sig^q^'5^'^^'5^^'^^q| 'The 


picture frame is as long as the span measured by the distance 
between my thumb and my middle finger when extended. '^5'=;i!=^'J!](^' 

si^'cf'^l ^height; "altitude || 'My son's height is now greater than mine. 
'^'^'3^'^1^'^'^^'^'^cf'^'^''^''^'"-!'^'*'^ -What is the altitude in Lhasa? 

5^g'^5^A]q'5j| college, university || Have you graduated from college? 

si^'^q^l upsurge || Recently there has been an upsurge of interest in 
learning English. ^'cB^l =^|;3j-«SJ!]-^q-|k-|^-qq-q^p-".V5ra^5,qM-^J!]-q^^] 
5^5^'51 insight, one's knowledge || He has great insight into the problem. 

5^5^'fi'^^'q] ignorant, nearsighted || The foreigner was ignorant about 
Tibetan culture. '^^^^^'^Sj'^-l-^^-aj'Nl |'|'^'^'^^'*i^^'^l'^'l 

s^5^'fi'55'q] 'farsighted; ^experienced || 'His plans are farsighted. 

[^il''lS==^'^(^'=^^''^VS^g^'^'i] "The experienced teacher's students did well 
on the examination. =^^-^3j-5rak-^-5aj-^q-^q-»l-^5^M-|'N-^J!]'N12^-q-qg=;-l 

5^5^'^^'] 'disdain, contempt; "underestimate || 'His contempt forme is 
obvious. l^'s^-i^-q-srak-^'^-^i^-q-^-s^Taj'J!]'^".!'^^! "His underestimate of the 
value of the goods cost our business a lot of money. p^'^^'^'^^'^'^3j' 


Si^3^^] high II Grass doesn't grow well on high mountains. 

qgq^ (q^jjj q^Jjj^i gJ!]^]) 'to weave "to chop/cut into small pieces || 'Every 

afternoon I work weaving carpets. •^3;'^(^'g'5^'^'^''^'Jl]=;3j''^gJll 'Please 

chop this meat into small pieces. -Pj'f^^N'f^q's^^^'gJ!]^] 
ng^] to agree/concur (with) || Do you agree to learn English? 

ngq] to fight, to struggle || The two boxers will fight here tomorrow. 


ngq'^",l] attack || This morning we planned an attack on the enemy 

position. i^5;|!^-q3;-:;-afsi-:^5]^-q|3^!^-q|^-aj-5I3;-^a,v|;^-^q-q?fJ£^-q-r^3j| 

'^^I'^l strategy || I don't think your battle strategy will succeed. 


ngq'»l] fight, battle, combat || More than one thousand men were kiUed 

in the battle. |'N'q''^=;'J!]5J!]'™'^''^gq'5?".l'^'q^=^'Nl 
qgq'»l'q] fighter, soldier || He was a PL A soldier before Liberation. 

n^^q'g'^l struggle, combat || The struggle lasted all day. 

ngq'"^] antagonist, opponent || He is my main opponent. 


r^«| (qgs^i qgs^'^]) to hold, to embrace, to hug || Don't embrace me in 

public. 5^-»i!;-'s)^-!;-n,v»i-qg»i's)| 
^^ (ngJ!] qgJ!]^]) to drop, to drip || Water dripped from the tap. 

qgq| (qgq| qgq^]|) 'to be cloudy; "to be filled with || 'it is cloudy today. ^' 
^^^■snaai'^'qgq'^] "The room is filled with cigarette smoke. p^'qq'3j^'".V^' 

q^] (qi^l ^Ji^l^'^l) to pick, to collect, to gather || We will gather 
medicinal herbs this summer. =^'"r^'^^^'P^''^'cf'N-||3j-Fq^-^-«S3jl 
r^j;,'! (^^^'1 '^^^l ^^^D to drink || I want to drink a glass of cold water. 

q^s^l (qi^«^] qi^5^^] ^si^l) to cover, to wrap up || I covered my sleeping son 
with a quilt. ^^^N-^iz^-Sj-q^lj^-^-tAj^-qq-g-^q^-^q-^q-l^si-q^sisj] 

q^t^l (q^"-!] qj^"^!] ^".1]) to tame, to domesticate || They could not tame the 
wild yak. fT^'^-q|k-^-q^".V5^-^qi 

n^M'»l] representative, delegate || He was our representative at the 
meeting. S&]'N-qsq-^=;-'p^-=;-§?q-n^^-9S-«S3jl 

'^'^■^^ chief representative || He is the chief representative of our side. 

ng^] to cripple, to incapacitate, to lame || He was incapacitated in the 
automobile accident. 5.=;'^'qp'^'|,'c5J!]'|^^J!]'".l'^'^^'^=;'q''^g=;'q^'g^l 

f^SJI 'to pull, to drag; 'to deduct/subtract; ho take a puff; ''to sing || 'The 
tractor pulled the car out of the mud. ".lJ!]-|'^-qp'^-f5r^-^=;'N-qp'^-q=^»l-".l'N- 
^^3^] 'Please deduct what I've already paid you from what I owe you. 
=^'^'(i^'f^v|=^'l3j-q-^-=;'N-^=^-f\vY^-c5^'q'S'3j=;'aj'N-qg3jTj!]^i] ^i took a puff of 
cigarette smoke. ^'^■S'q'i5^''^g3j| ''Please sing an amorous song. "I'^lira^' 


'^g^'-Pj^'^] gravity, power of attraction || The moon's gravity is less than 

the earth's. |'q'7''^3j'-P|J!]M''^q'^".iq'qg3j'-P|J!]'^'".l'S5-^=^'l 
qgqj (q^qj q^J!]'^] gJ!]^]) to pluck, to pick || Don't pick the flowers on the 

campus. ^]q'^'l'=^'q'3j^'s^'i^J!j'»i'qi^J!j 
n;^^] (ngq] gq) to get, to acquire, to gain || I got a prize for my excellent 

study . =;q-^q-|=;-5".vs-^=;-q-".v^J!]q-^J!]'N^qi 
qgs^l (qgs^i '^gs^'^]) to be confused/dazed || There was so much fog that I 

was confused and didn't know which way to go. 


ng^] (ng=^] g=^]) to scatter || When my son turned the box upside down, 
bottles of medicine scattered everywhere. 


^■"^l now II Where are you going now? ^''^'(i^'^^'"-!''^?]! 

=;'<3'3j'^] from now, since now || From now I will stop sleeping late in the 

morning. ^!^-=^-<^-3j'N-q-^!;-=;'^-3j=;'N-q|-".i=;M-5^-|=^l 
^■=;^'] still, yet II We still have time to drink another bottle of beer. 


^■ajM'q|^'] since/from now || I will never smoke again from now. 

=^'aj'N'q|=;'=;'N'g'»iJ!]'«^!;'qg ^•sS'f^aji 
S'^1 henceforth || Henceforth, I will visit you more regularly. 

^■q^] up to now II Up to now I've not been able to make much progress 

in solving this problem. 

^■^^q^J] present generation, contemporary || The present generation 

knows a lot about science and technology. 


=n''\'^| this time, this turn || It is your turn to pay this time. 


^■f^ this year || Will you go home this year? ^■f5r^-(i^-«J".V".vq^^-iKl-«S3jl 
=;j!^'q5'^] correction || I don't agree with your correction. 

^^'ng^l defending oneself with reason, testimony || His defense of 
himself with reason and testimony won his release from prison. 

^^■"^^ spelling II This Tibetan spelling book is used by all Tibetan 
primary school students. 

^^■S'".13j] to volunteer, to take an incumbency /duty || Who will volunteer 

to clean the classroom? ^^'^'^'"-I'JljsVs-lt^-^-^sj-^^i^-^-^iaj-^-fijaji 
^^■q] the first || She is the first woman to climb that mountain. p'5^'3j'=^'^^' 

=^'^q';] at first II At first I was afraid to speak English. 

^=^] to worship, to believe, to adore || Tibetans worship mountain gods. 

^^■^1 faith, belief || My faith in Buddhism is strong. 

=;s^'q5q| promise, pledge, guarantee || His promise is as good as gold. 

!>5]'^'qi^c,'qi to tighten || The knot had tightened and could not be untied. 


^s^'sj] tight II Now that I'm fatter these trousers are too tight. 

=^^] to flourish, to grow, to rise || The economy is flourishing. 

^=^'g^] development, flourishing || There has been much development in 

China since Liberation. q5'^'N-q^".V^^-^3j-^-^^-qf".V=^^-^^-i3j^^'^-l 
^=^■£5] flag, banner || The flag waved in the wind. S^c^'S^^^^^^l 
^=^■£5^^] to freeze, to become ice || Water freezes in winter. 

'y^'^] person between thirty to fifty years of age, adult || I'm not sure 


how old he is but he's somewhere between thirty to fifty years of 

age. '^'^•p^stSSaj'q'sS'^M'aJ'^i q3j'^=;'p^'5^'^^'»i'^J!]'^^i 
^^'Sj"-!] custom II It is Tibetan custom to offer three cups of hquor to 

guests. »1^3j^t^-S'^^^'^^»l''^=^'q'^^^'5^^'=^^'^".l'^3jl 
S^-l'^'N] slowly II She walked slowly up the mountain. 

=;] ^how many; 'how much || 'How many students are in your class? 
(i^'S''^^^'5!'^'^^'5]^'^'^'"^^l 'How much did you pay for that horse? i^^^' 

^v'^l smoke, cigarette || Put your cigarette ash in the ashtray. 

=W] poison II That chemical is a poison. ^'^■^■3j'SJ!]'5^'"^3j] 
^v^'^'^l toxin II The toxin in the gas killed him. 

S^'^^l one hundred million || The population of Sichuan Province is 

more than one hundred million. I'^%5^'5]^^'S^'^^'^5^'".1^'<2^ 
=K'^5^'^| tender affection || He had only tender affection for his children. 

=;^'^] to be in love, to feel deeply attached to || I am in love with my 
girlfriend and I will marry her later this year. 

SS'^^^ll animal || I don't know what kind of animal it is. 

=ii^] to be tired, exhausted, to be fatigued || I feel tired after I talk for a 

long time. S^'ai3^'^=;^5;-z;!5i-q|^5]-q.P|=^-|'N-!;n,v|^'^-^q] 
S^'I^S] graveyard, cemetery || The graveyard is near the mountain. 

=;"1'q] docile, meek, disciplined || She has a meek manner. 

S'N'^q'^] era, time || It was an era when there were no automobiles. 

S'^'f^J!]] initial stage || He felt fine in the initial stage of his illness but 
later he felt terrible. 3j^-|-^^-'^^f^v'p^-iH-q-lJ!]-5'^-l rfaj-^z^-^-^jsi-p^n-Viqi-fc;- 


S'^''^J!]=^] at the start, in infancy || At the start of our business we do not 
expect to make money. '^'c^'af'^'^'S'^'qq]'^! =;'cf'N'|'^'sf^3j'q^'^'q'»l'q5=^'^l 

S'^''^^^'^] delay, procrastination, postponement || He had a two-hour 
delay at the train station. 5^'qp'^''N'^Jl]'N'^'f?-'^-^-cf^'J!]|'^'^;;'S'^'q^!;'^'^«51 

fj^^'^Sj'Sj always, usually || He is usually late for work. 

S'N'J!]^^'!^] at the same time, simultaneously || My wife and I work at the 

same time. ^!^-»l-s^!;-^=^-J!]|M-|'N-S^-J!]3J!]-y".l'N-'T]-".l'Nl 
^j'^'S^] appointment, date || What time is your appointment with the 

dentist? (i=^'|w3j=^-||3j-q-".V3j»l-S?=^-S^-c5^-^^-Sr=^l 
=;'^'c53j] festival || The Lunar New Year is an important Tibetan festival. 

Ej'^'s^as^] same time || Two guests came to my home at the same time. 

S'N'Jlj^aj'S] forever, all the time || He said he would love me forever. 

wq^q] to make an appointment || Try to make an appointment in the 
afternoon for me to meet the Education Bureau leader. 

=;si'gJ!]'W on time, on schedule, at the right time, punctually || He always 
comes to visit on time. p'^3j'i!=^'S^'gJ!]'Ti'=;'«J'S^^"l'q=^''^^'] 

S'^■=^q| magazine, quarterly publication || That magazine is about two 
years old. S^-sq-^-s5".vi^-'^J!]|'N-q3]'^-Sr=^l 

S'N'MJ!]'^] season || Which season of the year do you like 

^'^']] time II What time do you eat breakfast? ^^■§§=^'^'l^J!]'^=^'|'^-^J!]'^-g'^- 

=;'^'*^''^p^'".l] watch, clock || This watch is made in Switzerland. 5]|gqi"5](^" 

F^si^^^^^ simultaneously, at the same time || Can you sing and dance 
simultaneously? ji=^'|'^-^-'^13j-J!]^-|^-S'^-»l^=;'N-^-|=^-^q-q»ll 

S'N'Jlji^aj'S] at another time || I can't have dinner with you tonight but let's 
plan on another time. 



=;si'q^| four seasons || Winter, spring, summer, and autumn are the four 
seasons. =^^3jf=^^-=^|=^-'T] '^^^fl^aj-'Ti-qs^j-^-^M-q^^TSiaii 

^v'Nt^aj] duration, time || What is the duration of your work 
contract? (i^'|'^'q^'J!]3j'^^'^'^'^aj'J!]'§§=^'^3jl 

Sv'N'^^q'^] century, period, era || During the last century no one had 
electricity . ^M'^qM'l3j-5^q-aj=;-S-5^-J!]3J!]-".iq=;-^J!]-5^=^l 

=;s]'^'(^J!j for a while, for a short period || He only stayed at my home for 

a while. p^=;q-(|»l-^-^-^J!]-5»l-".l'^-»l-q^^l 

^v'N'^] on time, when, as || When I was young I had to work very hard. 


^1 that II That is an elephant. ^^^'^'iaj'^J!]'^'^! 

^■p'3j] only, only that || The only thing I want is for you to tell me the 

truth. '^■".v»ip^q'^'^=^'|'N-=;-".v5=;-J!]^»i-q.p|=^-^-^-p^3j-'^3jl 

^■=^^^■] this evening, tonight || This evening there will be a lunar eclipse. 

S'f 3jl previous, before || I had heard about you before I met you. 

^■'^■gi like that || I need a shirt like that one. =;-".VS^-"i3j-^-'^-g-^J!]-=^3]''^l 

=;'<3'3j] according to, based on that || According to what you say I guess it 

is not possible. ji^'|'N-q.P|=^-q-^-<^3;-3j| :;s]-^-^-:^q-5^-|;^-q^-q'^:^| 

^■^^ those II Those yaks are really big. ^"^^'^'^^'^^s^'^^^si'qc^isi'i] 
^■3j'^l 'then, afterward; 'from there || 'it is a long distance to my home 
from there. ^•3j'N'^=^'cdk-",V",l»l-gJ!]-S>!;^^q^-Sr=^] "Come to my home and 
then weTl have dinner together. ^=^-cdk-n,V^J!]-=^!^-^-3j'N-^-sf'N-s^^s^-^-g-s^-qgq| 
^■^1 that (person/family) || That family has just bought a tractor. 

^'^^"''\il ^^ once, immediately || I want to leave immediately. ^'S''^^"-l'?i'p'' 
|,'s)-q^=^l May I visit you at once? =^'N'(^g'^'^'(i=^'".V'^cf»l'^'q5'|,=^'i^vl5!] 

^■5^3jl other than that, beside that, otherwise || Other than that, I don't 
know a single reason for his refusal. 

^'cf] those II Those boys are Tibetan. ^'"i'^'S^'q^^'^'^^^] 
^■^^^'l today II I won't eat lunch today. ^-S^^^-i^^j-mRg^j-Sj-g] 
=\'^!^'<^Jn'5^'q| this morning || I saw you exercising this morning on the 


sports field. ^■^!;-<3[5I]'5I-q^-ig=^-|^r'5^r§-q-^-q-^n|!5I-§-q-|=;-q?3;-|:^-q^3j-q-^ 

'N^^q'^l nowadays, present time, modem time || Nowadays many 
children go to public schools. ^=;-^q'N-^q-»l-»l=;^|-^»l=;'N-^q-^-".vq^ 

^^■^■c5=^l since now, henceforth || Henceforth I will not be late for class. 
^^■|^-S=^1 ^fq-^=^f l^'^'^''3^1 

5;!;:3;qi5^| present time/era, modem time || At the present time movies are 
very popular. ^^■^^^■^■^^■^53j'3j''9'5^'^^^'i51 Modem times are very 
different from life one hundred years ago. ^!;'^!q'^'5'<^S'!q'3;'".vq^^'^3j' 

=;R^q^'53j| modem || His ideas are modem, not old-fashioned. 


^^■"^^'l nowadays || Nowadays young people dress differently than many 

years ago. ^'^■'N';-] 3j-J!]^3j-§?q-|^3j-'5J!]'N-"TqJ!]q-|3j-=^=;-5^-q51 
SS] 'to go along/onward (road); lo drive/herd (animals) || 'He went to 

the village along the road. p'^-f^»l-^-^=^-3j'N-^=;-^-"l-»r=;-| "He drove the 

sheep to the river. ^^''^^'^'P^'^S] 
^q'^^] historical records, chronicle || I've just finished reading my 

county's historical records. ^'^■^■§f^'^'S]'^q'g=^'q^J!]^'cf^'s^'gJ!]'"SS3j] 
^'I'^aj'^'N] because of that || Because of that problem I can't come with 

you. qi3j=^^3j-^q-|3j-|'^'^'^'^''^^'«^^«^'^''^^^l''l 
S^^^l therefore, because of that || I'm rich, therefore, I can buy 

whatever I want, ^^'^^^^aj] ^q-|^-=;'N-3;;;-S|yq^^-q-cf=^-»iy^qi 
=;q's^=;'f\l| at the same time, meanwhile || I can sing and play the guitar at 

the same time. =;'N-^-=;^=;'^-":i3j-qq-5k-".vq-'-d!;-g=;-5J!]-»i-=;^".v^q] 
=;=^'q53j] because of that, based on that || Because of that reason I won't 

go with you. '^^■q'^3j'^'^=^'=^'^'5^^5^'^'5^''^^ 
^'^'Sj] then, therefore || You say you didn't do it, then why do people say 

you did it? ^=^■|'N■q^P|=^■3j■^^■|'N■^■»^■".l'Nl ^'N-3j-5^-^»lM-|'N-^=^-|'N-^-".l'^-^!;-<3j'^- 

^■=^^^■] this evening, tonight || This evening the air is fresh. 

SS^] administration, management, caring for || His administration was 
characterized by efficiency. p^■^■^5^■"^■"^^■S=^■'33j| 


^■=^5^■^] supervisor, administrator || He got a new job as an administrator. 

X'SR] concern || Thank you for your concern. (i^'^^'^'^^'^'^'^'^-V^^^'^'i] 
S^l equal, counterpart, rival, match || In playing basketball he is my 

equal. «ji;-|=^-faif^q^l p^-^q^|^^i 
^^'5^1 narrow || The road over the narrow mountain pass is dangerous. 

^^^J] to have scruples, to be suspicious || I'm suspicious of his motives. 

^^^■=^1 doubt, suspicion, apprehension || Your suspicion is unjustified. 

^J!]^'3aj] caution, carefulness, precaution || Caution is needed when 

climbing this steep path. ".l»l-J!]g^-s?q^-".vqqyS'^Y]'N-l3j-|^-=^^^l 
^^■] hole, pit, cavity || Water is in the bottom of the hole, ^'^^'(^q'^'aj'^^l 
^^■"-is^l tunnel || The tunnel went through the mountain. =^^'".l«^'^'N'=^'q'q^"^| 
^^] substitution, makeshift || Your substitution of a pencil for the pen 
you borrowed from me and then lost is not acceptable. (iS'^'N'^^'^-lJ!]' 
=^^■'^] substituted object || This substituted product is not of the same 

quality as the original one.'^^^'^^'l'^'N-'T]-=^T^W!]'»l''^5'^J!]'5^'qg=^'l 
^3j'=;^^] real/genuine affair, reality, truth || The reality of the situation is 
different from what you think. In reality, what he said is not true. =>3;' 

^3j'c53j] important affair || I've got to leave now because I have an 

important affair to attend do. ^^aj'iaj'^Jl]'"l'(g'^'N'=^^^'q'N''^-'S'^'^'^''^^^3]'^' 

^aj'gJlj'K'^li".!] to carry out, to put into practice, to implement || Let's carry 
out our plan to increase production. 

^3j'^^ business, affair || I have some business to do this afternoon. 

^3j'5^^] meaningless || His long answer to my question was meaningless. 


^3j'^3j| paragraph || This paragraph is too long, ^3j■^3j■'^=^■^^■5^^| 


=;aj'J!](^3j] other work, other meaning || What other work are you doing 
besides teaching? ^q'^=^'«^'^y^'N'(i^'^^1^3j'J!](^3j'3'^J!]'".l'N'^3jW^l 

=;3j'q^^'] good/meaningful work || Your efforts to help people is 

meaningful work. ^^■|'N-5^-J!](^3j-".vTj!]'N-^5^-|,=^-q^-qq=^-q-^^aj-qg=;-^J!]-^^l 

^3j'".VJ!]3jM'i!] to keep a promise || Will you keep your promise? 

^'^■'^l bundle, package || This bundle contains my clothing. 

S^^ orphan || The childless couple adopted an orphan. 

^^^1 clean || Qinghai Lake's water is clean. 5^1^3j^'^'^'=9'5^'^^'^] 
^^M'»l] clean, transparent || The pond's water was so transparent that I 
could see fish at the bottom. 

5'^! net, mesh || This mesh on my window keeps out the mosquitoes. 

5'5^] window II Please close the window, ^'s^'^'gq] 

5''] Ho recover, to get well; 'safe, no danger || ^ After I recover from my 
cold I'll play basketball with you. cBSl'il'^^'I'^l !;-^=^-2^!;-»l^»l-^-'^z;-|!^-|- 
Sf|'^'^'^3j] 'The situation you are presently in is safe. ^■'^■^^■^^■"5=^'^^' 

5^'c5^] arms, weapons || He sells arms to bandits. p^'^J!]'i!'".V5^'c5^''^cf^'] 
^^'t^l Violent, 'fierce || 'The violent riot resulted in the death of twenty 
people. 3^'c5'55n'5'^''^l^'5^'^'-P|'q^^'^] "The tiger is a fierce animal, ^^'^j'^' 

^Jlj'g'",!] martial skill || His martial skill was useful when he was attacked 

by hooligans. (g«^-q'N-p^".V^".V^^-pq-5J!]-^".V^-=^3]'^-s53j-il 
^^'^l to be too II It is too difficult for me to do. 

5^'] 'straight; 'direct, honest || 'The road isn't crooked, it's straight. "-W^' 

'^(i^'^'s^3i'^^'5^'51'aJ3;] 'He IS very honest and never lies. p'3j'5]'W|!^' 

^Rjjj^s^l honest talk, truth, straight conversation, fair verdict || We had 
an honest talk and now we understand each other better. ^'S'N'^^'Jll^si' 


q^P|=^■3j'N■=^■<^■s5aj■^3j■".l■™^!]■^2■§'N■'^3j■H=;■S^^l Are you telling the truth? (i=^'|'N' 

5^'q^3j] righteousness, justice || He always fought for the cause of 

righteousness. p'^'ai»l'"^=^'5=^'=^^3i'qf3i'«S3i'|,^l 
5^'5^] honest, straight || An honest character is attractive. 

5^'q.P|=;] straight/honest talk || Everyone likes him because of his honest 

talk. p'^'5=;'q.P|^'|5n-q'N'5^'cdk-»i-p^n,V2^Ji]q] 
53J] (53J] 53J] 53J]) to miss, to remember || Because I am far away, I often 

miss my family. '^■gJ!]-^=;-'N^W^-qq-^3j-|,'N-=;'N-^aj-q^-5;c-S|-^»l-5^-53j] 
53j'^",l] reminder || Thanks for the reminder. 53j'^'^l'^'^'i!=^'^J!]^'^'i] 
53j'5J!]^] keepsake, memento, souvenir || I bought this souvenir in Lhasa. 

53j'^l memory, consciousness || I have no memory of what you said. 

53j'i!'5^=;'] unconscious || After drinking too much he fell unconscious. 

cB^'qi^^^'^^^'l^l P'53j'i!'s^=^'i!=^'^=^] After being unconscious for a week 

he died. J!]g'Tqpk-J!]5J!]-n,V53^-^!^-^-q|aj-|'N'p^Jg''".l's)-qs^'5^] 
53j'*^l consciousness || He lost consciousness after the accident. 

53j"^"-ll idea, thought || It is better for me not to tell anyone my thought. 

53j'-P|'^l memory || Now that I'm old my memory is not so good. 

53j'^^l recalling, remembering || As I and my friends were recalling our 
days as students, we all felt nostalgic. !;'=^=;'^J!]'N^cfM''^'§^q'»l''^3j'^'^'a5;- 

^] smell, scent || The smell of the earth was strong after the rain. cB^'qq'^' 
l^l-^l-q^^-q-^'i] Cooking mutton has a nice smell. '5J!]-.P|-q^'N-^-5-^»lW^l 
5'q] question || I can't answer your question. ^^■(i=^'^'5'q'".V'^13j''^^qM'5^'^qi 
^'5^1 smell, scent || I like the smell of cooking mutton. ^■'^J!]'.P|'C]^'5^'5](^'5'S^' 

^■(^»1] sweet smell, fragrant scent || The flowers gave off a sweet smell. 


^■q^^'l aroma, scent, smell || I like the aroma of baking bread. 

^3j] favor, grace, kindness || Because of my father's favor I was able to 

become a successful man. i^vvs^'l'^aj'^'^^q^'S]'^] ^'^^'^^^''^Sl^'^^'y^^l 
53j'33jl helpful, grateful || My teacher is very helpful. 

53j'53jl to feel the kindness/to be aware of favor || I could feel the 

kindness of my parents everyday. asj'^^^^'^^'s^'sl'l'^aj'^aj'Sj^] 
^aj'^-iaj''^^"-!] to repay the kindness || I will never be able to repay my 

teacher's kindness to me. =;'N-=^5i-^3j-".r5aj-".l3j-3j»l-«^=;-q^".V9S-5qi 
^aj'.Pj'^'i!] to be aware of kindness || I am aware of the kindness of my 

many friends. =;'^'5;c;-S|-^q]^)^»i!^^q-q'T^q-53j-^^)] 
^".vqsJlj'^] propaganda, announcement || Lately, there has been much 

propaganda about not smoking. 

5"-Vg] bell II There was no electricity so the bell did not ring. 

^'^'^ISjl answer, reply || Please speak loudly, I can't hear your answer. 

5^ six II There are six people in my family. ^^'cf^'^-l's^'^^'^^Sl 
^^'qjl six hundred || That family has got about six hundred sheep. 


5^'§] sixty II There were sixty people on the bus when it had an 

accident. ^^^-'^p^-f^vS^-fl^^-^^-^i^-^^^-^-s^-^^-l-ST'^l 
^^■^1 a sixth II The six children each received a sixth of their parents' 

property . |,'^'q'5J!]^".vp^c^'!^'»l'l'^^^'|,'5J!]'c5^'J!]5J!]'^^qi 
^J!]'^^] six thousand || There are six thousand people in my village. 


^'^^] sixth II I was the sixth person to pass the entrance examination 

from my village. '^■^■^■q'S'3j=^'3j'^-^q-5!-i3j-s?f\v^J!]'N-q|=^-qq-5^-5J!]-q-^3jl 
5^'=^] all six (together) || I want to buy all six of those books. 

5^'l near to, before, by || I was standing very near to the speaker. ^'JTI^S]' 
q,P|2;'s^p3i'^'5^'S'".l^^'"J=;| I was so near to the speaker that I could see 


him sweating. =;-5;]^5]-q.P|=^-5^p3j-|,-5!;-^-i^=^-qs)-!;s)-f^q-^q-^-q(a^-q^3j-q-5]g!:;- 

5^'"^^ secretary || She is an important official's secretary. 

51 'warm; 'happy || 'The weather is warm today, ^'^^^'^^'ajs^'^'^] "My 
mother is happy seeing so many of her grandchildren. ^'^'iJ^'s^'^'pi's^'^' 

5'§S1 happiness || I hope that your children give you much happiness. 


'^1 > -1 ^ 

5'5!^'l temperature || What's the temperature outside? 

5'^! heat, warmth || The stove gave off little heat. gq-'T]-^-".l'^^^-i3j^5^-f5r3jl 

53j'^l warm || Today was very warm. ^■=^^'=9'5^'53j''^'"^3j] 

5"^] to warm up, to heat up || Let's build a fire and warm up the house. 

'%'^^ lunch II Did you eat lunch today? ^'^'^'^'^'I'N^^-^iKrq^';-] 
=J\^'^\ (^S^'l ^'^^^l ^^^^D to open (usually, movement of the eyes and 

mouth) II Shut your eyes and don't open them until I tell you to. 


^^^^1 tone II Don't speak to me in an angry tone. p^'|g'S'^^'J!]=^^^'^'N'^'".V«^' 


J!]^3j'5^^] to invite || I invited her to my wedding party. 

£!j=;3j'^53j] invitation || He received the invitation in a red envelope. 

J!j=;3j'(a] invitation || Did you get an invitation to the wedding? 

^^s^'^T] option, choice || This is the only option I have. 

J!j=;s^'^J!j 'remedy; 'knack || 'l have a remedy for your problem. 

^'^'¥^^'i^^'^T'^"~'^'i*" '^^^^^'^l "He has a knack for learning 
languages. ^^■c5'^q-qq^J!]-3j'^-p^".VJ!]^»l-=;J!]-5J!]W^l 
J!j=;s^'J!^^M] selection, option || Student selection for higher education has 
just been completed. ^!^-5]g<^-^q-Jij»5<^-|q-5^-Jij=^5^-JijS^'N-^^-q-^^-»l-gJl]-5S3j| 


q]^"-!] (qs^t^l ^'^'^] ^"i]) to scatter, to spread out || When I feed the 
chickens, I scatter grain on the ground for them to eat. 

^1 (^\il ^xi'^l ^xi'^D ^° ^°il II ^ ^^^^ to boil some tea for you. 

^W'^'53j] violent, wicked, harmful, cruel || That man was famous for 
being a violent husband and father. ^?<'q'^'3;'|5'ZT|'=>^'B^'Ja'ZT|S5]"^!;"-53;"(asr|" 

JJKJJj'g'q] violence, savagery, cruelty || Television programs have a lot of 

violence . q^aj-q|aj-"i-cf3j'"-vJ!]^J!]'g'q'|'^=^'q^3j-i| 
JlKJi^'^5^'^] ill will, malice || I don't feel any ill will toward her, only pity. 

^=W]^] umbrella, parasol || The sun is bright so let's take an umbrella. 

^^W"^ '-''Ixi^l ^xi^'^l) to suffer, to be tormented || I was tormented by the 

hot weather. '^■".Vcf^'q'^-J!]S=;«)| 
^^■JS] lineage, descent || Can you trace your lineage to western Tibet? 

jjKR^q^]] 'generation; 'autobiography || 'He is the tenth generation of 
the first king of this area. p^-t^".v'|5!]'N-q^q-^".l^q-J!]S=;-^q'^-qfq-^3jl 'I 
found her autobiography very interesting. ^^■p'5^'S'J!]S^'=^q^'3j'"^'5^cf3j'c5'q' 

Jlj2;Rq^J!^ evaluation, assessment, appraisal || His evaluation of our work 
was favorable. p'^-^-§f'?-^-q-".VJ!]^^-'^Tj!]-^^-q-^-J!]I^M-q^=^-5S3j] 

^^^■^1 confidence, assurance || He has much confidence in being able 
to learn English. =^|,Sj-«Sq]-|k-^q-q^-p^".rJ!]^=;-af=^-i3j^w^l 

^SS'5^1 primitive, ancient, primeval || That song has a primeval sound. 

^^^■5^^'g'§&]'^] primitive society || That group of people has a long 
history after they passed the stage of a primitive society. 


^^3jl evil, demon || People say that he was possessed by a demon for 

two years. 9S'^»lM'|M'J!i^3j-|,M-pW£!]|M-".vq|=;-q^-q.P|=^l 
Jll=;aj'qJllJll^| obstacle/obstruction/interference caused by evil || An 


obstacle caused by evil prevented him from getting over his illness. 

^f] I, me II I am Dpal Idan. q^Jl]-^-^q"1-'^3j-5S3j] 

q=;J!]'^R] looking after, to feed, to take care of || We have to take care of 

the livestock everyday. '^■c?'^'|3i'^^'§J!]'N^J!]'".vq^J!]'|k-|,=^-=^q]'Ml 
q=;J!]'J!]a^] management, taking charge || Management of the factory 

became his responsibility. q5'5]^'q^^'^^^'^^'^'^'P'S''^^3j''^'5'5,^l 
q2;J!]'J!]a^'q] manager, administrative personnel || He has been a manager 

for two years. p^J!]|'^'".vq=^J!]'J!]^^'q'^Ml 
qW'^l owner, master, proprietor || He is the owner of the shop. 

q=^^■=^q^■l sovereignty || What country has sovereignty over the North 

Pole? ™^|'|'^'^'q=^J!]'=^q=^'§".vpq'J!]=^'".i'i^=^l 

^S^l (^S^l ^S*!^! qss^^l) to choose, to make a choice || I have to choose a 

husband soon. =;'N-5^-q^=^'^-q^-^J!]-^J!]-q=^»l-=^^^l 
q=^5^^'gaj'i!] election winner || He is the election winner. p'3j'q=^s^^'gai'i!'^=;| 
q=^=^l demon, fiend || His picture of the demon was terrifying. 


q=;3j] seven, week || I'll visit you seven days later. 

q=;3j"^5^ one week || We have a one week holiday. 

q=;3j'§] seventy || At our party we drank seventy bottles of beer. 


^^^] seventh || The seventh person who was injured died last night. 

q=;3j''^l all seven of, all the seven || All seven of those students are from 

the same county. ^q-»l-qS3j^=;-pJ!]-J!]5J!]'3j'N-Sr=;-q-^3jl 
q^l ^comfortable; 'healthy || 'His life now is very comfortable. ^''S'p^''^^ 

q'=9'5=^'q^l -You look thin and not healthy. q<^M'§§=^'".V(i=^%'5M^^=^'5=^'q^' 

q=;'g=;] happiness || Happiness often comes with sadness, =^^^|(^■s■5]•^5]■^■ 
q^''^^^^] peace, stability, security || I hope our country can have a long 


period of stability. =;!5i-=;-iq-^".vpq-".vt^3j-^=;-q^-q^J!]'^-'^q-q^-^3jl 
q^'^^^'l ^health; "level || 'He is not in good health. fS^q^-g'^-s^ajl "The fields 

here are all level. '^^■^ij'^-'N-^^-^^-s^-q^-g^-'SSaj] 
q^'5^1 'easy; "in good health || 'They lead a comfortable and easy life. 

p^cf'N'q^'q^'n§fq'?'^'q^3j'"5^] "I have not been in good health for more 

than a year. ^J!]5J!]-™J!]-".V!;S-'3'N^q^'s?s^'^^'l 
q^'q'53j] paradise || The beautiful forest with its rivers was like a 

paradise. ^•^'^•^'N'^aj'qq'3j£!]'N'cf".l'wiq]^-^-q^-q-53j'§-^:;-|^5]!5r2^!;-q5] 
^S'^^ ease, no problem || He finished his assigned work with ease. 

qS'5^1 goodbye || Goodbye and have a pleasant trip. 

q=;'"l''^J!]=;] to bring happiness to || I want to bring happiness to all my 

friends. =;'N-5;z;-S|-^q^^)^cf=^-»i'q^'"-V'^^=^''^'^=^l 
q^'"iJ!]'N] fine, well, in good condition || Are you well? ^=^'q^'":iJ!]'N'«Saj'3j»l] 
q^ajl true II Is what you said really true? ^=^'|'^-q.P|^-q^»l'^-q^3j-3j»ll 
q=;aj'=;i!^'] proof, evidence || This is proof that you were wrong. 


»1=;r=;J!j^'] last night || I telephoned you last night but you didn't answer. 

»1=^'^'^| appearance, color and luster || The color and luster of the stone in 

your ring is beautiful. ji^%»l^q'=^^'^'§!;-S|-g-|3i-§'»l=^=;'N'=5'5=^'8^¥'^| 
s^^'^] 'arrow; 'lower part of a valley || 'The arrow was made of wood. 

5^^T^'.P|RS]'^'qg'^] 'There is a river in the lower part of the valley. 

si^^T^aj] to shoot an arrow || I want to shoot an arrow at the target near 

the tree. '^'^•^=^'q5]»i%qq3j'".v5^=^q'q^3j'q^^l 
^xf'l spear || The only spear in our village is kept in the village temple. 


s^^v^l to tie II I'm teaching my daughter to tie her shoes. ^M'^z^'tn'g's^'fwp' 

^^'^^] knot II I can't untie this knot. '^'N-s^S^^-q-q^-q^^-VS^-^qi 

5^S3jl front II Please look at the front of the room. p=;-qq-»lS3j-".V'^M-=^=;-l 

^\i^^^l rn^rching/going forward, progressing || The group of students 


went marching forward down the road. ^]q"s^'7'c5'5]'^'i!'^'ffi'",W^=;'3j'^'»lS3j' 

»1S3'^M] front cover, front side || The front cover of the book is made of 

plastic. ^^■c5'S'»1^3i^^'^'|'^''^|,J!]'^'N-ql'^l 
s^^aj-^J!] table II The table is made of wood. »1^3j-3J!]-^--Pj=;-^'N-".l'Nl 
s^Saj'S] in front of || Please stand in front of me. =;q-»lsaj-ajM-"r=;'Nl 
^xi^^'^'^l front side/direction || The front side of the car was crushed in 

the accident. c5J!]'|^"-l'^-5.=;'^-qpk-|,-»i^3j-'|j!]'N-^q'Nl 
»l^aj'"l»l] future respect, future || She has a bright future. 

5^=;3j'-P|^ front page || Did you see the picture on the front page of the 

newspaper? ^J!]'^-q^-|,-»lS3j-?iJ!]-^=;-^-q5-q^-".V^^-|«j-i?:vq<^5j| 

5^=>3'q^] ^greeting; 'to welcome || ^A greeting with a smile does not 
necessarily mean a hospitable heart. (^^s^'s^=^^'^'^^'5^S3j'q^'^=^'i!'3j's^5]3j' 
|s]-|-qq-qsj»l-q-^qj-!!^3j-qq-^s]-q-g^;^| "We welcome you to visit our home. 

Sl=^■=^ajl gist II I couldn't understand the gist of his lecture. 

si^'5^^1 shiftless, good-for-nothing, shilly-shally || The wife divorced her 

shiftless husband. ^^^-s^-^-pTq-jf J!]-»i^5^^-=^=;^^l 
5^=^■^5^] in short, briefly || Briefly, I will tell you what happened. 

5^=^^ ^color; 'appearance || 'What is your favorite color? [i^'S'^'^^Tq'!' 
s^Y'l^^^^^^l 'I could tell by his appearance that he was ill. ^'^'R'l'^' 


«^'^Jl]'53jl colorful II This is a colorful skirt. q^-^-^=^-J!]25i!]'^-s^'^J!]-53j-^J!]-^^l 
»l=;J!j's^=;] colorless || He was so sick that his face was colorless. p'3;'^'5Jr|' 

5^^JI]'.P|=^] to fade II After many washings the trousers' color began to 

fade . g!;'N'si=;^^'q^M'1'N';if^!;'|»i'|,'si^J!]'?i'^'q^q§'»i'^l 
s^^N^'q^s^] brief, abridgement || Please write a brief summary of what you 

have read. ^^■|'N-3;K,-^!^-^!^-!^q-$%^q]-q^q^^)-q-q-|j!^^)-^»l-sj^^-q^^)-^q]-|^)] 
^'^^ C^S^ S^) 'to clean; 'to die || 'The chalk dust on the blackboard was 

cleaned away by water leaking from the roof. R^'gJll''^'^'^''^^Jll'^'3j^'a' 


's)5^'S^'S^'s]-|q^-2^qj 'Many sheep died from a strange disease, aj^'^'s^cfej" 

'^S^'?^! detergent, cleansing agent || How much detergent should I put 
in the washing machine? 

'^^^'l to be enough, to be sufficient || The provisions for our journey are 

enough for five people. =;'c^'".l»l'^J!]'N'^'N'5^'<^".vq=^=;'| 
'^=^q■c5^'^] birds || Chickens and geese are birds. 

t^s^q'^l leaf II The leaf slowly fell from the tree. '^=;^-q=^q-5^-=^".v|,^-™=;-l 
'^^q'^] 'near; "lower part || 'The school is near the hospital. ^q'5j'3j'^|3j'p^'J!]' 
•^■'^^q'^'^w!^] 'Some trees grow in the lower part of the valley. 

'^=^5^] mire, swamp, bog || There is a swamp near the river. 

'^f^] C^f^] '^^'^D ^to pass (on time); "to go beyond || 'The time for grief 

has passed. g'q(^'S'^''^=;*5'33j] "His actions were beyond what is 

permitted. pq-|=^-q-^-S'^-".l'^-q=^'Nl 
^'^] to tremble, to shake, to shiver || When I'm outside in winter I 

tremble from the cold, ^^^jf^'l'^"-!'^] =;<^-^!^-5]=;-3j'^-q^^l 
q=;^'(a5^'(a5^] shaking with fear || She was shaking with fear when she 

heard the wolf howl. jW)'|=;''T]q'<?-^'^-(^3i-q^'^'S'^'^J!]'3j'N'^!^-q=^^'(g»l'(g»l' 

(^s^i^'gs] loss of life, death || His death grieved us all. pq'(^=>?i"^3;" 

q^^^•5^c5=^] funeral rite || This funeral rite requires about an hour. 

^] this II This is my book. '^^■^■=;'l'=^^'c5'^ajl 

^'^^] here, over here || I live over here. ^■'^^■J!]=^'?^w;| 

'^^'^31 li'^^ this, such as this || I want a knife just like this one. ^'"-V^!'^^' 

'^^■^^ these II Are these your pens? q^'=^J!]'^'^=^'^''|J!]'N'|J!]'5Saj'3j»l] 
^S^^] like this, such || Can you paint a picture like this? 


'^S'^l this person || This person is my relative. 5]"(^!;'^'^q'5 
^^] these II These men are brothers. |M'q''^^'§^'^3j'|'^3j| 
'^^■^l here || When did you arrive here? jiS''^S'5'3i5^'^S''^^l 
^'^] C^!^] ^^'^^]^'^'^\) Ho spread; "to make (bed/plan); ho unfold || 
'Please spread a sheet on the bed. s^".V|g'l'^^'".V=^'^'J!]=^3j'g^'^] 'Please 
make the bed. 5^",V'^'g^'^] I will unfold the bedding in a few minutes. 

'^l ('^l ^^^\) to assemble, to congregate, to gather || A crowd 

assembled in the park. ^^■'T]'^=^'9S'§&]^'q^^] 
^^^] tumult, noise and excitement, hubbub || The tumult was so great 

that I couldn't sleep. '^■'^l'i'q'^'=;'J!]|=^'^=^'»l'^qi 
'^■-Pj^l concept, idea, ideology || Socialism and capitalism are different 

ideologies. |-^J!]'N-^=;-'5'^'N-^=;-»l-§'^=;-'5J!]'^-5;]^!^-^-qs-^'s)-g-=^J^-"^3j| 
'^^ 'to stay; 'in a condition of doing something; Hhere is/are || 'How 

long will you stay with us? (i=^''^'c?^'^'*l^*l'S'S'^''^aj'^'§f^'"-V'^'^'^'^ail 'He 

is working. p'^'^'^'"-l'^'^3j''^^ ^ There are three yaks near the river. ^' 

q^J!]'^^!]'^] 'seat; "chair || 'Please have a seat over here. '^=^'J!]'S''^J!]'^J!]'^'".V 
^=^1 "I bought that wooden chair in Xining. =;'N-.f|=;-Sl-q^J!]-^J!]'N-^i-"i=;-3j'N- 

'^J!]'^3j'^] residence, lodging || I've lived at this residence for only two 

months. =;-q^J!]-J!]3j'N-q^-^-J!]|'N-»l-J!]yJ!]'N-»l-q^=^l 
'^^l '^^i?^l ^i^^l ^^1-* ^° come near, to be close || Come near the fire and 

warm up. «^'P^'^,^=^'3j'N'^'^'5'^'^'l^'Nl 
^^^^] aspiration, wish, desire || What is your wish for your children? 

(i^'|'|^'q^'^=;'3j'N-ji^-".vqS3j-q-5'^J!]W^l My desire to learn English makes 

me study hard. '^^v=^|;3j-t^J!]-|k-qY^-|-(^^3^-q!^-!^-n,V|!^-qf3j-i3j^|=^-q3;-^'^-5]- 

'^^l ('^s^l '^^'^1) to mediate, to reconcile || I will attempt to reconcile 
these two warring groups. =;'N'n||J!]'f^'|,^'qq'^Jl]'N'p5[j-qj|MTrc^5^-^-fij3j| 

qSyS^'qgjJ!^ reconciliation, mediation || After a period of conflict there was 
a period of reconciliation between the two groups over grazing 
rights. '^(|J!]'f=^'|'^^'^q^v-pjJ!]'^'|^r^i§J!]'N-qs?*q-=^q=;-c5^'^=^'3j'N-§f^ 


'^"'1 '-^^"■'1 ^i7"~'l ^""'D ^° subdue, to tame, to vanquish || How did you 

tame that wild horse? ji=^'^'N'^'^=^'^'l'<^^'q^".vq'«S3j] 
q^qj-sj] (1^1^ ^^^^] '^^^]) to lift, to raise up || Please lift that end of the 

box. §^»i-^q-|-p-^-q^J!]'^-Tj!]^)] 
'^^'^]) to be clear (fog, cloud) || The fog cleared at about ten o'clock in 

the mommg. ^■^^i'3j'g3j'f sf=^'^3jt'^^l^^l 
n^^^ (q'^;^! ^;^| g:^|) 'to follow; "to drive (animal) || ^The lamb foUowed its 

mother wherever she went. s^'5^'J!]^'".V^'3j''5'^'^(^'^'^'".V^^] "Please drive 

the sheep to the river this afternoon. ^'^^'^^^''^^'^'P^'^^l 
'^^^'^1 (^^^1 ^^^1 ^^^1) to sow, to plant || We will sow highland barley 

seed this morning. ^•^!;-^-5-!;'§f'N'3jM'»raj'q^q'N'^'5S3j] 
q^s^l (^^5^1 q=^5^^1 '^^s^^D to choose, to select || When will you choose a 

time for your wedding? (i=^'^'N'^!^'^'^^3i'^3i'^'S'^'5f^'3j*l'§f'^'^^*l'^'"^3il 
q^NS^^l'q^l election, voting || The election took place last week. 

q^NS^'^'SJl^'q] nominee, candidate || He is one of three candidates for the 

position. p^'^J!]3j'^-^q-q^»l'N-|^J!]-q-J!]^»l-5]!^-^-J!]5J!]'«S3jl 
q^s^^'=;»l^^] electorate || Twenty percent of the electorate did not vote. 

q^^s^'^•^P|J!^ vote II Every vote was counted before seven p.m. 

q^!]'^! (^^^'^l q^^'N] gJll'Nl) to tie, to fasten, to attach || He tied the horse's 

reins to the tree. p'^-^-^-^^-»l=^q'^=;^".vq^J!]'^l 
q^^l to want, to wish, to desire || I want to go to Lhasa on pilgrimage. 

q=^=^■53j] lustful II His lustful uaturc was obvious to everyone. pq'<^=\'>'5j=\' 

q=^=^■c5^^1 lust, pornographic desire || Try to control your lust when you 

are in public. 5]-5]s;-*i^-ig=^-^!^-^s;-^-q'^2^-c5J!]'^'".v^^'ql3j''|^^l 
q=^^■'^] desire || He had great difficulty in controlling his desire. p'^J'^z^'tri' 

q^=^'^'g=^] to have sex || He wants to have sex with her. p'^'p's^'S^'i^ig^'^^' 

q=;=;'(^3j| greed || His greed was without limit. pq'q=;=;'i^aj'"l'^=;'5^=;| 


q=;=;'«^s^«^] greedy desire || His greedy desire for women, money, and 
power destroyed him. ^s^-ajs^-^^^^-^^-s^j ^q^^'cB'q^'^'^-VqS'^'sj-qq-qY^Ais^M-^s]- 

^'^%']] greed || His greed never lessened. 'pq-q^^-^^-f^-3j»l-"^=;-^»l'^-q-s^^] 
f^^aj] (^S3jl q^3jl 53j]) Ho read; 'to dig out || ^I read the newspaper every 

morning. ■^3;'^(^'<5Jr|!5^'q^'^'^'cf^'^'s^==;'«i'q<3] "The miners are digging coal 

out of the mine. J!]^^-^»ip3j-|,^-J!]^^-".l'N^".vq^3j-q^3j-«r=^l 
'^'nSj'S^] furnishing, supplying || The furnishing of adequate electricity to 

the city is a problem. ^'^'(i^''^V^^''^=^'^^^'^3i'|''^'|=^'5'^'^3i=^^3i'^^'"^3il 
q=;^] (2;^] =;^] =;^]) to cast away, to give up, to discard || I want to give up 

gambling, '^'^'^^j^'^l,'^'!'*^^^''^'^'^! 
^^51 like, seem, as, to be the same, to be alike || Those twins are just 

alike. »ljf»l''^^'c?'^51 
^^51 (51 ^'^l ^'^l) ^o '^^t ^itli scissors, to shear, to cut off || I cut the cloth 

with a pair of scissors, ^'^'p'^j'^'^^'^'^'^] 
'^5'c6^^''^] resemble, similar || She really does resemble her mother. 

q^'s^as^] equality, equal || These two cups have an equal amount of beer. 

^^5^131] image, statue || The Buddha image is made of stone. 

'^^'^^l similar, equal, alike || The weather yesterday and today is similar. 

q^'^^^l picture, photograph || Would you like to see a picture of my 

children? ji^'|'N-=;q-|,^-q-§?q-q5-q^-^J!]-".vq'^-q^^-'^5]] 
q^q] similar, like || This book and that book have similar themes. 

q^'s^^^'^l similar, same, equal || I had an illness similar to yours last 

year. 3j-^^-^-".V(i=^-|'3i=^T'^5'«^^^^'i'1l^1 
^%] (51 ^'^l ^'^l) to ask, to question || Please ask a question if you don't 

understand. ^".lyji'^'^'^-^^-^-qyg-qlTj!]'^] 
^^5^5^] bringing to a trial, judicial inquiry || The judicial inquiry was 

held in the court building. ^s^'N-p^-aj'N-q^-J!]^'^-^^! 
^^5^^ examination, investigation || The examination revealed no wrong- 


doing on your part. '^|y!l'^'^'=^'"-l'N'(i=^'|''|?!l'N'^'|3i'«^=^'=^'q^3il 
^^^ question || Please repeat your question. ^'^'^''^^'S^^'^g^'^'^'g^l 
'^^'^l to be familiar, to be intimate, to be acquainted || I would like to be 

acquainted with you. ^■(i^'^^''^5^''^^^l 
^^5^1 (^^5^1 5^1 5^1) to drag, to pull || The horse pulled a log to the house. 

^^51 devil, demon, ghost || People say a ghost comes here at night. 

q^'SJjj'^] to be possessed by an evil spirit || Her wild cries suggested that 
she was possessed by an evil spirit. 

'^Isjl (5=^1 5=^'Nl'5'^'^l) 'to ship; "to bring || 'l shipped a box of books to 

England. =;'^-=^q-c5'§^»l-^J!]-=^|;3j-|-".V5=;'Nl "He brought knowledge to 

students. =;'^-^q-»l-^»l'N-".V^'N-^-5=;'Nl 
q^'^'l^] combination, synthesizing || He speaks in a combination of 

Tibetan and Chinese. ■p^-q'^-^^-=^=;-^-^=^-q5'N-|k-^J!]-q.P|^l 
'^^'^'^l mingling, compound || A college is a place where mingling of 

people from many places occurs. ^]q'^'i3j's^'aj'^'c5'5^^'q'3j^'g3j'i!'^'5^''^5^'5^' 

t^s;''^'sci^'u^3j| The mingling of new ideas and old ideas produced 

conflict. '^•q'J!]'N^'|=^'(^5'N'q-'^!^-qj!]".vq'q^]!;'Nl 
^^5^ C^5^ '^^^^D 'to run in fear; "to be startled || When the car honked 

its horn the horse was startled and ran off the road in fear. 

E^] (qs^^l qs^^l E^\) to file, to grind || When will you file these knives? 

E"i\ C^EPi] qj"-!] i"-!]) to scatter || We want to scatter fertilizer on the fields 

this afternoon. ^■^^■|^^-'^-cfM-'N-^^-^^-".V'5=^-f M-q^".V3j-q^=^l 
^q] (q^q] q^q^]^q^) to fall down, to collapse II The house may collapse 

unless it is repaired. |^=^'q'q^'^»l'N'J!]»f5^'^^'S'5]3;-q^q-|2^] 
EF] C^ES] ^ES^] E^'^]) to beat, to hit || Don't beat your children. ^^'I'^'^s;' 

S|'|,'^'i!''^'»l'qs=;'l I don't want to beat my children. '^'N'^'^'S^'l^sj'q'n.Vg^R-s^ 

ESE.'^ beating, blow, striking || Beating students makes them angry. 


5".l] dust, small particle || There is some dust in my glass. ^q'Ssct]-,^!'^-^^-"^- 
5a]-5Bq|5j-Sr=^| The books were covered with dust. =^^'c5''^5n'J".v|,'^'pq^] 

5",V",1R",1^'] dusty, rolling dust || The air was dusty after the herd of horses 
passed by. ^■(|-»r=;-:Qnj-^-3j»l-»ipq-".V5".V"r=;-'^=;-q§^l 

£1^ (q^J!] q^Jlj^N] ^J!]'^) to strike, to beat, to hit || I hit a ball with a stick. 

jq] (q^q] q^q^] ^q^D to clap, to applaud || We will clap after your 

performance . ^=^'|'^-|=^-s?q^3j-'|'N-=;-§fM-g".V5fq^q-^'Nl 
B stone, rock || The stone was carved with a Buddhist phrase. 

rpq^'^iaj] magnet || This magnet attracts metal. Fpq'"i3j'^'N''^J!]'^'=^J!]'^''^53j] 
F^5^] oil, petroleum || They are drilling for oil in the dessert. 

5'^^'] stone pillar, tablet || The tablet says this is an important historical 

site . 'F^!;'".i'^'q^'^''T^'N'^'J!]3j'^'J!]".viaj'^£!]'5saj'q^'q.p|^l 
F-P|".l] crystal || The crystal gleamed in the light. 

"^"-l] coal II Coal is black and bums.'^"-l%3jJ!]'5=^''^q^'-Pi=^'il 
^^■^^■^^ to kick II If the dog tries to bite me I will kick it. 

5^"^] package, bundle || The package was very heavy. 5^'i!'^'=9'5^''3^] 
?f\l| (q?f\l| qj"-!]) 'to break out, to burst, to come out; 'to originate/stem || 
'The hot spring broke out through the ground surface, ^'^'^■^^■qf'^' 
3j^^3j] 'The Yellow River originates in Qinghai. |j'^'5^§b^'3j'^'5"1] 
'^^ (q-^Ji] q'^J!]'^] "^^l^ND to lick || She licked the candy. pr^-'T]-^-q'^Ji]'^| 
c^l (^2^1 ^c'^l c^D to chew II Many Americans chew tobacco. 

'^] 'double; 'times || 'Eight is the double of four. q^=^'^'q^q"'^q'5;|i5;|-'^3jl 
'My brother has three times as many sheep as I do. ^'S'^aj'"-!'^'!''^^'^' 

"Sq'g]^^] multiple of a number || Four is a multiple of two. 

^^■] (^R] ^R] '2^'^]) to leap II The horse leaped over the fence. 

• 144. 

^^"|3] rumbling sound, thunder || The sound of thunder woke me up. 

"2^ (^^ ^^'^l S^'^D 'to pour; 'to store || ^Please pour more tea in my 
cup. ^^■Si^'q(^'3jR^'5^R=;'qJ!]«^] 'We wiU store the vinegar in this jar. ^' 

■^^Nj ("^^s] q=;] q=;]) Ho water; 'to provide (a person/animal) with water || ^I 
watered the horses this morning. i^Jn's^'q^'^^'S'SS^'^'".!'^'^^] 'I gave the 
beggar a cup of water. ^^'S^'^'^'^-ra'^^^'^^'^^] 

^i^'^tn!?^] vegetable, stalked plant || My favorite vegetables are greens. 

'SSi'^\ garden || I planted tomato seeds in my garden this morning. ^'-^R' 

i^s^'^'q] gardener || The gardener is fond of flowers. 

■S's^^ key II Put the key in the lock, turn it, and open the door. 

"^qs^'g^l] fresco, wall painting, mural || The temple fresco was destroyed 

in a fire. =^3]3j'qq''^q'^'|'^'s^'|3j'^J!]'".l'^'q5.J!]'^l 
■SS^'s^] nimble, unstable || He had a way of using words in a nimble way 

to get what he wanted. 

"^Jlj (^^ "i^ "i^) Ho counteract, to be opposite/contrary to; 'to return || 

'He is always trying to counteract what I order. p'^'3j5^'^^'^'S'q'T]=^'i!''3^' 

t'N'l,^] 'I will return home in one hour. '^■^■§f^'^5J!]'§]'|'^'^'^".V".V'^J!]'^' 

"^Jjj'ys^^s'q] inevitable, unalterable || It is inevitable that we will all die. 

"S^'^^^l opposite side, reverse/negative side || On the opposite side, she 

is kind. '^^■15!l'N•3jM•q^P|=^•3jl p^q-5^»i'^'qg!;'l 
■ss^'s^] tramp, vagrant || Few people gave the tramp money. 

f ^'1 to hate, to have hatred || Don't hate him, instead, feel pity for him. 

^R^»l^| hostility, enmity || Why do you have such hostility for me? 


f=^'»l] coward || He is a coward and afraid of everything. p'3j'5]' 

r^ (^?^ qf ^^] ?^^1) to blame || Don't blame me for your own 

mistakes. ^=^'^'N'^=;'^^^'n(|".v|,^3j'S'=;'".V»l'|j!]Ml 
|j!]'qi sin II What is the worst sin? ^JJl-q-i^N-ciaj-q-^-S-^Jll-^Saj] 
f ^ to be depressed, to suffer from || I was depressed after my sister 

died. =;q-|!;-5?q=^'N'1'N'=;q'^»i'^'^J!] 
f ^■^=^l complaint, grumbling || I'm tired of hearing his constant 

f ^'^1 sad melody, elegy, threnody || The flute's sad melody moved 

everyone. |!;'gq'^J!]'^'".l'^'5^'^=;'»l'".V^»l'N'q^".vgq'Nl 
^q^-q«a.i| hardship, suffering, misery || Having little money is a hardship. 

?^^^ to be at the end of one's wit, to have no alternative, to be at a loss 
II I have no alternative but to punish my son. 

f ^'tJ] miserable, poor, bad, worse || He lived in miserable conditions. 

p^Jl^aj'N'qq'^J!]^".!'^^! His health is very bad. pq''5'^'p»l'^'=9'5=^'^_5i]'q'(^^5i] 
?^i^l suffering, maltreatment || Poverty is suffering. 

f ^■g'q] cruelty, savage || His cruelty led to his wife divorcing him. 

f ^■^'^l diligence, industry, endurance || Her endurance under such harsh 

conditions was admirable. 

f ^■"1'^] hard work || Hard work can help you earn money. 

f ^] 'to collect, to gather; 'to raise; 'to organize || 'Tonight we will 

gather the sheep here. S'S^^'l ^'^'^''^^''^S'^'r^'^'^^j] 'He raises sheep. 

P^ "3^ S^l ""He wants to organize the workers. p^'qf'q'c^S'^'aj'n^] 
f =^■5^] broom, sweeper || My mother made that broom. ^^WS^'^'S=;'»l'=;'".l'^] 
f =^■".13j] collecting, raising || Collecting enough money to rebuild the 

temple took a long time. 


^5^] (q^s^i q^s^M] ^s^s]|) to mediate, to reconcile || He has promised to 

mediate the quarrel. 'p^-f^-J!]^-^-q^5^-^-p'N-'^l3j-^^l 
r^l (^?^1 ^r^l r^l) to compare, to discuss, to contest || Let's compare 

these two coats and see which is best. "sjq''^=;'J!]ft^'qs=^yJ!]^'q3^'".vq<3| 
f 1 unit, group, community, village, section || Our village has fewer 

people than it used to. '^'S^-S-qq-s^-^^-n.i'sj-a!;-] 
f ■p'J] work unit, section, group, division || What work unit employs 


W'^^] village chief || The village chief is elected by the villagers. f'S^^;' 

f'cf3jl category, classification, unit, section || What category does this 

belong to? q^-^-cfaj-q^^^-q-qy^q^^)] 
Sq] (q§q] qSq^] sq^]) to mix, to blend, to group II Please mix the flour 

and water. ^■^'^'|'^|'^'|^'N'=^'^'l 
f q'g^] combination || The combination of mutton with sugar was 

strange to me. '5J!]-.P|-=^=;-'T]-^q-Sq-|'^-^-!;-n,V»ljf3j-3j-^-»lcf3j'^J!]'^^l 
sq'naSk'] wholesale || I bought these items at a wholesale price. 

^^■»ll plate, saucer || Put the plate in the kitchen. ^^■»l-^-J!]25'^-p=;-3j=;-S-(^5!] 
?^1 (^?^1 ^f^'^l] r^'^1) to accompany || I want to accompany you 

shopping. '^■(i^'^=;'q^=;'N-3j'Nyc5'^J!]-q^-q^q^=^l 
f ^'q] tree, trunk || The tree was so large that we could not reach around 

it. ^=;^5^'q'^'!;'cf'N'".iJ!]'5n'^!;-|'^-3^!^'5^g'Tq^^'5!;'5^'|q'^l 
^=;] (^^] q^=;] ^=;]) to stay, to live, to sit, to remain || Please sit on this 

cushion. qqKvq]=^3j-q^q-^=;-3j'N-'^=^l 
f S'l^^'] residence, house, apartment || My apartment is on the seventh 

floor. =;^'^=^'p=^'q^3j^J!]'3i'«r«^| 
a=;'»ip3j] dweller, resident || The resident of that house is ill. 

f ^'^aj^l place of residence, dwelling place || My place of residence is 

the same as my father's. =;q-^=^-J!]3j'N-^-=;q-i3Vi-s5q-^^-J!]aj'^-=^=;-J!]5J!]'«S3jl 
f5i] (q^5^] ^^5m] ^5m\) to total, to add, to sum up || When I add one to 

one I get two. =;'N-Jl]5Jl]'=^=;'Jl]5Jl]'q^»l'N-^'Jl]|'N^q| 


^»1] (q^s^i q^s^s)] ^»is)]) to tie, to bind, to bundle || Please bind this 

bundle. '^M^q^-'^s^M] 
fs^'(|«^'^l 'vow; 'taboo || 'The monk did not break his vow. q§3j'^'^'p^' 

^s^'l^s^'^'n.l^'s^'qjl^n.l] "A taboo is a ban resulting from social custom. 

f s^'tj] vow, religious discipline || The monk took a vow never to drink 

liquor. q|3j'q'^'S)-l3^1-3;qj-qj^3j-3jM-§-q^:;-qq-W5^-q-q(^5)| 

f 5^'g''^] statistics || The statistics on education show that improvement 

has been made. ^q'J!]^^^J!]'Sl'^5^%^V'^l'N-qf;-q^".V^=;-Sr^-q-»l§?3jl 
q^l signal, sign || He made a sign that he was thirsty. p'^'=^R'^!>'|^'^5^'i]'l' 


qs'liq] notification, announcement || I got your wedding announcement 

yesterday. p-'^^-^-'^V^^-|-^^3j-^3j-|-q^-(iq-q^^l 
qs'5] notice, notification || The notice was posted on the blackboard. 

qF^=^l grammar || I have never studied Tibetan grammar. 

qs^'-Pj decision, judgment || I don't agree with your decision. 

qf '"131] collection || Would you like to see my stamp collection? 

q^'^tj^qj storing up || The storing up of enough food for winter takes 
much time and effort. =^^3j'p^'g'N'q=^!;^q^'J!]»«]'|,=^'q'".VS'^-ai3i-^!;-q-5,- 


q^s^^'5]^^] total number/quantity || What quantity of bricks do you 

q^»lM'aj] in total, in sum || In total, the population of Qinghai was about 

six million in the year 2007. ^!^-fcq^3^-'55;-»ia^3j-|^-5^-5]:;si-qw5^si-aj-!^-n,i»i- 



3jl Hf; 'age; ''to be sick "'as long as || ^ If you do it, I will to. ^'^'^'^''^'^'^l 
=^»J'^=^''^'f^»J'^'«l3ji "What is your age? ^=^'"r3j'S'5S3j] ^I was sick all last 
week. J!]g'T'^p=^'^3j'5^'^^^'".V^'3j'^^'] ''As long as you agree with me we 
can remain friends. ^^''^'=^=^''^5=^'=^'^'^'3il '^'c?=^'^'^=^'?i'5^^'^'^^'^^|=^'l'^l 

3j'^^'] young II The young man liked dancing. 

3j''^^s^] marsh, swamp || The sheep was lost in the marsh. '^^■3j''^=;»l'3jM'q=^] 
3j'3j^'] last year || I got married last year. 3j'3j^'^'J!]^3j'aJ!]'^^] 
3j'g3j] mist, fog II Fog covered the mountain's top. 3j'g3j'^'N'=^'g'pq'^] 
3j'cf| illness, disease, sickness || This was the first time for him to 

experience illness. '^^■^■p'",r3j'cd^'s^=^'^^'q'^3j] His illness made him 

weak. 'f5q-3j-cf^'^'p<^-^!^-^!;!^-^»lM'^'q§J!] 
3j'§§kl age II At what age did you start school? 

3j'J!](^3j] juvenile, youth || The youth had no parents. 3j'J!](^3j'=;'"1'^'5^'»l=;] 

3j'|^ pain, ache || I have a pain in my leg. ^^■if^^'q'".V3j'^J!]'"l^'^| 

3j^l same-aged (persons) || The same-aged students are in the same 

classroom. 3i'S=^'5t]S5i]'q<^'Jq'5]-^s]!^-|q-|^c;-si|Sq|-^-^!^| 
3^^] even though || Even though she is not beautiful, I still love her. 

3jJ!]'33jl black, evil || His heart is evil. 'p^".vq'N»l-q-3jJ!]-53j-^J!]-Sr=^l 
3j^'^Ml crime, offence || What crime did the prisoner commit? 

3jJ!]'a^'53j] criminal || The criminal was in handcuffs. 

3j^'^] black II Black is darker than brown. S^'i!'".l^'3j^'i!'3j^ 

3j^'c5^'l black market || Drugs are bought and sold on the black market. 

aj^'^'cf"-!] forest II After all the forest's trees were cut down the soil 


washed away. 3jJ!]'N-cf".Vcf!;-»i-q5^-cf^-1'N-'N-q§=^-?i=^] 
3jq^M'n.lM| forestry || He did forestry work in southern Qinghai. 

Sjs^'i^^J] internal, inside || My supervisor told me it was an internal matter 
and not to be discussed outside our company. ^'S''^J!l'q'^'^'".V'^=;'3j'3j^'|^«J' 

aj^'f^p^^] retinue, close maid || Wherever he goes his retinue goes too. 

3j^'(5".ll internal organs || My internal organs were injured in an accident. 

aj^'^M] inside || It was cool inside the building. gJ!]'p^'J!]'3j^'3j'q^'^l] 
3j^'q^ra| private talk, secret conversation || I overheard their secret 

conversation, ^^'p^c^'aj^'^lj^s^'^]^'] 
3j^'S3jl meaning || What is the meaning of that proverb? 

aj^'f^^aj] importation || The importation of some items is prohibited. 

3j^'^".vq] traitor || He was a traitor to his country. 

3j^'=^".ll inside || Please come inside my room. ^^■p^'q^'3j'>'=^"^'"^'.P|'3] 
aj^'"1M] housework || She had to do all the housework. 

3^^'^^^] sub-unit, an internal category || My office is a sub-unit of a 
larger work unit. =;^-J!](^^-|q-p'^-^-"-l'N-f^5'N-i-q-^J!]-Sl-3j^-J!]^lM-«S3jl 

aj^^'^'»l] early morning || I got up in the early morning before the sun 
rose. 3j=;'N'^'si^'»l'»l'.P|^'^!^'=^'»l".V".l'^'".F's)| 

3J^M'S11 morning || The sun rises in the morning. 3j^'^'s^=^'a's^'nc5^1 
3j=^] illness, sickness, disease || How long did your sickness last? 

Sfs^^] chronic illness || Hepatitis is a chronic illness. 

3i=;'S^^] symptom || Yellow eyes are a symptom of liver disease. 

s^5!j-i^^-qTS|3j-3j-5^|3j-3j:^-^-3j:^-^q^M-u|3j| Being tired all the time is a symptom 
of a disease. ^^•^3j'i!^'g'^'S=^'i]'^'aj=^'£5i]'^'-S5i]""S^3j| 


3j=;'q5J!] diagnosis || This doctor's diagnosis is different from that 

doctor's. ^3j'^''^^'N'3j=^'^^^'g,'^vq-^3j-q-^'N-3j=^-q^J!]-^M-q-=^=;-9S-q51 
Sj^'^^l patient || The patient in that room is from your viUage. 

3f\^] bacteria, germs || I saw the bacteria with the microscope, ^^'^'sig^' 

3j=^'J!]SrJ!] nurse || My sister is a nurse. =;q'|=;'s5^'3j=^'J!]Sw]-5J!]'«Sajl 
aj=;'=^J!]^] diseases || What diseases are common in your home area? 

3jS'^l chronic disease || He died last year from a chronic disease. 

3j3j'^'^] emphaticaUy, earnestly, seriously || He seriously emphasized the 
dangers of smoking again and again. p'^'g'5]qi'(^g3;'q(^''^3;'l^(^'s^'^^w]R 

3j3j'^aj] earnest, serious || His manner was earnest, but I still did not 
believe him. pq-|^-^=;'^-^-3j3j-^3j-«S3j-^=;-l =;-^-^=;-p^".l-^=^-»l-i'Nl 

3jaj'aj3j] serious || Don't laugh, be serious! 5^■^^^■^=^■aj3j■3jaj■^^r^P|J!] 

3j3j''J] serious, earnest || She was serious when she asked me to marry 
her. pw^)-^-^^-qi^3j|qi-|=^-|^-&-^^-^q^l pTq-'^-^'^V^-SjSj^^ajl 

3js^l 'or (question particle put after the letter na); 'When? || 'Should I 
follow his wishes or deny them? =;'^-^q-qY^-q-=^=;-q^3j-3j»l-«^=;-3j-^".vqJ!]".V 
^^^•q^'^J!]^] "When did you come to Xining the first time? |i^'3'".l^'".V 

3j»l-sipq] sky II The kite fell from the sky. ^J!]-^-aj»l-»ipq-3j'N-»l^-™=;-l 
3j5^'^^'] midnight || At midnight our party ended. 3js^'^^'".V^'§f^W§§J!j^'^l] 
ajsi'gaj] usual, consistent, always || His usual clothes are a shirt and 

trousers . ■pq-aj5^-^3j-|,-qiaj-q-^-a^-'^i3j-^J!]-=^^-ifi^-|5^-^J!]-^3jl 
3js^'(^J!^ one day, at one time || One day I will be rich. 

3js^^l climate, season || Tell me about the climate in your country. 

ajs^'^^l always || I will always love my parents. 

ajs^'^aj'^^'l whenever || Whenever you come to visit is fine with me. 


3j^'3j^l long and narrow || The bridge over the stream is long and narrow. 

aj'^] ^barley; 'so that; ^from || 'This barley has rotted. 3j'^''^=^'^'^V'^S^ "I 
want to learn English so that I can learn science and technology. ^'^^ 
=^|;Sj'5Sq]-q^]q^)-3j'N'cfej'^J!]'=^';'".lJ!]'g'".V^q''^'Y^l ^Where do you come from? 

51 (ai S(^] 5^]) to suck II The baby sucks its mother's nipple. 

a'q] younger brother || When was your younger brother bom? 

a"5^] breasts || She washed her breasts with warm water. 

5'«^] younger sister || My younger sister is two years younger than me. 

^] to move II The child moved towards his mother. ^'N'il'i^M's^q'^Jij^'^] 
aq] to set (sun), west || The sun sets in the west. ^'s^'S^'^^'^'^'a^l 
Sj^'^^'^l west, western direction || 'West' is the opposite of 'east.' 

aq'^J!]'^'^!] Westerner || I wonder if that Westerner is from Britain? 

a'^l can II I can speak English. '^'^'^|;3j'^'^'^-P|'^'^'^l 

a'^'f^^aj] ability and responsibility || Ability and responsibility are keys to 

success. ^^■'^J!]3j-^-^".vp'S-'^J!]J!]-§^3jl 
a'^''23j] effective, powerful || What is the most effective way to raise 

sheep? '5J!]'nafq^'|=^'gq'^-i'N-a^-'^3j-^-5'^J!]'«S3jl 

a'^'^] ability, competence, capability, effectiveness || He has a good 

ability to learn languages. p^".V^=^-c5'^q-qq-a^-q-qg=;^^J!]W^l 
a^'i!'53j] effective, capable || This medicine is very effective for a cold. 

a'^'g'"!] ability, talent || He has little ability to organize other people. 

a'^'-PjJlj'^] strength, power || There is power in his personality. 


^'S'^^'^'l lawn II The lawn had little grass. ^!3-J!]^=;-3jyR=^-5-".l'^-5^=^] 
ajs^'s^l property, wealth || I lost all my wealth last year. 

S^^\ Ho err, to make a mistake; 'livestock, wealth, possession, property || 
'l made a mistake in this calculation. |'N-J!]^-q^q-3j=;-3j'N-=;^^-Sr=^l "What 
is the value of your family's property? |i=^'cf^'^'3j^'5^'5''^5c^] 

aj^^'^aj] shortcoming, drawback, mistake || His shortcoming is that he 
drinks too much. p'^^=^'|3j'^'p'^'c5=^'qi2'^'5J!]'^-q-^t^3jl 

a^'SS'qg'qi to make a mistake || I will make a mistake if I drink too 
much. J!]"iy=;'^'s=;''^'^'5J!]'^'^-^^-|3i-q3-(^^ 

3j=^'n|g",l] mistake, error || I'm sorry for my mistake. 

aj^^'qS'^] correction || I don't agree with your correction of my paper. 

3j^'?^l property, goods || What is the value of your property? (5S'^'5j^" 

3j^'23Sl finances || What is the condition of the local government's 

finances? 'N-J!]3j'N-|=^-J!](g=;-^^^-|=^-|-J!]3j'N-#i.V^%-q5-«S3jl 
^3j^'^^^] yaks II The yaks provided us with meat, milk, skins, and hair. 

Jl]3j^'] (^Sj^'l ^Sj^'l ^^j^'^]) to give (h) II The reincarnate Lama gave me this 

gift. Sn,V^'^-!^-q-qq]'N'|'N'q^'J!]3j!;'l 

^3j^^'ft3j] the day after tomorrow || The day after tomorrow I'll stop 

smoking. J!]3j'^'N-|3j-^'N-^-q-J!]3=^-§t^3jl 
^3jSl key /main point || Did you understand the main point of this 

document? ^=^'|'^-«Sq]-c5-q^q-J!]3j=^-".v3yq-'^3j-^=;-=;»ll 
^aj^'f^J!]^ key, focus || The key to learning English is a desire to learn. 

^3j=^■c5■'^l important point, main aspect || The important point of learning 
English is to practice everyday. 

^3j^'^3j| question, main point, problem || I can't understand your main 

point. =;')-(i=^-|-J!]3j=^-J!]^".v^q-5^-'^3ji 

Jljaj=;'qs^] summary, abstract, key point || I will write a summary of the 



discussion and give it to you tomorrow. 

^3^si] sky II The sky is blue. 5!]3j»l-^-l3j^T^3jl 

^3j5^'5]] airplane || The old airplane was made in Russia. 

^3j5^'5]'5^'l airport, airfield || The plane landed at the airport. 

JJjajs^'gaj] ceiling || I painted my ceiling yesterday. 

J!]ajs^'=^J!] astronomy || Astronomy is the study of the stars. 

Jl]3j«^"".VJ!]^=^'q] New Year || ITl stay with my family during New Year. 

^3js^■J!]^P|'^] weather, climate || What is the weather like in autumn? 

'^3^] antiquity, ancient times || In ancient times many Tibetans believed 

inB n. Ji]3jq-s^-^i q'^-5^-»i=;^^^3j-I'^-".v^^-q-|^l 
^3j'^'J!]^5^] ancient/archaic saying/story || He knows many ancient stories. 

^ajf^'S^] antiquity, ancient time || That song originated in an ancient 

time. ^■^■qi3jq-^^-^-^^-q-5)3jl 
JJ^ajf^'^^] relics, antique || That old knife is an antique. 

JJjaj'^'^^q'^] ancient, classical time || He is an expert in classical Tibetan 

literature. J!]3jq-^q'N^=^-|-f5^-^J!]^J!]-3j'N-p^-i=^-»ip'N-q-^Jl]-^3jl 
J!j3jM'aq^] temporary, provisional || This is only a temporary 

arrangement. q^-^-J!]3j'N-^q'N-|-q'fi=^-^J!]-fS^3j-«S3jl 
J!]3j'^'^=^] pilgrimage || We went to Lhasa last year on pilgrimage. 

J!]3j^'^=^'q] people on pilgrimage || The people on pilgrimage walked 

around the holy mountain. J!]aj'^-^=^-q'^-J!]aj'^-^-".VJ!]3j'N-|'^-^»)] 
^aj^'J!]^'] cost, value || What is the cost of that coat? 


Jliaj^'»lS^ holy place/land, place of pilgrimage || Mecca is a place of 


pilgrimage for Muslims. 5^'5'^'?J!3'^'"S3j'c5'^'qq'5]^,aj-f3;-q^3js]-silj!^-%q^-fi)3j| 
^aj'^'s^^"-!] pilgrimage || She is on pilgrimage to Lhasa. 

^aj'^'l^] emigration || In the United Kingdom immigration exceeds 
emigration. ^|3i-E:f\VS^S3j-3jl 3j=;-f\VJ!]3j'N-|^|^-q-^-|-f\VJ!]3j^v'^|=^-cf=^-^^ 

qjaj'^'qq] situation, condition || What is your present employment 

condition? ^'^'^''^•'^(^■".I'N'ig'^'N'Jl^aj'N'qq'S'q^t^ajl I like my present job and 
living conditions. ^■^2^'5n'^'<^'S'^'q'=^^'n§fq'l'J!]3j'^'qq'"^'^'3]'^| Our country's 
economic situation is dependent on the world economy. 

^aj^'cf^'] a place to spend the night at, lodging, hotel || It is difficult in 
the city to find free lodging. ^=;'(i^'3j'^-J!]3j'N-cf=^-^aj-5^-=^^'^-q-^J!]i=^-^-^'T]qi 

^3j^'^(^] ^base; "residence; ^location || 'The company's base is in 
Shanghai. 7|^'g'l'J!]3j'^'J!](^'5^'=9'^'3j'^^] 'My residence is in the 
countryside. ^^■J!]aj'^'J!](^'5]^'J!]^q'aj'"^^] "'My home location is in 
Yunnan. J^q-of^^-Sj-qiaj^j-qi^-^jaj-ajaj-aj-sr^^] 

^^^^"^1 location || This location is far from the shops. 

^aj'^''^^!]'^] principle, reason || I don't believe your reason for stealing. 

^3j^'] to have scruples, to be guilty || What sins are you guilty of? 

^3j^| to be harmful, to hurt one's feeling || Don't hurt other people's 

feelings with harsh words. J!]^5^-^q-sr^-5^-J!](^3j-|,-q'NS^-q-".V5^-J!i^=^l 
Jljaj=;'^3j] catastrophe, disaster, suffering || The flood was a disaster. 

'^3^^^'^'^ prevention against harm || This amulet around my neck is a 
prevention against harm. ^'^■^■"^■^!3''^^'^'^X^''^^'^^'|^'^3j] 

^3j^'na§i damage, harm || What was the damage to your crops from the 
heavy rain? c5^'(^=^'i3j^f^l'N-^^-^-f5f^5!]-^-5!i^^-q5g'-5'5S^^ 

^3j3j] (^3j3j] «^3j3j] 3j3j]) to pressure, to defeat, to control (feelings), to press 
II Don't pressure me into agreeing with you! 

Jliajaj'-P|Jll^| pressure, compulsion || When I was a student I felt a lot of 


pressure. =;-^q-5^-^J!]-^3j-S^l '^'^'^%-P|''l'^'i3j^S'^'^l 
siSj'^l pledge, vow, oath || I took a vow when I became a monk. 

'^'N'q§3j'q'|,=^'S'^'»i3jq'q^ ".1] 
»13j'T5]Jl]'^] ally, allied friend || She has always been my ally against my 

enemies. p^'3j»l'«^=;'!;'N'=^5]^^'^".vqq'»13jq'^J!]'Nt^3jl 
5^3j^5^3j| alliance, union || The alliance of several groups made them 

powerful. s&]'N-pJ!]-qJ!]q-»iajq-s^3j-|,'N-f^§f^q'N-'^3j-s-q^=;-l 
siajT'^g"-!] alliance, federation || After their alliance they were much 

stronger. p^c^s^ajq-ql^-v^^-I^Ni p^§?q-^qM--P|'^M-t-i=^-'r=^-| 
»13jq-»ll bride || The bride was very shy. »13jq-»l^J!i^»l-=9-5=;-^=;-] 
5^3j^] to afflict, to oppress || Don't oppress the poor and powerless. 


siaj^'^S^l affliction, oppression, torture || Your many questions are a 

form of torture. (i^'|'N-5-q-5^=;^-»13j^-J!]5=^-3J!]-^ajl 
s^3j^ profit, rich || He is rich from doing business. p'^'§§k'qgq'3j'^'«^3j^ 
Sj ear || I had my ear pierced yesterday. P''^^'^*^'^^'^'^'"-V|^^'g'^^^'S'q§^ 
^■qj ear II An insect flew into my ear. '^'^^'^^■^■q^'Sj^'S''^"-!! 
S'q'^^S] to listen to || I like to listen to modem music. 

§^'^^^] to believe in || Did you believe that story? 

^■-Pj^l sense of hearing || The old man's sense of hearing is poor. 

^^ pus, to become pussy || The doctor drained the pus from the infected 

wound. |]3j-q^-|,f^J!l-53j-".l^-^J!l-q^<^l 
5»l'5]c,^] item, category || What food item is your favorite? 


55^'q^^] posture, appearance, attitude || I don't like your attitude about 

equality . '^5'»l^»l'|,'^^'3j'N-=;-(i=^-|-'^-q-".V5^-^J!]qi 
S^^Y^ imagination || Children have a vivid imagination. 

5S^'S^'53j] suspicious || Being consistently suspicious makes you 

unhappy. ^%y^s^y!T33j-^£!]-«S3j-3j-^=^-".v|^^5^-Sr=;-l 
S5^'g=^| biography, story of person's life || I have not read that biography. 


'>'^'^5^'^==;'^'qJ5^^'s^'^^'] No one will ever ask me to write my 
biography. !^-q-3;!;-55]-|'N'<3|!^-^M'^=;i^'^'5^'^=^l 
^5^'^^ pure, perfect, correct || He speaks perfect Tibetan. 

^5^'^] type, form, classification || What type of literature is this? 

isl''^'^3j'TS] always, all the time, forever || He sings to himself all the time. 

SS^'t^'^'cW]'^! various kinds, all sorts of || He can sing all sorts of songs. 

^^^S^l wisdom, intelligence || To have wisdom takes time. 

^*'^S^^^1 ingenious || He offered an ingenious solution to the problem. 

i^'^^l difference, category || I don't understand the difference between 
these two theories. =;«j-S,qj^)-qj(a:;-q^-q^|s]-q^-|^-^»l-;^|^qjs]-5^-^q| 

js^'jjj^^l idling away, inattentiveness, neglect || He was idling away his 
time. ■^'^■^»l-J!]t^=;-^'^-3j'^-q^^l 

i^'^'^ consciousness || 'Buddhism in Tibetan Consciousness' was the 
title of his study. 'q=^-5^q-^»i-^J!]-".i'^-q^^-qq-3j=;-q^3j' -^-^q-^q-qiJi^-^-p-^!;- 

S5^'.P|^] soul, consciousness, sense || Does man have a soul? 

S*l'^| all II I want all of you to come to class on time. 

i".V5^] single-minded, concentrating || He is single-minded in solving 
problems. J!]3j=^^3j'gJ!]'J!]5'=^'qq'gJ!]'3j^vp^'^-$5]!^-^n,V»lTS|3j| 

^] 'steel; 'sharp, perceptive, penetrating || ' Steel beams made the 

building stronger. |'^'J!]^=;'»l'^'^'p=;'q|j!]'N-1-q^3j-".vq^=;-l "His penetrating 
mind made it hard to deceive him. p'^'^^'^^q^'p^'^'^v|^'gq'^'=^'T]q] The 
knife is blunt, not sharp. ^■p-5".l^T^3j-q-".l'^-^-q-»l-^^l 

^■^^1 acute, sharp || Her sharp wit was a constant source of 
entertainment. pr^-q^^-q-^-^aj-qRJ!]'^-|Wq-q^=;Ai->SS3j| 

"^l^'N] steel II This knife is made of steel. ^•q^^'^Jlj'N'nji^-qwqtSSajl 


i^ (^^^ ^^^'^l ^^'^l) to erase, to change, to confuse, to conceal || Please 

erase the flower on the blackboard. S'^^l'^^'^'s^'ii^'^'S^^l 
^^ (^^^ ^^^^1 ^^^1) to tolerate, to endure || I cannot tolerate pain. 

^1 'kind, variety; "nose || 'What kind of food do you like? jf^'^^'^^'^' 
§'^^'".V^J!]'^] "When I have a cold my nose runs. ^'"I'SS^^'aj^'g,^'^'^^" 

§'|^] variety, kind || That shop has a wide variety of goods. 

^■[^^'1 nostril || Blood streamed from his left nostril. 

¥^] various kinds/types || The shop had various kinds of goods. 

^■^'S^'p^'l department store || The old department store has closed. 

§'^] nose mucus, snot || The little boy's face was covered with snot. 

g'^S^'l bridge of nose || The bridge of her nose was broken when she 
fell on the ice. pW^^^J!]-".vq|,".VS^-p^q-|-J!i^=;-q5J!]'N] 

g'5^^'] various, diverse, complex || I like various sorts of music. ^'S'S^^'^' 
^•»l!^Tn-:^q^q| There are various Tibetan dialects. q=^'^=^''^vai'^-S!^-f -aj!:;- 
"^^] Tibetan grammar is complex. 5'>'''iJn'5r|'ciFi!>'3;'f 'aiz^'sqi't^^^'Ji 

§'5&]'^] various kinds/types || Various types of people visit my home. 

g^'cf] ink II Please put some ink in my pen. 

§=\] to appear, to seem || The weather appears rainy today. 


^^■^^1 idea, phenomenon || This recent social phenomenon is not 

healthy . ^■^qM-|-|-c&]M-|'^^^-^-q^-g'^-^'J]-«-^^l 
^^■^^■] 'low esteem; "neglect || 'One group of people should not hold 

another group of people in low esteem. 

s^-^J!]'N--PjJ!]-^'N-9S-§&]'N-J!](^aj-^£!]-".V|=;-^=;-^'N-<^-5^-5=;-l "His neglect of his 

mother is unforgivable. 'i^^WW"J'^=^'^=^'§»j'q''^'qS=^'^9j-|=^-gq»j-gq| 


^^■qsaj] image, figure, character || The writer's character was vividly 

portrayed. |«i'=j^q'|=;'q^aj'J!]'^aj'^5^M'™3j'q<^-f-3^'^'^q'q|'^^l 
^^■s^=^l careless, unconcerned, neglectful || She is careless in doing 

housework. ^(|»l'"l'N-|'=;-q^-g=;-5^2^-5Jl]'^3Jl 
^^■#^1] 'phenomenon; "reaction in the heart || 'Lightning storms are a 

natural phenomenon. ^^'=^«^^''^(|^'^'S'c5^'|j'^'^'^'^'^'^'^'|'^'^"-l'^^'"^3il "My 

mother's death created quite a reaction in my heart. 

S^l (^5^1 ^5^1 5^1) ^to be nursed; "to poke, to jab || 'The mother was 
nursed by her baby. i3M'5^^]'^^]'q'n,va'5^'q^3j] 'Don't poke me with your 
pencil! ^^'|'N''^'|^'^'^''^'"l'*l'^3j] 

^q] (q^q] q^q^l ^q^D to destroy, to overthrow || Rain destroyed 

\s \s \s \s 

everything in that area. c5^'^'^t^".V5]-q^qw;-cf=;-q|q'^l 
|»11 oil II Oil floats on water. I^l'^f^'^'^'^'l 
gs^'J!]^=^] oil field || A new oil field was found in northern Qinghai 

yesterday. p''^=;'»l§^3j-|,-.P|^-|5!]'N-^-|»l-J!]^^-^J!]i=^l 
gs^'q] greasy, fatty, oily || This soup is so oily that I can hardly drink it. 


g^] (q^^l q^^l g^D 'to move, to shift; 'to grind; ho change the time of, 
to delay || 'l want to move my job to the city. ^^■^=;'5n'^'q'5]^'|i=^'".V!q^=^' 
f^SS] I want to move to another city. R5]R|g^'J!](^3j'(^J!]'".vqf ^'f^^^] 'Years 
before people used stones to grind canola seed. "1'S'»l'l'^3j] s^'^s^'^'^'^'S' 
qT]".V3j^'^'^T»5'q3j'qg=^] ^Can we change the time of tomorrow's 
meeting to the afternoon? '^■§f'N-'N^-|3j-|-§&]'N-q^q-^^-§?=^-^-|^^-|^-55i]-5i]5]] 
I want to delay my marriage until next year. ^'^■^!^'Jn'Jlj^3i'^3i'^'"l=^' 

^] end, tip, extremity || The nurse pricked the tip of my finger to get a 

blood sample. 3j^-J!]Sw]-^'N-=;q-s^^q-|-'^VJ!]5J!]'N-3j'N-(gJ!]-5]-=^T'^-^q-5!^ 
^■(^S'^^l leader || Who is the leader of that organization? 

i'S3;'g!>'qi to guide || I will guide you around Qinghai. ^^■(5=^■5^cff3j■g,■'5^■ 

g'q^^'^l leader, originator, advocator || How many prominent leaders of 
society do you personally know? 


^■".I3jl reception || He gave me a cool reception when I visited him. 

^■".laj'p^'l guesthouse, hotel || The beds in that hotel are cheap. 

IJ (q|j q|'^)] 1^)]) to mix II Mix water with this flour. |''^^1'^'^'|''^1 
^=^] container, vessel, utensil || The container holds twenty liters of 

water. f^-^q-aj^-^.vf'Ti^-lajy-pl-Jf^-l 
^=^■c5'^] container, pot || The clay pot shattered when it was dropped. 

|3jl (q|3jl q|3jl |3jl) to add, to plus || Let's add some salt to this dish. 

I'si] (q|»l] q|si^)] ^sm\) to smell II I want to smell those flowers. 


g^l (^§^1 =^§^] §^1) to suspend || I suspended a toy from a string for my 

child to play with. '^'^■^=^'=^'^^'^'N-|=^-|=^%J!]-q|^-3j'N-=;q-|,^-q-|'^-q§5!j 
gn,l] (^^"-1] ^^"-1] ^"-1]) to join together, to intertwine || Let's try to join 

these two ideas together. =;-^'^-'^-^".vq^-J!]|'N-|5!]'^-J!]5J!]'".v|'".vq^-^] 
^^^ (^^^ ^^^^1 ^^^D to be ingrained, to keep in the heart || The 

memory of his dead mother was ingrained in his heart. 



^•'^=;'^1 Venus; "Friday || ' Venus is a planet. q-'N=;'N-^-^-^^-^Jl]'"^3j| 
"Saturday comes after Friday. J!]gq-q-'^=;'N%|-|aj-^-J!]gq-^3j-q-5S3j| 
t^^M's^] skin, leather || He scraped the skin before drying it. 

^^'1 lap II I put the small computer on my lap. ^^'^^'^'^'l^'^'^'^^'^' 


q^'l to hold, to embrace || I want to embrace you and then kiss you. 


^^'S|| lotus II The lotus lives in water. ^S'^''^^'|l 
i!=^'^3j] publishing || The book publishing business is being challenged 
by digital forms of information. 

t^^'p^'l publishing house, press || Tibetan language books in our 
province are often published by the Nationality Press. 

q^'qgjs^l issue; 'publishing || Issuing publications is his work, ij^^'f^gjs^' 

^=;'i!'3j'p'S'^'q'"^3j] 'He has worked in publishing and editing for many 

years. p''^'q^'q^»l'^=;'f»l'^J!]'^'^'q''T»l=;^".VJ!]^^l 
q^'SJij setting type || My sister works setting type at the publishing 

house. =;^'|'^'«r^'=^^'S3i'p'^'3i'=^^'^^'^'^'q'=!]'^^l 
^^X^] page II Please turn to page sixty-three, q^^s^'^-qj^s^-q-q-fq^'s^l 
q=^'5^] printed matter || It is cheaper to mail printed matter than it is to 

mail letters. q|aj-«Sqj-q^^-q-n,i^)-=^T^irq^'»l'q^^'S'^=^A]l 
cj^'^^'] wood-block (printing plate) || The monk spent several months 

carving one hundred wood-block printing plates. ^^5j'i!'=;'^'^'S's^'q'T]".V 

tj'^'s^] knee || I injured my knee last year when I was playing soccer. 

s^'y"-!] Potala Palace || The Potala Palace in Lhasa is an outstanding 
example of Tibetan architecture. 

"^1 volume, book || This book of scriptures was written in the fifteenth 

century . c5''^'J!](g!;^'q^'^'S^'^q'N'q5^<^''q^'q§'»l'Nl 
=;i!J!]'q^5^] estimation || My estimation is that there are about one hundred 

people on this bus. ^'N-=^qJ!]-q'Ns^-g^-^-|-|=^-^^M-qf5'^-q^q-^^-^-=9-".is^-5^-q^- 

^q^'q] witness || She was the only witness to the crime. 

'^^ brave, bravery, courage || He was brave during the battle. 

S'JT^Sl bold and powerful, courageous, hero || Gesar was a bold and 
powerful man. 5i-'N^'^'=^q'T'^=^%Jl]'5S3j| 


=^^T'^==^■53j] brave, courageous || It is not always easy to be brave. 

SxS^q'as^'^l heroic appearance || Gesar is often depicted as having a heroic 

appearance. 5i-'N^-^-^3j-q==^-=^qq-^»l'N-'^3j-qq-J!]|'^'^-^-q|l 
^tJTS"-!] boldness, bravery || No one questioned his bravery. 

=^^Tq] hero II After he saved the little boy from drowning he became a 

hero. ^'^■^■":v^=;'^=;'^'f".i'^-q^q'N-|'N-^qq^^J!]-y^^l 
^'^'^'s^l heroine || Her bravery in the face of great danger made her a 

national heroine. 

J^qq'ss^l timid, cowardly, frightened || I want my son to stop being timid. 

^^"^1 glory, magnificence, civilization || The glory of old kingdoms can 
only be studied from history books. 

S^"'''^^^l economy, wealth || The wealth of a nation depends on its 
natural resources and population. 

^ilf^'f^^'^'ftaj'p] economic crisis || The rapid decrease in the price of gold 

threw the country into an economic crisis. 

S^"-l''^^'5^ft5^'"1'^] economic co-operation || The economic co-operation 

between China and other countries is increasing. 

S'^"^''^^^'^3;5^'qq] the condition of the economy || The condition of the 

economy depends on political stability. 

S^"l''^^''^^'']'^'^3j] economic construction || The economic construction 

of our country is continuing. 


S^^-l'f^^'^^Jlj'i!] economics || Economics is the study of money and how it 
is used. =^qf^V'^|=^'^J!]'q'^'^f^V%'^=^'^=^'^5f^Vf^^'%'^^'q'f["l'q'l'^^^ 


=;i!"1'"^3j] civilization, glory || Tibetan civilization has a long history. 

^^^■] ^crowd, group, mass of (people/troop); 'shoulder || 'The audience 
was a huge crowd. <^=^'5^'q'3j'^^^'i3j'i!'(^J!]'^=^] "He dislocated his 
shoulder in the accident. c5^'a'(^J!]'".l^'p^'=;s]^'q'^J!]M] 

^^^^^1 military march, military mission || The thirty kilometer military 
march exhausted all the soldiers. 

^^^■^"-1] military attack || The military attack against the enemy failed. 

^^^■q] upper arm || He wears a red cloth around his right upper arm. 


^^5^^^^ army, forces || The army set up camp below the mountain. 


^^^■^^1 ^military force; 'upper arm strength || 'That country has a strong 
military force. ^'^l'pq'^'",V^gR^=^'£53j'q'"^=^] ^Weightlifting has given him 
great upper arm strength. |=^''^^J!]'N-|'^-p^".V=^^=;--Pi=^-i3j^q|p.ll 

^^] 'example, sample; "possible || 'Give me an example of the kind of 
books you like. ji^'=^J!]'Tqq-=^q-c5'S'^J!]'N-|-=^q-^J!]-=;-".v|;3j-=^=;-l -Is it possible 
for you to visit me tomorrow? 'N=;-^3j-^=^-|'N-=;-".vncf»l'^-q5-|=^-q-^q-|^-^»ll 

^i]'^3j] publishing, printing || Publishing books is expensive. 

^i]'^3j'p^'] publishing house || What publishing house will issue your 

^^■p^'] bookstore || That bookstore sells only English books. 

^^■jl^] teaching, lecturing || Teaching pays less than some other 

professions. ".l'^-S>J!]'N-J!](^3j-q-qJl]q-".1'^-=^q-^=^-".V^-R=;-l 
'^'^] book II This book is at least one hundred years old. 

=^^■66■q| intellectual || He is considered the foremost intellectual from my 

village . p^-=;-§fq-^-q-3j'N^3j-qq-=^q-c5'q'i'N-gJ!]-s^-«S3j-q^-q^^ 
^s^'^aj] 'setting an example, playing an exemplary role; 'example || 

'Setting an example for students is something teachers should try to 


do. ^q-s^-^s^'N''^V=^q-^3j-|=^-q-^-=^5]-^3j-^J!]-S^'N-'^l'N-=^3]''^-q-^J!]-^3jl ^What is an 
example of problems you have had recently? (5S%f ^'^^''^^'^3j=;'=;3j'^' 

=^^■^^1 book II Where did you buy that book? ^^■|'N-=^q-^q-^-J!]=;-3j'Ny^-q-'^3jl 
S^'s^=;] ^great, matchless, outstanding, incomparable; 'impossible || ^His 

ability in archery is matchless. ■pq-q^!;^-^f\v'^-=^q-5^=^-5J!]-^3Jl "It's 

impossible for pigs to fly. J^JJl-f^^-q-^-^q-s^^^^Ji^-fiSaji 
^^'S^'p^l bookstore || That bookstore sells a lot of Tibetan books. 

=;q's^§53j] model, example, sample || I don't like this writing model. 

2;q'5^'Sk'pR| library || The library's books were covered with dust. 

'^'^^] pattern, design || This is a colorful pattern. 

=;q^'q^=;| example, specimen, sample || The teacher used many examples 

when he taught. =^^'^3i'|,^'^q'^=^'|,=^'^q'N'=^q^'q1=^'»l=^^q'ffll 
^t^^'aj] for example || There are many colors — for example, red is a 

color. pYl'f '^^'^'"^^'^1 ^^'^] ^^'^^'^■^'^1 
2;q^'5^'5j2;| impossible || It is impossible for a camel to pass through the 

eye of a needle. 

^^^|,3j'S''^^"-vg'=^q^'5^'|^l (^•sr=;'pq'5^J!]'".vq^".vq'^q=^'8^'|^] ) 
^qitj (^qqj ^qqjis^i =^'^^'^1) to estimate, to assess || I estimate that the 

temperature is thirty -one degrees. ^'^■^^^^■3j'5'^'5]^'"-V^!3''?^5^W^'^'^^] 
=;i!3j'^3j] bureaucrat || After I graduated from college I was given a job 

and, after ten years, I had become a bureaucrat. ^A]q'^'c53j'si'3j^'si5^'^' 

|^-=^-q-^-q-|gj-q-:^^-| ^-ai^-Sfq^q-l^,-^! ^-^^-^Ji-^ai-^q^-^-i^l 

=^^3j■^] official, master, leader || The city official was often late for work. 

^^3j'5^] female official || The female official in the next room is 
responsible for this matter. 

^^■|g".l] taxes II Taxes have increased this year to ten percent of my total 
income . =^''^^'=^^'|g"l'=i^W^'|^| q'q^'cB^'qf "^'q^^j 


'^g^'J] to droop, to hang down, to bend || The wet clothes hung down 

from the hne. ^3j'q'|3j'q'gJ!]'^!;'".l'N'si^'^g:;^| 
S^'^cS'^l instrument || This medical instrument is used in difficult 

operations. |]aj-qT'^-=^^^-c5'N-q^-J!].f^J!]'N-q5'^-=^'T]q-s?n,vqT[q-qT^3j] 
^S^^^^l commentary, remark || His concluding remark was too long 

and difficult to understand. pk-S]-s^§J!]-^5^-|,-=^^=^-J!]^s^-^!^-5J!]'N-".vqy"^^-^'Tjq| 
^^1 hip II My hip is painful after many hours of riding the bus. 

^S^'l spring II Spring is my favorite season of the year. 

^^^\i'^l ^P™8' springtime || Spring saw the grassland slowly become 

green. ^|^'S'^W»l^=^"-VW^'^=;-S-q^^-q-»i=;-l 
^^^■'^^q^l spring sowing/planting || This year, spring sowing was 

delayed because of the drought. g3j'qq'^q=;'§]'^'=^'"rq'=^^^'q^q's)-ai- 

^^^^1 months of spring || The months of spring are cool. 


^'^] C^^'^] 'iS'^'^1 'i^^'^D to dangle, to suspend, to hang || He dangled a 
picture of Chairman Mao from his rear-view mirror. 


^S^l (^S^l ^S^l ^S^l) t° examine, to research, to investigate || This 
month we will investigate all the health clinics in the county. 

^^'^'^'^1 examiner, investigator, researcher || He is a crime investigator. 

S^"^^l forehead || Even though he is sixty his forehead has almost no 

wrinkles. ■p^fT3j-5J!]-§^-»r3j-^^-l ^sj".vq-3j-=^".vi^-J!]^^-5^-s^=^] 
^■q'']^'] to intimidate, to daunt || He used his large body size and loud 

voice to intimidate his students. 

^R'^^'^] grassland, grassy plain || Rivers flowed through the grassland. 

q^^l taboo, forbidden behavior || Playing truant is a forbidden behavior 

for students. ^q'^^'5^''^^q'^'^q'»l^'^=^'^'"^3j| 


S=\A| grassy mountain || Sheep grazed on the grassy mountain. ^^'^^f^'Sz;,' 

^1 hair || He has a lot of body hair. p<^-n|!^-§:;-".vq'^'si=;^qw^l 
^'5]] 'sharp razor; 'sharp knife || 'He shaves every morning with a sharp 
razor. •^3;'^(^'i5sn'^'q^'p'^'^'5]'(^J!]'J!]M'p'^'q(^=^] "He used a sharp knife to 
cut the cooked mutton. ■p^-^-^-^J!]-q'ff.vaj'N-'3£!]-.P|-q^'N-s^-J!]^q'N| 
|i'^5^] little II He is so busy he has little time. 

q^^^^l 'bad-tempered; 'impatient || 'He's bad-tempered when he gets 

tired. ^'^'c5=^'«r=^'S^'p^".V^'^=^'5^^1 'He is impatient when he talks to 

children. |^'=^'^»l'^-".V^=^-c5'q.P|=^'^q'N-p^".V^-^=^-s^=^] 
q^l (q^l q^^l q^^l) to pile up, to heap up II I will heap up straw this 

evening. ^■=^^=;-=;'N-'^J!]-»l-^=;-^-5S3j] 
^aj-»li=^l 'brother; 'elder brother || 'l have four brothers. =;-".V^3j-5^i=^-q^w;] 

'My elder brother is three years older than me. ^^■^3j's^i=;'^'^'".1^'"5'q^' 

^3j^l brother || Please tell my brother to visit me tomorrow. 

^'^■'T] quality || Which is more important: quality or quantity? 


^^■".1^'^] high quality || That is very high quality cooking oil so you 

should buy it. gsj-|»i-^-^-^s]-qqjS]T^3j-qs]-j|i^-|^]yq^-S,qjS]| 

^aj-q] 'Satum; 'Saturday || 'Satum is a distant planet. |3j-q-^-gJ!]-^=;-qq-^-^^- 
^5!]'^ajl "^y birthday is on Saturday. '^q'l'N'^^'^'Jljgq'Saj-qq-laj-fiSajl 

1"^] 'to spread, to increase, to enlarge, to expand; 'to launch || 'Next 
year, we will expand the amount of apple orchard we have. '^^'"-F'^' 
§f'N'^--P|-^=;^q-5]!;'N''T]'5]c;-^-Sa,v^-iSj3j| -A movement to improve the 
environment will be launched next year. ^^■".B'p=^''^J!]'^'"iJ!]^'^'^^^'q'l' 

^".1"^'^] mutual exchange, exchange || Relationships should be based on 
mutual exchange and benefit. q|".vq'^'S53j'^3j'^n.v5,s]-:^:;-p-s53j-q|^!^-aj-5;q|- 

ql (ql q^^l q^^l) 'to Step; 'to move; ""to emigrate || 'if you step on this 
stone you'll probably sprain your ankle. fi^'^'N'5''^=;'S'^^'Jl]s^'i!'|^'^' 


3j] (i^'^'^'"-l^'^^^'3i'(|^^'(|^^'s^=^l 'Please help me move this desk to the 
other side of the room. '^•f\V5J!]'¥q^'p=;'qq'5i3;-gOT!^-^-'^q^^v'|^,V=^!;-| ^Many 
people will soon emigrate irom this area. 5^'5^''^^^'q^'sl'sl^'q'^3jM''^^' 

^ ball II The ball rolled down the stairs. '^^'^■Sqj's)-n,i's)-»i^-q|rn| 
S^l (S^l q^^l q^^l) to give up, to quit, to stop || I will stop smoking 

tomorrow. 'N=;-|3j-=;'N-s-q-qg3j-q-'^=;-^-"^3jl 
^=^■^1 seasoning, condiment || Salt is a condiment. c^'[^'aj'^=^'^'(^^'"^3j] 
^q'^'i]] bravery, courage || She showed much bravery during the enemy 

attack. =^5!'=^5^^'^'N'^^'^"-i'|,=^'S'^l pT^'^q^N-q-iaj^q^sj] 

^q?<'q?)-p:;!5l-q(^| brave, courageous || This story is about a courageous 

young woman. J!]^»l'^=^'q^'^'|'q!^-q!5i-|^:;!5i-q<^-3^-5;|i^3i-|!^-5]-^q|-S|-f'^-S3^| 

^q^'^s^^l confidence, bravery || I'm impressed by this child's bravery. 

q^l (q^l q^l q^l) to promote, to change, to raise, to increase || He was 

promoted to an important position. p'^'^3j^'^".V553j'(^J!]'ii'^=^| 
g^'''] wolf II A wolf killed and ate one of my sheep yesterday. 


I'p^ overall, summation, general meaning || I didn't understand the 
general meaning of his talk. ^'s)-pq-p-q5q-|-pi[^Tn-qyq-5^-a53j| 

^■^^5!^] formula || The mathematics teacher wrote a long formula on the 
blackboard. |'N-^J!]-^5i-^aj-|,'^-|^'^»l-^!;-n,v|-q^^)-S,RSI^^q^-|^l| 

g'g] kilogram || I want to buy one kilogram of sugar. ^'^■'T^'^^'^'s^'g'g'J!]^^' 

g'^^'] park II Let's go to People's Park next Sunday. 

g'5^3j'g".vpq] republic || China is also known as the People's Republic of 

China. !T]Rqya,v^:;-5-5^-;^»i:;s]-|-s^3j-^a,vpq%^]-qq-»ljf3j-^:;-q^3j| 

|'S3j] 'main point, general meaning; 'public affairs/welfare || 'The main 
point of the lecture was related to the need for greater improvement 
in local transportation. =^^'^=^%|^3j-^'»J-q]3j»j-^-|")-q53j-t^'«j=;-|^»j-5B3j^qw^-qq- 
=^q|»)-9jpT=^^-q|nj-uj:^| "He worked in public affairs for many years, p^'g' 

g■q=^| public security || Public security has improved since more 


policemen were hired. I'^^^'^^'f sjz^-^'^'^-q'N] I'^^'^-l'^^^aj'^';-] 
N'q^'n.i*]'^2;'q] policeman || The policeman patrolled the market area. 

g'q^s^'^l summary, summation || I will give a two-minute summary of 

his lecture. =^^v'pq-=^q-^=^-n,v^^-5^-J!]|'N'^!;-S|-|'q^5^'N'|,=^'^'«S3jl 
g'=;s^^^] citizen || What country are you a citizen of? 

g'§&]'^] society || How does society receive new ideas? 

g'§&]^'=^J!]'i!] sociology || Sociology is the study of groups of people. 

g'§&]'^'".15^''^J!]^] social system || Every country has a social system with 

its own characteristics. 


g'§&]'^'q5'^'g=^] social reform/transformation || China experienced great 
social reform after 1949. 


^E'^'^'^^"^Sf\] social development || Greater education leads to greater 
social development. ^q'J!]'?™J!]'y«^^'^'N-^=;-^-|-S&]'^l-f\V^-q'N-'^'^V^'N-q^^^ 
g'§&]'^'cf3j'^^ social science || Anthropology is a social science. 

g'S'^'^'^^'gaj] social progress || Development in education and health 
care is social progress. 

g'ft'^'^'^^^''^^'^] socialism || Socialism is a political and economic 

philosophy. |'cf^'N'^!;''5J!]'N'^'c5q'^=^'=^=^'=^i!".V'^|f^'5i]^'^''T|(^'g'^'^'q'^5]-|<^-5]- 

g's^cfsj] abstract || This book contains an abstract theory of plant 
evolution. =^q'S''^^<^-3i!;-|'-?|=;''^^f^V'^5,^'|'|'«^cf3j%J!](5=;''5J!]'N--PjJ!]-q'ff^ 

g^l month (Gregorian calendar) || There are twelve months in a year. 

|'"S] kilometer || A kilometer is a unit of measure for distance. 


^■"^1 the Christian era, AD || This year is nineteen ninety -eight, AD. 


|-f^q-|3jl BC II 206 BC - 24 AD was the time of the Western Han 

Dynasty . |'f^3j'|'^0(i3j^v|-SF2,<i^3;-^-^3j-^a,v^q^V5q-5^q-^^l-^q^l-uS3j| 

|3jl glue II I sealed the envelope with glue. =;'N-|3j-|,'N-«S£!]--P|q'N-|^^l 
|=^'q^^'33j] general, common || It is common knowledge that water flows 

downhill. ^^^■^■^qq'^'^'|^'q^^'S|--Pi'N-^-^J!]-5S3j] 
1^ (1^ 1^1 1^1) ^o drive out, to expel, to banish || The horse-thief was 

banished from the community. ^'Jfi^j'^t^'^V^]''^!^'!^] 
1^1 (1^1 1^1 1^1) ^° ^^^' ^° utilize, to consume || How many trees are 

consumed each year in the form of disposable chopsticks? 

g^'§^] usage, application || The usage of plastic bags should be reduced. 

g^'^3j] bad behavior, misbehavior || The teacher scolded the students for 
their bad behavior. =^5i-^aj-|,'^-^q-»i-§?q-|'^-=;aj-".VJ!]-Pi-J!]-Pi-q^=;-l 

g^'^J] behavior, deed || He regretted his violent behavior. [^»J'^!^'sr|'f3=^'q'|'^' 
^''^'''5,^'^'S'^l I can't understand your recent behavior. ^'^'(iS'^'^'f'^'gS' 

g^'^".l] manner, behavior || My father resented my outspoken manner. 

g2;"qgR| good behavior, ethical, virtuous || His good behavior received 
high marks from his teachers and fellow students. 

l^'^""'! ^^^ (of something) || Computer use increased sharply when 
computers became cheap. 


^'5^1 ape man || An ape man's skull is in the museum. 


|J'>'| to beg II Don't beg for money in town. 5]^'^5"-l'S'§^=^'s^'s^'SR] 
g^"q] beggar || The beggar stayed near the bus station. 

g] cream (the first milk after a mother gives birth) || The cream was rich 

and nourishing. I'^'Is^^^Sj'^-V^lS'l'N'^^ 
S^l (S^l S^^l S^'^P to mail, to send (letter/information) || Please mail 


this letter for me. =;q-5)-q^-q^-|!;s,r^q] 
g3jl cloud II The cloud resembled a man riding a horse. 

^^V^l Living Buddha, Reincarnate Lama || The temple identified a new 

Reincarnate Lama yesterday. p''^=;'=;^3j'q'^'Sf\v^-J!]'N^'q'^J!]^'^'q^3j'^^] 
g"!'^] magic II People say he practices magic. 

g".l] rhesus monkey, macaque || The zoo recently acquired a rhesus 

monkey . ^■^£!]'N-p=;-".iy^^-|".V^J!]^qi 
|j happy, glad, cheerful || Don't be sad, be glad! ^si'N-si-^Jll-q^-l^l^^l 
S'gS] happiness, blissfulness || I hope the happiness we feel now can 

last forever. '^'^■'^■^'^■^■'^■'^f^vq'SW|=^''^^'t^3j'^=;'^'^3j'^'^q'q'S'^^ 
g'p^'] villa II He built a villa near the forest. 

3 5^1 pleasure, happiness || Being with my family members gives me 
great pleasure. 5;z^-S|-^5^-5^-=^!;-»i^»i-^-^:^-»-q!:;-q-^?)-!^-q-¥|!;-i3j^S^| 

S'qq^^'jj^^l comedy || I liked the comedy better than the tragedy. 

^'Sl] pleasant || Many flowers blooming on the grassland make a 
pleasant scene, ^'g!;-^-^-^!!!-! 'siz^'qisis^-q-ai^j-^ai-^z^^j-l-sf-^iil-qf a^j 

^■^'^^■] picnic II We had a picnic on the grassland. ^■c5'^'5"g^'S'S'J!]'^^'^'^] 

SSI (3^1 W)] W)\) ^° give, to hand || Please give me a bowl of yogurt. ^'"-V 


^] father || My father is a teacher. =;q-s5-^-=^q]-^3j-^J!]-5)3j] 

'^■^l over there, other side || We have to cross the river to reach the other 

side. =;-6f^-5|-n.vq^q^-^^q^".v^q]'^] 
^■^3jl father || Where does your father work? ^=^'^'=^'^3i'|,^V^'^'^'^'^l ^1 
=^■5^] paternal lineage || I can trace my paternal lineage from Amdo back 

to Central Tibet. =;'s)-:^:;-S|-!^-^=^-i3M-s^'^3j'N-^g'N-J!]5k-".vq^=^-^qi 


!^'»iqq| the other end (of place), edge || He shouted to me from the other 

end of the field. 'pM-^i^-pq-s^-s^gq-aj'^'';^'^! 
=^'3j=^] inheritance (from precursor/father) || With my inheritance I started 

a small business. =;'N-!^^^-".vq'^3j-3j'N-§?k-^=^'^=^'^J!]'^J!]''^^qg'»l'^l 
^'5^] parents, father and mother || Last year my parents went to Beijing. 

^^'S^'^l ancestor, forefather || His ancestor was a famous herdsman. 

^■"^^1 stepfather || My stepfather married my mother when I was ten. 

=^■^"-1] hometown, fatherland, one's native place || I'll go to my 

hometown this evening. S'S^^''=v'=^'^"-V".vq^^'«S3jl 
^■^"1] the other side || The other side of the playground was covered with 

trash. |^'^q'=^'Kq-q-|jl]'s)-»i!N-p!;!N-S5j^| 
'^'^ ^pig; ^behind || ^The pig rolled in the mud. ^J!]''^=^s^'aj^'3j^''^J!] "Ten 

people were behind me in the line. 5^'q§'g5^'i!'^'S'^J!]'3j'5]".vqaJ!]^'^^| 
^J!]'^=;] wild boar/pig || The wild boar ran under the bushes. 

^^■^3j] eavesdropping, bugging || Eavesdropping on other people's 
conversations is not polite. 

^^'1^1 secretly || He secretly took money out of my bag. 

=^^■'3] peeping || Peeping through the crack in the wall at the girls 
undressing got him into a lot of trouble. 

^^'cf^'] pigsty II The pigsty smelled bad in summer. 

'i^-f] pork II I like mutton better than pork. =;-s5J!]-.P|'".1'^-'5Jl]-.P|-"l-=^5!]q| 
^^^1 to regret, to be sorry || I regret the harsh things I said. 

=^3j| to be useful, to be effective, to be good for || This medicine is 

effective for a cold. Ijaj-f^^-cBS^-qws^ajl 
^3j■S=^| henceforth, onward, since now, from now on || From now on she 


will come to class on time. =^'=^aj'c5=^'3j'N'q^!;-f^S'^wyTq-j|=^-q-2C=;-^-5; 
^^■gJ!]M] to be beneficial, to be useful || I want my money to be useful for 

my family. =^'^-5;K,-S|-|'^-w^si-s^-n,vs^3j^qj's)-3j-qY^] 
sia'gtn'qi benefit || Your interviewing me benefits you, it doesn't benefit 

^3j■q=^] welfare || The welfare of the poor should be a top concern. 

^aj''^';^!]^] to do a favor for someone || I will do you a favor if you will 
help me. ^".iy(|^'^'^'!;'".vTj!]'^'^!^-si '^'^•^=^'"l'q3^-aia^-<^^«j-^?)| 

^3j'^3j] each other, mutual, one another || We share mutual feelings about 
this idea. '^■q-q^q-^=;-3j'N-=;-sf'N-s53j-^3j-".vq^=^-#i.VJ!]5J!]'»l^=;'N-q5=;'Nl 

^3j'"^3j] benefit, advantage || What benefit is your proposal to me? 

=^q] 'to discount; "to dismiss from his position 1 1 'He discounted the 
price of his goods because they didn't sell. p^'§§k'5^'g3j'i!'^'p^'=;^lJl]'l|' 
^^■^q] "He was dismissed from his position because he was 
irresponsible . p'^-qJ!]3j-qf^5-=^=;-":i3j-9S-|=^-q'^-pq-3f JJiaj^N-s^q] 

=^»1'|^] defeat, loss || The coach was angry with his team's defeat. 

=^=^] other side, thither, over there || Your wife is standing over there. 

^^ '^5!'^^''^^'l 'association; 'coming and going, pacing || 'The two 
countries' long-term association gave rise to improved economic 

ties. ^"l'pq'J!]|'N'q^'t^3j'^!;'q5;i^^-q^^^Tf:;-g!^-q-^!^-:^qnj-q|^^-|^-q|n.vq-r^n,v 

g^'^'q^^'l 'I don't understand his coming and going at night. FS^^' 
^=^■^"-1] attack, assault || The army launched an attack early this morning. 

s5"1'^^] 'colloquial language; 'dialect || 'Colloquial and written Tibetan 
are quite different. '^=^'|'=^"-l'^=^'=^=^'^^'^=^'^=;'^(5=^'^^'il 'Amdo is an 
important Tibetan dialect. i^W^^'^'q=^'|'=^"-V^^'=!l^'5'^^'^3il 

=^".Vc5'q] most of, majority || The majority of Tibetans are farmers. 


^"I'S^l basically, approximately, almost || The problem is basically 


solved, ^3j^■=^aj■^■^"^■^5^■5^■^'^■q5^] I have approximately one hundred 

yaks. z^'flj'snami'sinj'S^'qffi'^ai'^s^i I have almost solved this math 

problem. z^'^'t'^'^ttl'Sl'^^Tlf^-qia^s^-t^^-jyai-J^^-q^ajj 
s^^'^-qsruj breakthrough, penetrating || His penetrating intelligence 

impressed everyone. p^'^J!]'^'qT".v^q'qq'q^^'^'^!5^-5^'^R»l'n,vqj!j'c5J!]'^'qi5J!l 
5'^^ decision || I don't agree with your decision. 

5'5^'c5^] to settle a problem decisively || The Living Buddha decisively 
settled the problem over grazing land. 

5'3il brothers || How many brothers do you have? (iS'"-l'g'5i'^*S'"^Sl 
g^ elder brother || My elder brother is a teacher. =;q'g^'^5i'^3j'^J!]''^3j] 
gJ!]'".W] tunnel || The train went through a mountain tunnel. 

^^^''^fi"-!] to maintain || He maintained success in his study. 

gJ!]^'q53j] dependable, reliable || He has a dependable job. 

S^'^'^^l idea, goal || What is the goal of your study? 

g^'^''^^'^] result, ending, outcome || What was the result of your many 

years of meditation? ^^■|'N-^=;-qt3j-f^»l=;^^-q^»l'N-qq-g'^'N-qg'^-^-5-^J!]-'^ajl 
9^'S^^ incitement || What was the incitement that led to the 

5'>qi 'pile; 'body || 'There is a pile of grain in my courtyard. ^^'"^'^'^'v'Sr 

'^^'l^'^'-^^'^^l "His body had become fat. 'pq'^'^^iaj^^'^ajl 
53j'*'5]'^] plentiful, abundant || They have a plentiful supply of clothes 

and food. p^c?'^vg'N-3]'^-|-q^aj-|=^-g3j-^5]-sfj!]'N-q-i^=^| 
5=^'g] 'jupiter; 'Thursday; ^dagger || ' Jupiter is farther from the earth 

than the moon. '^q-qf".V".l-g^-g-=^=;-|-q-J!]|'^-".l'^-g^-g-gJ!]-^=;-l "ITl go 

shopping on Thursday. J!]g'^'g=^'q^'^3j'^'§§k'^^'i!=^''^^^'"S3j] ^This dagger 

has a bone handle. g^'g''^^'"-V5'N-qq-^-q^J!]'Nl 
5".V=;'^''^] 'outstanding; 'accomplished || 'His speech was outstanding. 

pq'Jlj™'q,P|=;'3j'gq'^'^'q'(^Jlj'^=;| "She is an accomplished pianist. p'5^'3j' 


^] cry, weeping || Weeping is what a bride does before she leaves her 
parents' home for the groom's home. 

^^q'^] to go, to come (h) || You wiU have to come to our tent again. 

"^male || 'Male' is the opposite of 'female.' ''^'•^•'sr"^''^J!]^t^3j| 
^'5^'] bachelor || He was a bachelor until the age of fifty. 

^■^^■=^1 brave man, hero || A brave man does not run from danger. 

=^■^1 messenger || I don't know what the letter says, I'm only the 
messenger. '^'^■^•^q'3j!;'5'^5!]'|'^W^'q'8^-^'Nl '^•^•'^^•p^aj'^ajl 

=^'3j^] stomach disease/illness || He became progressively thinner and 
was at last diagnosed as having a stomach disease. 

^'^^'^l male animal || The male animal is more aggressive than the 

female animal. «?§J!]'^-".1W^J!]'N-'^=^1 
"^qj stomach || Is your stomach full? ^'^'^■^'iJ^V'^^]^^] 
'^'^'>] palace || The palace was situated on a tall hill in full view of the 

valley. '^g=;'^''^=^'qW^'S)-^-5^g':;-qq-S:-sjg3jif^q^-m-$z;-3j-56q]^^^ 
^'5^1 man and woman, male and female || Humankind consists of male 

and female. 5^q-^J!]'^-^^J!]|'N-|'N-5]q-q-5S3j] 
=^'c&^] courage, guts, fortitude, fearlessness || Though he was in great 

pain, his courage kept him from complaining. 

^■J!](^3j] young man || When will the young man who lives next door 
come to visit us again? 

=^wi3j| widower || The widower's wife had taught school until she was 
killed in a bus accident. 


^■£1]'^=^] young man || When he was a young man he went to Lhasa. 


^^ Ho mention (the key point); 'to fall on; 'to incense; \o unload || ^I 
hope what I said mentioned the key point. ^^■=^^■J!]^l■5■q^P|=^■i!■^^■J!]3j^■".1■ 
'^^W^'il'l'^'q"!,^! 'A brick fell on my head. 5^q-»iqyn,v^-5iJ!]-^J!]^J!] 'His 
words incensed me. p'S'^=;'c5^'^'".l'^^ ''Please help me unload the 
mules. '^■".v|".V".l'N^^W!]''^J!]M'1^'^l 

=^^'^^ irritation, incense, offending || His irritation was due to what I 
said. =;'N-q.P|=^-q-^'N-(^".i^J!]-^'^-q^=;-l 

'^W^'\ wages, salary, payment || Every week I've been paid seven 
hundred ywaw in wages. J!]g'Tqp'^-^^-=;-".l^J!]'N-|'^-s?q^3j-q^-S^] 

^^'^l to be destitute, to be impoverished || After the father died the 
family quickly became destitute. i3M-s5-q^'^-|'^l ^si'cf'^-^-^^-q^^^^'Nl 

^=^] to dare; 'to be able to stand, to sustain || If you dare say that again, 
I'll beat you. (i=^'|'N-^-q'^-|,^-q.P|=^^=^-3jl '^'^■^^■".VJlj^Jll-^t^ajl 'I could not 
stand the pain, ^^^^'aj-f '^■^■ql'^-5^^=^l 

^J!]^'S^] broom, sweeper || This broom is made of straw. 

§] ^external, outside; 'to wipe || ''Internal' is opposite of 'external.' 
'3j^''3j''^^'''3J!]'^'"^3j] 'You have to wipe your wet shoes on the rug 
before you come into the home. p!;'qq'3j=;'S'si'q^".V^=^'l (i'^'^'^'"^*1^3j'^' 

^■^^'1 foreign country || A foreign country's customs may surprise you. 

^'^^'q] foreigner || He's a foreigner but I don't know what country he is 
from. P^'|'|'^'^'^^'"^3jl %^'^''^'^'p^g".vpq'J!]!;'3j'N'Sr!;-q-5^-^^)] 

^■»15]aj] foreign guest || Our foreign guest sang several songs last night. 

^■g".!] foreign country || Were you ever in a foreign country? 

^■g",vq] foreigner || A foreigner visited our home last night. 

] ] I ^.^"^ 11 I \i 1' 

^■^3j] next day || The next day after taking the medicine I felt much 

better. ||3j'q^=;'N-qq-|-|aj-=;q-§?k-q-1-q^5;-^5;| 
^■^3j] diplomatic/foreign affairs || I have no responsibility for foreign 

affairs. =^'"l'|^aj'|,^^'aj'N-q£l]ai-n^-5^=^| 


%51 afternoon || It rained yesterday afternoon. pr'^^'^'^^^'cB^'^'q^'^] 

^■f ^1 to defer, to delay, postponement || I want to defer my decision 
until next week. =;'^-^-gq|-q|%'=^-^-^-J!]gq-qp'^-lM-»iq-q^-5;OTy|-|;^-g:^-q^^| 

^'^^^1 outside, external || This change in society is due to outside 
influences. |'§&]'N'^'q^^''^J!]'q^'^%§J!]'N'^'-P|J!]'N'^3j''^V^J!]'".l'N'q'«S3j] 

^■^^MyS^'l external trade || Is your external trade or internal trade 
larger? ji=^'|'|'|5!]'Ny§?k-iq»l-3j=;-1J!]'Nysf=;-il 

^'5^1 'next; 'outside; ""latter; || 'She said that she hoped her next life 
would be that of a man. (WJ-pw-i-q^s^-'^l^q-i-q-'^ia-ai'l'^'q'qS'^'N-S^K- 
i!=^'q.P|=;] "The outside of his coat had been faded by the sunshine, p^' 
^"i'l^'l'*"'!'*"'^'^^^'^'^'^'*'^^'"^"-'! ^Of the two choices you presented, I 
prefer the latter. (i^'|'N-qy3j-qq-J!]=^»l-'T]-J!]|'N-|-aj=;-3j'Nl =^M%»1''^'^^1 White 
and red are vivid colors but I like the latter one best. ^N'T^^^'q'^N^^NSl^^'q' 

^'5^1 outsider, stranger, alien || The outsider could not speak our 
language. |,'5^'^'N-=;-§?q-^^-c5'q.P|^'»l'-Pi'Nl 

§'5^^ backward glance || When we leave the cemetery and go home, 
don't make a backward glance. 

^■#^1] outward appearance/form, the surface || From this animal's 
outward appearance, I assume it is a cow. 

^^"■'S^^^^l objective law || Is there a universal objective law that 

transcends culture? ^^■^3j'sj-n,i!sj-qs5q^s]-qq-q|qj-'^3j-|-ujn,v|-^s]-|:^-5q^-a5'=^-;^S^| 

^''^".V^'^^'qi^aj] objectivity || Objectivity is qualified by personal interest. 

^■^q'^'q] next generation || The next generation will know more than we 

do . |,'=^q'S)-q'S)-c,-^n,i!S)-5]:;-r-^!!^-^-5,:^| 

^■=^"^1 outside, external || The wind blew outside my home. 

^■"-1] next year, coming year || I will graduate next year. 

|=^'^^3jl felt pad II This felt pad goes under the sheet. |'^'^=^3i''^^'^'^'^^3j-|,- 
'^JI]'"1''^=;^'=;JI]^| We put felt on the bed and then covered it with a sheet. 


^=^l to be frost-bitten/chilled || My daughter's hands were frost-bitten 

during a winter night. ^^3j-p'S-5^cf3j-s?^J!]-"-v=;q-g-s5q-".lJ!]-q-|^-»r=;-l 
^'S'^^ to be opposite/perverted || His ideas are always opposite of 

what most people think. pq'<^'q'^'5^'s^!;'?i'^'^'q'N»l'^".V".l'N'3j»l'^=;'|,3i%'"W] 
^■c5=^l henceforth, from now onward, since now || From now onward I 

resolve to study English for one hour in the morning. §3j'S^'^^'iH5n!5i' 

1^1 ^back; "for || ^He went back home yesterday. p'!^=;''f^|^'t^".V".V»r=;'l 'We 

study English for a better job. 

^''S] looking back || Looking back on my life now I realize I did make 
many mistakes. 

^^■f^gaj] to retreat, to withdraw || The army was defeated and retreated 
into the mountains. =^»lJ!]-=^g=;-".l-s55^-p-gq'N-3j'N-^-3j=;-".v|^-'^3jl 

^^'S] for, in order to || In order to live here for a long time I will need an 
apartment that is not too expensive. 

^^■f^^Sj] export II We want to export our carpets to Nepal and India. 

^^'naSk'] to sell, to vend || Last year, we were selling many of our goods 

in southern China. 3j-^=;-=;-sf'N-§f=;-f 'N-s^=;^^=;-^q-<^f^'^V'^v|^-n§?k-^^l 
^^■^^^ to drive out, to expel || The purpose of the ritual was to expel 

evil from the village. c5^^'^^'=^*^^'N'g^'|'^'3j'N'^'^3j''^5'|^'^|'^'^'^'^3Jl 
^^ rich, wealthy || Those people look very rich. 5^''^^'§fq<^'^'§§=^'".V=9'5^'§^ 
§J!]^ rich, wealthy || Rich people dress well. 5^'^^^'^'q?f^'|,=^l 
^^'^l livestock || How many head of livestock do you have? (iS'"-!'^^'^'^' 

^^'^ (31 yak/cattle herd, flock || The yak herd was frightened by the 
lightning and ran into the forest. §J!]'N-(|-^J!]-^»l^-".vq5J!]'^-3j'^-3jJ!]'^-cf".VS- 

^J!]^'^=^] breed of cattle || What breed of cattle is that big 

bull? ^'^■i3j^q-§Ji]'N-^=^-^-5'^Ji]-«S3j| 


^J!]'^'q=;J!] livestock owner || Everyone in this room is a livestock owner. 

^^'^'aj^] livestock disease || After we began vaccinating our animals, 
livestock disease has not been a problem. 

^J!]^'3j^'S3j'i!] veterinarian || The township government sends a 
veterinarian to nomadic areas on an annual basis. 

^q^^'qaq to herd || Yesterday my father told me to herd the sheep on the 

mountains. p''N=;'=;q'i3Vi-!^'N'!;'".V^'q^3j'N''5J!]'n§f^q'q5'".VJ!]=^»l'N'^^l 
^^^■^] herdsman || A herdsman does not have an easy life. 

^q^'s^'gj!^ livestock || What sort of livestock do herders have in your home 

^Jlj'^'^^] corral || We put the sheep in the corral and then sheared them. 


^Jj^^'n.l'^l pastoral industry, animal husbandry || If animal husbandry is to 
be successful there must be plentiful grass and water. 

^^■q] cheese || We don't make cheese anymore. =^'<^'^'§§'^'^=^''S^'^^'q'5^'".1^] 
^1 flour, powder || I spilt flour all over my new trousers. 

§'5]^"Ec;'q| to pound into a fine powder || The salt was pounded into a 

fine powder. c^'q?=^'^-3j'^-|-5]3;-q^q|!^| 
^^''T] half II Every month I give half of my salary to my wife. 

^S'^^'l peninsula || The peninsula was not very large and barren of both 
plant and animal life. |=^'|'^'^'i'^'«^=^'"-vt'^'^'^=^'^^'c5^'N-^=^-=^q3jl 

^^^] Mirection; "to tend, to be inclined; ^side || 'in which direction is 
your home? (i^'^'^"-l'3j'^^'^'^^'3i'"^^l 'I tend to believe him, even 
though other people don't. 5^-^»l'N-p^".V'^^-5^-i'N-^=;-l =;-p^".l-«S=^-i'N-q^-|5!]'Nl 
"'what side of the river do you live on? ^■^^■^'^■^^'Sj''^ 

^^'^■^aj'W in all directions, everywhere || We threw firecrackers into the 
air in all directions. =^'i''N-s^pq-=^|=;'N-^-|5l]'N™-y?iJl]-^Jl]-Jl]y^| 


^J!]'^'pJ!] group, wing, gang || The criminal gang specialized in robbery. 

.gfJl'^''^'Jl'^| counter, contradiction, conflict || The contradiction between 
the two neighbors eventually erupted into an angry quarrel. 

^J!]^'q|3J!j^] collection, selection, anthology || Have you read the latest 
anthology of modem Tibetan short stories? |iS'^'N'S'^''^''^5]'^'q=;'^'§c;' 


^J!]^'J!]3J!] one side, on the one hand || On the one hand, I can understand 
his point of view but, on the other hand, I think he is wrong. 

^^'^■^ft'^] two sides, two sorts, bilateral || Every disagreement has two 

sides. q(^=^'i!'g'^^'cf=;'»l'|5!]'N'J!]|'^-^-^!^-?'^| 
^Jlj^'^aj'^^p^^'"-!] compass || ITl use my compass to see in what direction 

we are walking. 

^J!]^'ng3j] prejudice, discrimination, one-sidedness, partiality || His 

prejudice was obvious to everyone. p^'^^^''^3j'^=^'^'^3j'".r^'^"1] 
^Jj^^'q^'^l collection, summary || This is a brief summary of his 

important ideas. q^-^-'pq-'^-q-J!]".vi3j-|,-|5!]'N-q^'N--PjJ!]-5S3j] 
^J!]^'q^»l^] summary, conclusion || I did not agree with his conclusion. 

^i^m^!^ impartial, unbiased || His decisions were always impartial. 

^Jjj^'s^^^^l similar || I heard a similar folktale last year in Mongolia. 

^J!]'^'=^'^] discrimination, partiality || Her partiality for her youngest child 
angered her other children. 

^J!]^'™^] partiality, bias || She had a partiality for her native home place. 

^'aiSJI jewel ornament || I bought this jewel ornament in Sichuan a few 
days ago. ^3j-qJi]q-|aj-=;'Ni-^aj-^-^-^3j-q^y^| 


^"5^1 thin, slender, fine || Her slender figure drew everyone's attention. 
^^ shoulder || I fell on my right shoulder while I was playing football. 

^^■^^ envy, jealousy || Envy for what others have made him always 
unhappy. p''^'J!l(^3j'f^V5'25'^'^^-^J!]-'^J!]-|=^-q-^^V^^-|=^-^aj-^-^J!]-^^^ 

^3j'g] ^small, little, slight; "few || 'l have only a little money. R",V§^^'5^'^aj' 
g'n.l^'»l=;| There is only a very little chance that you will win the 
lottery. |3'^''^'|3^''^'^'|'^'i<^'?['5|!^'^'g3^'^5]-aj!^-5]-q|!^(^| "I have only a few 
pieces of luggage to take on our trip. ^■cf'Nt^'^V'^5]'^V^=^'S^'^''^V[^=^'^^3j'g' 

^3j'j§^'^] trivial, trifling, small || They often quarrel, even over trivial 

concerns. p^sf'N-g-aj-^'NYl'^'^^i'^^'^'I'^'^'^'^'S'^'t^'^^'P'f'^'l^l 
^1 (S^l ^^'^ ^'^l) to subtract from, to cut back || We need to cut back on 
the amount of money we spend each month. 

^■^1 child II My child started school this year. 

^fl'^P^l to become pregnant || In order to become pregnant she 

consulted a doctor. ^■^■qp'^-qq-i^-s-pw^-^3j-q-".vq^3ji 
^=\| line, row, series, string (of things) || He hung a string of dried 

chilies outside his window. 'p^'^'=^3j'^*l^=^'^5Jl]'|'3'f^=^'Sl%"-Vq'T]".ll 
^^■qg^] series, sequence || 1-3-5-7-9. . . is a series of odd numbers. 1-3- 

5-7-9 ^'"^'5!'^'N'|'|'^'^^=^'3J!T«Saji 
^^■|JJ!] to queue, to stand in line || I don't want to stand in line for a long 

time to buy a ticket. =;'^-q-'^yq^-S'^-t^3j-^=;^^-|=;-^J!]-3j-5^-q^=^l 
^^■q] line, string of beads || Her string of beads was so beautiful that 

everybody looked at it. f^q-|=;-q-wiq]-q^)-5^-cf!;-»i'N-^^-q'^'s)| 
f^Jl] (^^'^ ^^'^'^\) to rise || Production last month rose twenty percent. 


'^'Jl to move, to struggle, to make jerky motions || He had to struggle to 
get off the crowded bus. 'p^qcdk-p-S'qS'5j=^'^''^p'^''^'^''^=^^'<^S5i]'!^|!^'3j'^' 

'^^^l to be superior || He feels superior to us. R'^'-^R''^^'3i'^*^3;' 

f^^M's^cB^ sage II Although he lacked formal training, he was 
acknowledged as a sage. 

r^»l| (r^»i] ^5i\) to be defeated, to lose || We will surely lose the 

competition if we don't practice. ^"-lyi'^'q^^^'s^'^^'S] ^'sf^s^'p^gJ!]'^^] 

'^^I to increase, to rise || The number of livestock in our township will 
have to increase if we are to become richer. 

^T^^'^aj] increment, addition || The addition of a new student to the class 
made the other students unhappy. qk''^'^=;'^qw£i]^=;'q'^si]'q53=;'^^'H^' 

'^^l ('^S^l S^l) to be on the wane, to cause one's decline or downfall || 
His gambling was the cause of his family's decline. 

'^'^1 C^^l ^W^] ^W^]) to tly, to soar || The birds fly in the sky above the 

trees. fk-»i^q-»ipq-2^|,!;'N'^'q=^q'c5J!]'N'ng^l 
r^^'^2;] flight, flying || My mother is so afraid of flying that she refuses 

to get on a plane. =;q-i3M-»iT^^-|=^-|,=^-q^-^J!]-3j'^-J!]3j»l-5]-".V^=^-p-5^-^3jl 
r^^'^2;'q] pilot, astronaut || He was a pilot for six years in the air force. 

^^^■3^=;^] missile, guided missile || The missile did not hit its target. 

'^".Vg^ to push II Pushing him out the window was not easy. 

m^ i^^!^] ^^'^'^]^'^^]) to throw, to fling, to shoot || This bag of animal 
feed is too heavy to throw across the river. 

'^".l] to increase, to flourish, to develop || In order for the students' 
marks to increase, they must have better qualified teachers. 

ry^q'qgjqj increase and decrease, rise and fall, wax and wane || The rise 
and fall of empires seems to be a constant theme in world history. 



'T^"l'g'^l development, growth, progress || How much progress have you 
made in your English study in the past year? 

f^f^'^^ profit II The company did not make a profit this year. 

ry^fW^q^]] reproductive ability /capacity || The reproductive ability of this 
new breed of sheep far exceeds that of the old breeds. 

'^"I'^^^l trend, direction of development || There has been a recent 
trend for women to wear short skirts. 

'^"l'^'^] rate of development/growth || The rate of growth in the 
economy exceeded our projections. 

'^'^S^l changes || The recent weather changes are unusual. 

m'^^] (m'^^]^'^^\) \o be destitute, to be poor; "hips (of a horse) || 'The 

beggar was destitute. S^'q'=;'=9'5^'^^^] 'I put my brother on the horse's 

hips. !;'N'^3j'|'^'qq'n^=;'N'".vq(^Ji] 
'^l ('^l ^W^ '^^l) to deride, to ridicule || Don't ridicule me because I 

speak your language poorly. ^^■|i=^'^'^=^'=^^^'|5'«^''^l^^'^^'^'"-V5^''^^l 
q^'^^s] blame, derision, mockery || I don't appreciate your mockery of 

what I believe in. (5=^'|'^-=;q-«S=^-i'N-^=^-q-|=^-'N-".vq§-|=^-|=^-q^-=;-5^-^J!]qi 
'^^ (§^ ^^'^l §^^1) to sweep II I must sweep the classroom every 

morning. ^3i-5<^-i^q|!^-q3;-:;si-^q-p:;-q^q^-:^qjsi| 
'^^'l to hang down, to suspend || Colorful paper hung down from the 

ceiling. ^J!]'^'s^'^J!]'33j'^£!]'£!]aj5^'*aj'".lM'5^^'q^=;'l 
^^] (^^1 ^^1 I^^D to raise, to lift || Help me raise the flag. 

^] (^] ^W^\) to be late || Don't be late for work again or you will be 

fired. q'^-|,^-".l'N-'T]-".V»l-q|l ^■5^3j-^-(^=;M-3j'N-q|=^-^-5S3jl 
'^^ i^W] ^W\'^\) to mistake, to err, to blunder || To err is human. 

'^^l to surge, to swell, to rise || The flood water surged across the 


fields, f '^^'^^'^'^'^'"•l''^^l 
'^l C^^l ^^'^]) ^to float; "to seethe || ^Garbage floats on the surface of 
the lake. ^'^'^^'^'s^c^^M'^''^ "The water seemed to seethe with fish. 

n^^'".is^] narrow path || He walked carefully along the narrow path. 

^S] ('^Sl ^Sl) to meet, to come in contact with || When will I meet you 

again? '^■(i^'"-l'«^=;'qg^'aj»l''^^=^'§'«S3j'3j5^1 
q^f\V^f\l| surprise attack || The surprise attack was successful with many 

of the enemy killed. =^g]-^»lJ!]-»l=;^q'N=^-3j'N-q^".v'^".V".V'^lJ!]'N-q5]q-^=;-] 
'^^"^xil immediately, at once, quickly || I will do my homework 

immediately. '^'^•".l'N'gq^".VS'q|'^t^3jl Please come quickly! (^goj-^'^qj 
n^''^53j] reduction, subtraction || The price reduction meant that he sold a 

lot more goods. ^3j-^=^-q|-qg3j-g,»5-q-^'^-p''^-=^T'^^»i=;^q^=;'^-q-»ii3jl 
n^ajl message, letter || When did you receive this 

message? '^|3i''^^'(i^'"-V3j»l'I=^''^|=^l 
f^^aj'^f^vp^'] post office II I buy stamps at the post office. 

'^^3j'J!]^R] ^communication; 'sending message || ^Communication 
between that remote area and the city is difficult. ^"-V^^^q'^'^^'g]^' 
|5=^'^'^'q=^''^^3j'J!]^^'^=^'i!'=^'T^'^] ^The telegraph office was busy all day 
receiving and sending messages. ^=^'^J!]'p^'^3j'J!]^'q=^''^^3j'J!]^^'=^^''^^3j" 

n^Sj'qS] signal || The radio signal is very clear in the morning. 

^^3j'q3^'] good news || No news is good news. J!]'g'5^=;'aj''^^aj'qg^'"^3j] 
f^^aj'^^JJ] correspondence, letters || We wrote letters to each other until 

she died. 'pWq^'^-^J!]-q^-s-=;-§f'N-s53j-^3j-".vq|aj-'^J!]-q^^l 
f^^aj'^lSj] reply /answer to a letter || Did you receive the reply I mailed to 

you three weeks ago? 

(^■g,^')*^3^''^^l to snatch || The child tried to snatch the money from 

my hand. |,^-q-^'N-=;q-".iJ!]-3^!^-|'^-5f(^g5;]-|'N-^Ml 
n^3j'".l^| mission, duty || His mission is to increase productivity. 


q^q^ (^^^ '^^^^l ^^^^1) to scratch || I scratched my back with a 

backscratcher. ^'N''^^^'|=^'|'N'^^'^=^'^''^^^'N1 
n^f^] to have an illusion/wrong impression || You have the wrong 

impression if you think I am your friend. 

q^",vqp^] machine || The machine needed to be repaired. '^^"-V'^p^^'^^' 

q^oj-g^-i hallucination, wrong impression, illusion, deception || What I 
saw was so bizarre that I thought it must be a hallucination. 

'^^Sj horizontal, transverse || He drew a horizontal line across the 
blackboard. 'p»5'|^'^»l-|,-S:;-n,vq|;^-gqj-5qj-|s]| 

n^^'^^ line of latitude || This line of latitude connects your home and 

mine on the map. '^■(gq-^=;-Sl-q|=^-gJ!]-q^'^-;;-S^t^".VJ!]|'^-|".lW^l 
n^] (^^] '^^^l) to shine, to radiate, to emanate || Light shone from the 

Buddha's eyes. 'N=;'N-^'N-|-|3j-".l'N-'q=^-|^-q|«)l 
^^] remains, survivals || We divided the remains of supper into five 

portions. =;-§f'N-=^^=;-g'N-|-q^»i-^".v<^-^-q3]'^i 
'^^^ (^^^ ^^^1 ^^'^D to rob, to take away by force || Bandits may try to 

rob us when we go through this area. 

q^jj^'qss^l robbing, looting, plundering || Robbing herdsman is a primary 
activity for those people. 

q^J!]'f^3j] robbery || The robbery occurred at night. 3js^'^^'".V'^^J!]''^13j'^»)] 
^'^ to be suited for, to receive || He seems to be suited for the life of a 

student. 'p^q'»l^''^§fq'".V'^1'=^'«r^'q''^51 
q^^'q^aj] health care, hygiene, sanitation || Health care has greatly 

improved in rural areas. '^"^■s^g'^''^'pq'|''^'^=^'q^3j'".v3f^''^".vi3jW11 He 

is responsible for sanitation at our college. p^'^'c^'J]q'5]'i53j's^(^'J!]^^'=;J!]' 

q^^'q^aj'p^'] health center, health clinic || The nearest health clinic is ten 
kilometers away. q|'^-q^aj-p=;-gJi]y?j'^-^-|-":vq§q-'N-3j-sr^| 


'^^^■q^3j'=^J!]'i!] study of hygiene || In college the nurse had several classes 
in the study of hygiene. ^^■|'^'^'3i^'^"W]'q'q^=^'q^aj'^J!]'qq'^q'(|=^'|^'-f|!^''^' 


q] cow II The black cow walked across the road. q'3jJ!]'^'".wp'q^=^'ajMAi^'| 
q'^'^'l ox, cattle II The ox pulled the plow. ^'^'^'^'N''|^'N'^^"-V5=^1 
q■=^3jl banner, sail || The banner flapped in the wind. ^S^j'S^'^'^'^^Sl 
^•^1 body hair || He has a lot of body hair. pS'^'^'^-V^'^'^l'^^^r^l 
'^'"•\^] cattle II I have ten head of cattle. =;-".vq-".F-q§-g»l-qw^l 
qAl] ivory || I have a pair of ivory chopsticks. ^'^'^''^^'^^^'S^'S'^S^'^^] 
^^'^fl^'^1 to be scared, to be intimidated || Don't be scared of hard work. 
"1's)-7T^-£^^q-5^-a,vqq^-q^_s^s]-s^-|^;^| j'm intimidated by my teacher's loud 
voice. =^'l'=^^'^3j'|,'^=^'J!]^l=;'»ig3j^'^'=;'5;!:;-qq|-(^5]!^-q^-g!^| 
q^'c5] package || I cut the butter package into two parts. 

q^'c5^^1 impression, effect || What impression did I make on the 

audience? =^M'<^=^'5fq^'qJ!]'c5J!]'N-5''^5'^J!]'q(^J!]'J!]5^1 
q^'^q^] carefree, at ease || He led a carefree life until he married. 

q^'5^1 bride || The bride wore a beautiful new robe. 


q^'s^^] unconventional, unrestrained, indiscreet || His unconventional 
behavior drew everyone's attention. 


qJ!]'".iq] bread || This bread is baked, not steamed. 


q=\'| (q^'l q^'^]) to be drenched, to be wetted || His clothes were drenched 
in the sudden rainstorm while he was out herding. f^'s^'g'^'q'S'gtniS^'f^S' 

q^s^'C^;! storehouse || We put the barley in the storehouse. 


q^^si] layer, gradation || Cream is a white layer on top of milk. 

q=^''^ tomb II The soldier's tomb is here. ^»lJ!]-5^q-q=;-'^q^-3j-«r^l 

q=^l frost II The grass was covered with frost. S'^S'^'^'p^^] 

qq'5".l] thoughtless, careless, reckless || His reckless speech got him into 

many fights. 'pq-qq-5'".v|,-J!]^»i-^'N-p^q|^J!]-f'2^-»i!;^q-3j=;-^-q§J!] 
qq'q^R] tranquility, calmness || The calmness of his character impressed 

everyone . '[^^■qq'q|'^''^aj'i!'l'^'^'J!]-f|M'^M'5^'cdk-5^^-qJ!]-c5J!]M'gq'5fq(^J!] 
qs^'t^] volumes (of books) || His collected works are available in three 

volumes. 'p'^'^^=;'f»l'J!]5'N'q^'N'q»l^J!]^»l'^^'3j'N'q|j!]'NW^l 
q==^| between, among; 'until || I live in a valley between two mountams. 

!;-S:-q^J!]^'N'q^'|,''5=;'q'^J!]'3j''^=^l "ITl wait until you are ready, (i^'^'^'5!'^^' 


q^'^q^'^l at the moment, at a period of time || At the moment I'm very 

busy. q^'^q'N'^l '^■^".V'^^l'il 
q^'(i^] difference, discrimination || What difference is there between 

British people and American people? 


q^■c5=^] interruption, obstacle, impediment || Being too busy is an 
obstacle in my learning more English. 

q=^'5^ distance || What's the distance from here to town? 

q^'fjl in between, until || Until we had a teacher we did not learn much. 

q^'^^s^] mediation, conciliation || After fighting there was a period of 

conciliation and then a lasting peace. '^gq''^(g^'^'^^'^'ai'^'55]''^'q^'(^R5]' 

a^^'i ^■3;!^''^3j'^^'§^'^'q^^qi 
q^'^=;] neutral || I have a neutral position concerning that conflict. 

q^'^=;'q] neutralist, middle-of-the-roader || Whenever there is 

controversy, he is always a middle-of-the-roader. 


q^'^^'] space, air, sky || The sky was filled with dark clouds. 
q^'q] mediator || He was the mediator that solved the dispute. 
q^'jjq'^l rift, crevice || My hat fell into the rock crevice. 


q=^'J!]'^R] 'crevice; 'recess || 'The rabbit hid in a crevice in the rocks. =^'q^' 
Eq-q^'Jl^^^q-q^^^] "The quite child did not go out to play during 
recess. q^-J!]'^=;-S]-^q'N-^-|,'^-q-p-|=^-s5^-|^p^-|=^-^-5^-'^!;-] After this class 
during your recess, I want you to go outside and get some exercise. 


q".l] wool II This wool was sheared this morning. S'^^'§'5'^"-V'^S'^^^1 
q",V^^] wool yam || This sweater is made from wool yam. 

qn.VJjj'^l woolen cloth || He made a shirt from woolen cloth. 


g] son II I have one daughter and one son. ^■".l■g■J!]5^■^^■g■5^■^5^'^=^] 
g''?] hole II There was a bird nest in the hole in the tree. 

g'gS] offspring, descendent || He is a descendent of a famous writer. 

g'q5".vp^'] nursery || My baby daughter stays in the nursery each 

mommg. ^a^-^^-^-l-^q-gw^^-^^-g-qsKvp^^-^^l 
g'^^'] baby, young boy || The hungry baby cried. '^^^■^'N'^5^'^'^'g'§^'5'N| 
g'g=;] womb || I have no memory of being in my mother's womb. 


g'^^ child II A child is herding sheep and hopping on the grassland. 
g'5^] daughter, girl || My daughter does go to school. 


g,'5]"^s;"^s;"i young girl || The young girl danced across the stage. 


g'^] babysitter || We should ask the babysitter to take care of the 
children tomorrow evening. 


g'^s^] brown sugar || Apples are tasty when cooked with brown sugar. 

g'^Sijl debt II I paid all my debts before the New Year. "T^'^^^'^' 

g-f^Taj-sipajl debtor II I don't like being a debtor. '^'g'"5'aj-5^paj-^£!]-|=^-5^-q^=^l 
g'".13j'q=;J!]'i!] creditor || My creditor is demanding that I repay my debt to 

him. !;q'g'"r3j'q=^J!]^^'=;'^'g'"r3j'q^".v=^3]''^'q<^-^'q'q^3il 
g'"13j''^=;=;] to collect a debt || At the bank my job is to collect debts. 

g'"13j'|^ to get into debt || After the poor harvest I had to borrow money 
and so I went into debt. 

g^■5^=^] woman || My wife is a hard working woman. 

gS'-Pj^'l firewood || We collect firewood from the mountain. 

gaj'q^^J!] creditor || Who is your creditor? (i^'^'g3j''^^^'^'^3jl 

gaj'f^^aj] bond, receipt for a loan, lOU || I'll loan you some money for an 

lOU. =^'^-^=^-".vg3j-ql3j-|;Sj-3j'^-^=^-s?qJ!]q-q|i 
gs^'^] vase, bottle || Please put this red rose in that black vase. 

q^l profit, use, benefit || Of what use to you is this old stick? 

^=\'-53;| helpful II The man I asked for directions was not helpful. ^^'^JS]" 

q^'c5^] to be able to use, useful || Although he was old and ill, he still did 
much useful work around the house. 

q^'g^] use, utilization, consumption || Utilization of computers has 
increased a lot in the past five years. 

5^'5]s;i useless || This old horse is useless. 5'^3j''^=;'3;'q'>'5is;"-5sr|'$!>] 

qs^'^l ^lifeless object; 'corpse || ^Have you heard the Tibetan story about 

the enchanted corpse? (5=^'^'N^=^%S'^t'|^=^'<^'^'q<^'=!]^5]-s'^-i!5l-iRv^-] 
'This vase is a lifeless object made of clay. g5^'q'(^!^'3j'^'",l^'qg!5i'qq'2jJ!]' 

q!31 calf II The calf ran to its mother. q'3W»iq-|5!]'N-".vq^J!]'Nl 

q^^] interest, rent || How much rent do you pay for your apartment each 

month? |'^^'ji=^'|'N-p^-q-".l^J!]'N-J!]-sf=^-|=^-=^q]'^l 
qjjj^'tns] lease (paid for use of land) || He has a lease for ten years. R' 

q^'g] donkey || They sell donkey meat in that shop but I never buy it. 

q^l Tibetan || The Tibetan man was learning French and English. 

q^'S'^] Tibetan clothes/attire || I only wear Tibetan clothes during 

festivals. =;'^-S^-i3j-p^3j-"l^^-S'^-|^3jl 
q^''^^'^] Tibet || Tibet has beautiful art work. 

q^'^] Tibetan (person) || I knew he was Tibetan when I saw his clothes. 


q^'5^1 Tibetan people || Tibetan people live in Qinghai Province. 

q^'^'^] Tibetan food || Steamed dumplings stuffed with beef are a 

favorite Tibetan food. ^»i'^-.P|q-5«]-s«]-^-q'^-g'N-qg!;-q^^J!]-5S3j] 
q^'"^^ written Tibetan || I learned written Tibetan in primary school. 

^^^""'1 Tibetan area || What Tibetan area grows rice? 

q=;'^J!]M] Tibetan people/nationality || What is the size of the Tibetan 

nationality in China? ^'^•^•q'^'^J!]!^-nj-5]-5]z;!^-q|-S'^-?!^| 
q^N'^^R^R"^^^] Tibet Autonomous Region || The Tibet Autonomous 

Region is south of Qinghai. ^'^■^'^■|''^''|''^'N-^-s^§^3j-|-™^J!]M-^W^l 
^3jl B n (the pre -Buddhist religion of Tibet) || He was an expert on the 

history of B n. q3j-|,-"T^'N-|^£!]-3j'N-p^-i^-»ip'^-q-^J!]-5S3j] 
q3j'c5^] B n religion || His belief is in accordance with the B n 

religion. ^'^■=^^'q^3i-I'^-".vq|i=^| 

q3j'^l followers of B n || People who live in the village are all 

followers of B n. ^-q-^q-aj^^-c-qjfqq-s^-cf^^-s^-qaj^TSlajl 

^^■^^^ loss II The loss of his livestock was a serious economic blow. 

^] bird II A bird is something I would never eat. 

^■p^'] chicken coop || There were ten chickens inside the chicken coop. 

^'S^'^l reward, prize || I've never won any kind of prize. 

^•^^Jj^q-t^^q] bonus II The bonus was one hundred ywaw. ^■^^'^■^5"-l'3j'§^=^'«^' 
^§■"^31] Last year my bonus for working in the hospital as a doctor 
was one thousand RMB. 3j'^!;'=;'^'|]3j'p!;'".l'N'|]3j'q^!;'N'qq'§-'^5;|<^-!^^'^-^-|'^' 

^■§^^'] egg II I bought one boiled egg from the vendor. 

^■|3] feather || I attached a peacock feather to my hat. 

^■g=^] behavior, act, deed || We are each responsible for our own deeds. 

^^'1 ^north; 'to be proficient in, to have a good command of || 'The 
school is north of here. §]^'3''^S'^^'^^'3j'"^Sl 'He has a good command 
of Tibetan, Chinese, and English. p^^-^^-=^=;-^-^=^] =^|iSj'^=^'5i]^5]-n,v^!;- 

^^'^''^S'^^ northern altitude || There is much snow at this northern 

altitude. ^'^■5^''^|=^'§J!]''^^'".vp'q'i3j^'^qqi 

^^■g^l northern area || In the northern area of our country winters are 

cold. ^^■|".vt^=;-|=^-^-^^3j-p-=9-5^-q(iqi^l 

^^ proficiency, skill || He has a lot of skill in sewing yak hair cloth. 

^^'Sq] to be skilled, to be entirely proficient in || He is entirely 

proficient in speaking and writing English. p^'S^'"^^''^^''^S'^^'^qi 

^^'^^'^l northern direction || Walk in a northern direction for an hour 
and then youTl come to the spring. 


^^'5^] ^northern; 'experienced || 'The northern side of the mountain is 
colder than the southern side. ^^^■^'^^^■^■^^^■™^M-".l'N-q(iJ!]'Nl "She's 
an experienced teacher. p^'^^'^3i'^^'5^'^'']'^S| 

^R^»l^] mercifulness of the Bodhisattva, compassion || Through the 
mercifulness of the Bodhisattva, I was cured of my illness. 

^=^1 face II He has a round face. p^",V^^-^^-|'^-^J!]-Sr=^] 

S^^l^'^1 f^'^^ ^^'^ physique || His face and physique are very special. 

W'\ O^l S^^l S^'^D to rinse || Let's rinse the cups. S'^'^^^^l 

^s^'^] to be merciful/kind || Please be merciful to others rather than 

cruel. 5!]i^3j-f^-^»l'^-q-".l'^-^Jl]^»l-|=^l 
^5^^'^^"] care, protection || I can never repay my mother's care for me. 

^5^'^''^3j] merciful || Be merciful and don't punish me. 

^s^s^'qg] love, affection || I never doubted my father's love for me. 

^5^^'^»1^] kindness, love || The Buddha's love is boundless. 

^'^■^^l achievement || His achievement has impressed everyone. 


^'^■^'^'SSj] meritorious, successful || His meritorious work in building a 
village school earned everyone's respect. 

^] to lose (one's hair) || My hair was lost after I became forty years old. 

^■Sfq^-qg-q-g:^-|^,| ^q|-| 

^] baby bird || The baby bird fell out of its nest and was eaten by a cat. 

^'^■as^^l childishness || I don't understand his childishness. 

^W^] child II The child is tall for its age. |,M-q-^-"r§f^-".V»iafaj-aj-J!]|£!]'N-^=;-| 
S'^^^\i'^l childhood || My childhood was not happy. 


l^'^ral childish, naive || Don't answer in a childish way. 

^■^1 coral II The coral in her necklace is very expensive. 

^■g^'] desert land || There is much desert land in northern China. 

^■^1 ten million || He earned about ten million dollars in the movie 

business. ^J!]'q^3j-sf^''^l'N-|-^=^-aj^rp^Vi3vr|'^-|-q-J!]3J!]-^J!] 
^■g^ individual, specific, concrete || Can you give me a specific reason 
why you don't want to do it? 

^■g^'sj] individual, specific || Tell me the specific person you visited 

yesterday. ^■'^'^■^^■|'N-ncf5^'N-q5-^'^-qq-5^-|-gJ!]-q-^-=;-".V?i=^-^=;-l 
^'5^1 sand II Sand mixed with cement and water makes mortar. 

W\] (SI ^''^l S'^l) 'to ^O' 'to engage in (an action) || ^ What do you want to 
do tomorrow? 'N=;-|3j-^=^-|'N-5'^J!]''^l'N-|'^-Sr=^l "He spent his whole life 
engaged in agriculture. p'^'(^^'".l^'^^'aj^'5^'af J!]^'q'q^".1] 

^=;'^^^] the way someone behaves/works || The way a man behaves tells 
us how intelligent he is. 

^=;'gq^] method, means || What is the best method to learn 

English? =^|,3j-^J!]-|k-qq-|=^-gq'N-qg=;-?f^-^-5-^£!]-«S3j] 
S^S^'^l policy, course of action || This policy has not been successful. 

^=^■§■^l attempt || Your attempt to do work can be successful. 

g!5^-(^5](^-c5q'^5^] glacial ice || Glacial ice melts in summer. 

^1 to arrive, to come || They arrived two days ago. 

^"-1] to avoid, to evade || Don't try to evade my question. 



^"-I's^l in exile, fugitive || He is a fugitive from the law. 

g^ rock II This rock must be quartz. g^''^^'^^^'T]==^'|5^'"^aj'^Ml 
^^ fl^l '^^^^ II There are many fairytales about the cave in the mountain. 
^■(^^■^■^^■f^^'^'?^^'"-l'™'a^'«^^'q'"^=^] There is a cave in that mountain. 

g'J]'5] echo II The echo of the gunshot caused a boulder to roll down the 

mountain. q'^'^=^'|'gJ!]'5'N-^-^=;-3j'^^^-s?^J!]-q|".11 
g'J] A| rocky mountain || Little grass grows on that rocky mountain. 

g=^'l chest II My heart is in my chest. '^'S'|!;'g!^'pi!]'3jW^l 

gsj'f^p^^] servant, serf, vassal || He was a landlord's personal servant. 

gaj'q^Jl] slaveowner || Many years ago he was a slaveowner. 

gaj'J!]"^^!] slave II The former slave was unable to read and write. 

^5^] to sell, to be marketable || Are you sure these handicrafts are easy to 

g3j'q=;'q] saleable, easy to sell || These thangkha should be easy to sell. 

g^'5^1 hand-copied book || This hand-copied book must be very valuable. 

|".l] to be busy || I like to be busy. ^'If^'q^^'^^f^] 
^"I'q'^^ very busy || Much work made me very busy. 

g] Mance; 'to have/feel (a certain sensation) || 'The dance was short but 

energetic. ^'^'^^'^^'^^'-Pl^^'^l 'That food has a strange smell, g's^'^'",!'^' 

g'^l^q] to dance || I don't know how to dance. ^'^■g'^l^q's^'-Pj^] 
^'q^^'i^aj] 'nutritious; 'meaningful || ^Tsampa is a nutritious food. §'si''^'3j' 
|^q§=^-'^3j-qq-g-»l-^J!]-«J3jl 'His article is meaningful. 'p^'f»l'5SJ!]-n.v|^q§=^-'^3j] 
g'^'^"-!] fleeing, escaping || Fleeing from the bandits was difficult for 

him. 'p^"i'5^^aj-aj-^Ji]-q-".v|'^-1pi-|=^-g-=^'T]q| 


q"3j'5^'5^ss]] supreme, incomparable || His knowledge of that area's 
history is supreme. «J".V5]'q^q'"rg'N'^'^^'3j'N'pq'^'N'g,'^'q'3j'»l'5^l'Nl 

3W^] reincarnate lama 11 He was discovered to be a reincarnate lama at 
the age of seven. p^qS3i'|,'^=^'^'|"-V^^''^^'^''^%^^l 

^'5^1 lama, guru || The lama had many students. ^■s^'^=^A]q's^'S^Rq'«J=;] 

q''^*^'! Hraitor; "traitorous 11 ^The traitor was discovered and executed. 

ai I ' II 

5^-q-n§?k-^-^^-3j'N-^J!]-(|5^'N-".V|^l -The traitorous official sold his 

country's secrets. =^q3j-5^-q-n§?k-^'N-'pq-^".vpq-|-J!]'^=;-q-q^=;'Nl 
q'Sj^ soul II They believed that a tree was the soul of a cow. 

^1 (^1 ^^1 ^'^l) to ransom, to redeem || We must ransom our kidnapped 

daughter. '^■§f'?'q§v^=^'^'^'q'i'g'«?=;'§f'N-^'^-q^-s-q-^^^l 
qaj'^^s^] stupid talk || After all this stupid talk I feel like drinking some 

liquor. q3j•^!]^s^•q^•^^!]'^•q^P|=^•|'Nl !;'NW^J!]'qJ!]q'q^=;'q^=^i 
q3j''J] stupid, a fool, idiot || What a fool he was to give her all his 

money. 'p^-^^Wcf=;-»l'p'»l'"-v|,3j'q'N-5-q5q-q3j^^Jl]-^=;-i3^i!;-| Everyone knows 

he's an idiot. 5^'cdk-»i'^'p^'gs-q'^J!]'«S3j-q-^^| 
^'S'']^] sincere, loyal, faithful, devoted || She has been my sincere friend 

for a long time. p^-«jaj-^=;^^-=;q-^J!]'^^=^'T]^-^J!]-«S3j] He has always 

been a loyal friend. p^'3j»l'5S3j-^!;-^q]^)^^-!^'T|5;-^q^-fij3j| 
^"=^'']S] idea, strategy, scheme || His strategy proved, ultimately, 

unsuccessful. 'pq-q^q^2^-qj!]'N-q5]q-8^3j-q-»igq-»i^-^-|=^-^'^l 
ra §^1 ^° utilize one's wisdom || Please utilize your wisdom to solve this 

problem. ^'^'|^'^|=^'3i'^'^3i=^^3i'^^'^^'^5=^''^^'|,^l 
q'p'§"J!]5J!j'ii] attentively || He listened attentively to the radio program. 

q'p^'c53j''^] broad-minded || The broad-minded father sent his daughter to 

school. q^J!]-i3j^'^3j-qq-i3M-s5'N-^=;-S]-g-s5^q-^^-qg".il 
q'f^p"-!] to trust, to rely on || I can rely on my best friend to do whatever I 

ask. =^'l'^J!]'^^i'N'q3K,-q^"l-|-^q^TH5)-sj-q|q^-q3;-c;!S)-q^qprn-^q^ 

q'5]'^] wisdom, intellect || His answer shows his wisdom. 

m '^S^l regret, repentance || I have great regret for my past mistakes. 

'^•^!;-S|'^3i'S=^'^^=^'|3i'".V'^|=^'s^'i3j^|| He spent all his money to build a 

• 194. 

stupa in an act of his repentance for his past misdeeds. i^JSl'^z^'Jri'^a;' 

ra§^'^S^l to enlighten || I study the scriptures to enhghten my mind. z^'S)" 

q'^S^'^s^'^'^S^'W wholeheartedly, with one mind || I will work 
wholeheartedly to learn English. 

q'^qM] courage, guts || He has great courage to face difficulty. 

q■5^■^^■c5=^] determined, resolute || He is determined to learn English. 

q'^q reliable || That is not reliable information. '^^■3j'^3j^''^^3j'q'^q'(^J!]'5^3j] 
q's^aj] comrade || He has been my work comrade for many years. 


q'q^'5^1 at ease, without worry || I'm at ease with my new job. ^RW 

S'^^] adviser, consultant || The project consultant was paid a high 

salary. qf^aj'^^^^'q^f^^'^N-n-v^-cB'sigaj^^qi-l^aji 
q''23jl intelligent || He is an intelligent monk. p'3j'q§3j'q'q''33j'(^J!]'^3j] 
^■aij^'g^'qi to recite || Everyday I recite some English out loud. 

^■S5]'!;qi genuine, sincerity || He speaks with great sincerity. P^'^'S^J'S^' 

ra 5^^1 narrow-minded || Don't be narrow-minded with your friends. 

q'g^'] ideological cultivation, improvement of the mind || Reading is a 
good form of ideological cultivation. ^J!]''^^3j'3j'q'a^'^'gq^'qg^'q'(^J!]'^3j] 

q's^'^] 'interest; 'agreement, consent || 'l don't share my father's interest 
in watching television. q^3j-q|3j-".vq<^-q^-^-=^^-=;q-i3M-!^-J!]|*l-|^-q^2^-5r^-J!]5J!]- 
ys^'^^^] 'Did you obtain her parent's consent before marrying her? 

q'^5^3j] benighted, stupid || That man is so stupid he doesn't know the 
difference between day and night. 


^■§] will, willpower || He has strong willpower and he could stop 
smoking if he wanted to. 

^■g'qsaj'i]] resolute, iron determination || He had iron determination in 
getting what he wanted. 

^■§] idea, thought || My idea is that I will learn English and then 
translate from English to Tibetan. 

^■=^^ intelligence, intellect || Her impressive intelligence was obvious in 
her writing. p's^q'qg'§'5^'",l's)'p'5^q'q'^J!j'gq's^'5^^3j] How much intelligence 
is needed to understand this theory? =^J!]'^'q'l'J!](5^''^Jl]'^''^=^''^VJ!]'q'".13j'i!=^'^' 

q'Jl]'^".!] clever, intelligent || He's not stupid, he's very clever. 

qsj] minister || He was a minister during the Tibetan empire for many 

years. q=^'q^3j^^'^q'N'^'p^'"T»l!;^=^'q3j"q5'^| 
q3j'553j] prime minister || Who is the prime minister of Britain? S^'^'^'S^ 

^q^'l ^power, authority; 'to own || ^I don't have the authority to make 

that decision. ^■"-V^^'^5=^'^'^=^'^'l'=^q^'s^=^l 'I don't own this apartment, I 

rent it. !;'^'p=;'q'q^'".vq=^J!]^5^'^J!] !;'^'p=;'q'q^'^'N'q'5S3j] 
^q^q^^^l to give authority, to commission || I want to give authority to 

you so that you can solve this problem. 

=;qR£!]M] because, as a result of || As a result of the drought, crop yields 

were low. g3j-qq-=^q=;-S]'N-'^J!]-Si^3j-cf=^-=^»iqi 
Sq^'5!^^l authority || He is recognized as the leading authority in the 

field of Tibetan linguistics. 

2;qRg^] controlling, domination, rule, to bring under one's power || The 

ruling class had near complete domination over this area. 



2;qRg^"5]",vRsi| ruling class || The ruling class was quite rich. 

2;qR^^'q] ruler || He was the village ruler for many years. 

^q^'S] power, right || A father has the right to tell his children what they 

should do. i3M'=^'"1'^!;-S|'|'^'i!'^»l'^-".V3-".lM-^-q|J!]-^q-=^q=;-c5'«r=^l 
5;q!;:q!;:| power, force || How much power does that official have? 

=;q^'S'|=^] to rule, to dominate || I don't want to be dominated by anyone. 


^q^'=;'q^^'3j] hypothetically, supposing || Hypothetically that is true, but 

reality is different. ^■q^Jl]-qq-^q=;-S-q^=;-3j-IJ!]-sr=^l'q3j-^=;^3j-=^T^-^-5^-q51 
=^q^■ql the senses || I see, feel, taste, and hear through my senses. 

^qRq'g3j'53j] maimed person || He was seriously maimed in the factory 

accident. q'S^^^'c5J!]'|^'".l'N-(^=^q=;^|3j-53j-cfq'N-i3j-^J!]-i2'^^l 
=;qRS=;] transfer of power, to empower || He has a new position after the 

transfer of power yesterday. 

Sq^'g] nerves || The nerves in my foot were deadened after my foot 

froze . =;q-i5^=;-q-|^-|'N-;;5^=;-qq-^q=;-§'^»i'Nl 
=;qRq^3j's^p3j| person in authority || Who is the person in authority for 

this county? "f =;-q^q-=^q=;-q%»ip3j-^-«S3j-3j»i] 
^Nq^^^^l jurisdiction, sphere of influence || Two officials have 

jurisdiction for this area. 'N-|5!]'N-q^-3j-^q3j^J!]|'N-|'^-^q=;-^'^'qf3j| 
^c]!;':?!^!]!?^! power || How much power does he really have? 

=Ng'q(aJ!^s]'q3j'c53j] prime minister || Last year, the Prime Minister of Great 
Britain visited several countries. 

^g^'^] breathing, air || The air was stale in the closed room. 

^J!]M'^q] to inhale, to breathe in || At high altitude I inhale quickly. 



^^'^'cB^l to stop breathing, to die || After a long illness she finally died. 

^g".l] poor II He is too poor to afford new clothing. p'^g".vq^'J!]3j'i!'J!]^=^'q'^' 
s^'^^l That poor family doesn't have enough to eat. (is^'cf^''>g,'^'5'^'".V 

^"-V^^'l destitute || After losing all his money in gambling he was 

absolutely destitute. ^3i^^'^=^'3i'N-|'=^-s??i'^-|'^l f^'^g"-l^=^g"-l'^'^-S-^^l 
=vg",l'S5^'^] poverty || Poverty in China is much less than in the past. 

=vg",l'S5^^'53j] poor II To be poor is often not to be very happy. 

=^g".l■ql poor II Although now I am rich, I was once poor. 

^q3j] quiet, devoid of || The grassland was devoid of the city's loud 

sounds. ^5=^'^'^^'(i^'|,'3'^'l=^'=^^ail 
=;qaj'J!]3j'^] quiet/peaceful place || This peaceful place is undisturbed by 

the sounds of modem life. 

^q^l to become swollen || After the accident my knee became swollen. 

cBJij-lq-I^N-^l =;q-™-=;-^q'^i 
=^^=^^^1 'vowel; "tune || 'Tibetan has four vowels. q'^-^J!]-".V=^^=;'^-q^W^l "I 

like that song's tune. ^'S'^^'^^^'^'"-!'^^'^! 
S^^'^'^] melody || I can't sing that melody. =;'^-=^^=;'^y^-=;J!]-".V'^13j-5^--Pi'^l 
SS^'^'^^'^P^l composer || He is the composer of several famous 

musical scores. 'p^Tn,V5rq'5'3'^5]J!]'N'33j'q£!]q''^g!;!^-f 5]-5]fq3^-fiS3j| 
'^^'^'N'"^^ vowel II Which of the vowels is this? q^-^-=^^=;'N-'^J!]-J!]=;-^3jl 
'^^^^^^"^l vowel and consonant || Can you distinguish between this 

vowel and this consonant? (i^'|'N-=^^=;'N-J!]'N".vq^-J!]|'N-|-^|-q-n|,^-^q-q»ll 
^S^Pl summer || Summer comes before autumn. =^^^'p'^3j'p'S'^3j'".V'^^'] 
'^^^^l space, sky || The stars shone in the night sky. 

^^^^1 English language || You are studying the English language. 

=^|,3j-^| Britain || The capital of Britain is London. =^|,aj'^'S'^".V'N-^-"rajy3j-^3j| 


S^^'^l shape, form || This room is shaped like a square. 

S^^'^'51'^'^'s^l quadrilateral || The shape of the courtyard is a 

quadrilateral. ™^-^-=^|q'N-5]-q^-»l-^J!]-'SS3j] 
^^ (^^ ^S^^l ^^'^D to fling/throw, to brandish || I fling the rock 

across the river. =^'^^^^J!]-aj'^-s5^-".V^^J!]'Nl 
^^] to distinguish, to classify, to differentiate || I want to classify these 

plants. =^'N-|'.f|=;-q^-^J!]-^5;]!^-=^|,-q^^] 
=;^'q] distinction, difference || What is the difference between English 

and French? ^|)3i'^^'=^=^'§'^^'5!]^'^'q^'|,'=^|,'q'^'3'^^'^3il 
^^'^S^l differentiation, discrimination, classification || The 

classification of plants is called 'plant taxonomy.' §"-P|^'^'S^''^^S'"l' 

^^'s^cfs^^l demarcation, dividing line || A mountain range is the dividing 
line between those two countries. 

=^^] discord, dissension || His constant gossip sowed discord in the 

community . 'p'^'^3j-q^-^-»i-J!iy;-q-^'N-§f q-".v=^|;Sj-^^J!]-q^'^-| 
S^'S3!]^ to sow dissension, to cause discord || Don't cause discord 

among your classmates. (i^'^'J]q'5]^^'q^'"-V^^'5^'^^^ 
'^q^ mask II The dancers at the temple wore masks the villages made 

last year. <^^'(^2^'^<^'3^z;'^''^55|'S]'l!5)'3^'^2^'^'S^'«]25I-q<^-<^q:n-^-I-g3^-^J^| 
^^^ e^qJ!] f^qJ!]^]) to be rich || I want to be rich and buy whatever I want. 

'^q^'^'f^p^^l retainer, footman, retinue || There were more than ten people 

in his retinue. pq-qq=;'N-qp'^-".V5^-qf ™J!]-Sr=^l 
qq^NJ (f^qS] f^qS] '^^S]) to endeavor, to strive for || The goal to strive for is 

knowledge. qq=^-qq-=^5^J!]'N-«j".v^-^'N-^-«S3jl 
f^q^'q] endeavor, effort || I will make every effort to see you before you 

leave . (i^-«^-|'^-9f^-^^V'^q^-q-J!]'^-i^^-^^V3j^r^=^-'^V^i^-^-^3j^ 
'^q^'q§'3j'"3^'5^^] constant effort/struggle || After constant effort he learned 

English well. qq=^-qf3j-<|'^-s^=^-^'^-|'^-p''^-^|sj-^J!]-qg=;^^J!]-q^]q'Nl 
f^qq] e^qq] qq'^]) 'to fall (rain, snow), to land; "deserve || 'These dark 

clouds suggest that rain will fall soon. S3j'3jJl]''^=;'=;Jl]'Jl]^'S=^'q'^^'q=^''^qq' 


g'oia'q'S^afajl 'He deserves harsh punishment for his crimes. p'S'3jJ!]'ft'^' 

qqq'^ income || What is your monthly income? (i^'^^'^^''^^^'^^'cf'^'"^3j] 
qqq'g^l airport || I went to the airport by taxi. 

qqq-^J!^ ^only; ^httle || ^Farmland is the only property I own. 'sj-^^-^-^-q- 
sr^-qq-^^^-qqq-^Jij->S]aj| "I have only a little money. !;-q-|'^-s?qqq-^Ji]-"i'^- 

qq=^] 'to bum; 'to flourish, to enhance || 'The fire burned fiercely, s^'^^'y 

qq=^] "China's economy is flourishing. ;T]Rqjq-2^qn,vq^^-n,v|-^q!5^-qq3;,| 
qq^^'J!]'^] explosion || I was awakened by the sound of the explosion. 


qq'^.'^'s^l 'explosives; 'fuel || 'Explosives will be needed to build this 
road through the mountain. ^^q'^".V3j'N-".l»l-q^-".l'N-q^-qq^-f '^■=^3]''^-^-5,:^| 
'How much fuel does your stove bum in one year? "''^^'(iS'^''^^'^' 

qq=^'(53j] match II He struck the match against the side of the matchbox. 


qq"^| (qq"l] q"^] q^lj) to pluck, to pull out || Every moming I look in the 
mirror and pluck out a few whiskers. 


'^^^'^l ("i^^ '^^^'^1 ^''1'^) to bore a hole, to drill || The dentist will drill a 
hole in my tooth this afternoon. 

qg] insect || An ant is an insect. 5]J!]'5^'3j'qg'(^^'"^3j] 

'^^l C^^l ^^3^^! '^^^^D to endeavor, to strive for || Tomorrow I will 

endeavor to find him. 'N^-laj-^'N-p^qsgKvq^-qg^-^-^Sajl 
'^^l ('^^l 3^1 3^1) ^to exit; 'to appear || 'After class is over we will exit 

through that door. ^^'^=^'^"-v|'^''^'cf^q^^'3i'N-|-".vqg^-^-«S3jl 'When 

does green grass first appear after winter? =^^3j'pq'^^'3j^'S"p'^3j''^'5^M' 

qg=^l (qg=^l g^N] g^N]) to blow || He felt tired after blowing the flute. 

ng=;'.Pl^'| firewood || I collect firewood from the mountain at least once a 


week. J!]g'Tqp'^'5^'=;'^'8^'»ig=;'«^!^'R'»1^3j'S)-qg:^-^!;-g!;s]-q]|q]-n,Vq^] 
ngq^N] (=^gqi gq] gq^]) to construct (house), to pitch (a tent) || We will 

pitch our tent near the river. =^'i'^'S''^3]»l'^'^'^'^^'ngq's)-^-^3j] 
ngs^] hundred thousand || He earned a hundred thousand ywaw last year. 

ng=^'qif|^] relief sculpture || That stone relief sculpture was made by 

people in my village. '^qg^-q^^-»l-^-=;-S^-S-5^^)-q^^)-q-5,:^| 
'^"^l C^T^] S"-!] W^\) to give, to offer || He offered me a job. 

'^"^■q| donation, offering || What was the amount of your donation to 

the temple? (i^'|'N-^3]3j-q-".vng".vq-5-5»l-|;Sjl 
'^3"'"^^ petition, document submitted to a superior || We sent the 

petition to the office yesterday. p-'^=;-=;-§f'N-J!](g=;-|^q-p=;-".vng".v5Sq]-gn,i] 
ng'N] to grow/sprout || The seed began to sprout. ^■q3j'ng'^'q4]'q§'s^^] 
'^qq'^] (=^qq] ^q] ^q^]) to order, to bring down, to decide || We will decide 

this question in our meeting tomorrow. 

qqn,VJ!j^5^] admonition, informal speech || He always begins his talk with 

an admonition. p''^-^3j-q^-qq".VJ!]ra-^J!]-".vq'^3j-3j'N-p-q^-|=^-q3]%'»ll Our very 

famous visitor gave a very informal speech, which made us all feel 

comfortable and at ease. !;-S^-S3i-5]5;|!5l-5-q<^-5]^3^-q!^-q|^5]-'sq|-q^-((^9'^- 

qq=^] (qq=^] qs^l q^]) to call out, to shout out || Don't shout in public. 

qq=;'^",l] a call for action || A call for action to solve this problem is 

needed. J!]3j=^^3j-q^-gJ!]-J!]T^-q^-qq^-^'^VJ!]y;-^-^-=^^^-»ip^il 
qq=^'q^l signal, shout/call || I heard his loud shout. =;'N-'pq-qq=^-q^-i3j-q-g'Nl 
qq=^■&!] slogan II He kept repeating the same slogan over and over again. 


qq^'v'g]^'^] quantity, amount || What was the amount of your 

purchase? ^^■|'Nyc5'q^qqq'qq=^'g]=^'^'^%'^»i'"^3j] 

qq"l'^^aj] cushion, mattress || Please put this cushion on the bed. 

''^W^] i'^^] 3^1) ^to digest; "to enlighten/ease sin || ^ITl need some time 


to digest what I ate for lunch. =;'N-^=;-g'N-".ra^-qq-g-»l-^=;-q^-f i=^-qJ!]q-5;- 
S^^l 'Prayer can ease feehngs of guih over sins committed. 

'^^l ('^^l '^^*'^1) to spread || The disease spread quickly through the 
village. 3j=^'J!]^'S-q-n,v^^-sr^-q^»i^)] 

^^] C^^l S^l) 'to sink; 'to drown || 'if I throw this stone in the lake it 
will sink to the bottom. J!]".vy=;'N^q^-»iag''3-3j=;-S-=^'^'N-S'5^c?(^q'N-".vn|,=;-^- 
^S] 'I don't want to drown when I'm swimming. ^■S'".V^".vaq^'^'l'3j^'".V 

'^^l (^Sl ^^1 W^\) to wipe, to clean || Please clean the dirty dishes. 

'^^l (^^1 ^^1 W^'^d to drive out, to eradicate, to get rid of, to throw out 
II There is a campaign to eradicate criminal gangs. ^^■53j'§&]^'i!''^^' 


'^^ (S^ ^^'^l S^'^l) to smear, to apply || Please smear some of this 

lotion on your face. ^'5^''^^'(i^'^'^^^'"-l'^^^] 
^^\ C^^l S^D to happen, to take place, to have || What time will the 

flood happen? ^■"W]-3j»l-sf=^-ng,=;-^-^=^l 
f^^'^aj] cause II The cause of the fire has not been determined. 

'^^'fl^'^1 origin, source || Where is the source of the Yarklung River? 

'^^'^^^1 future, coming time || In the future I hope to speak English 
fluently . '^^'^■'^5,^'"-v^'N-^|3j-«Sq]-^!^-c5-sr=^-q-^J!]-|-q^-^-q-|=^l 

'^^l (^Sl §1 ^1) to open, to unlock || I will unlock the door when I hear 
you knock. ^'^'I'^'l^^^'^'Sfaf ^^'l^'^l^l 

'^l (^^ SI SI) to pour (water) || Pour water on the fire now! 

^^^] (^^^] S^l) to come, to arrive || What time will you come? 

'^^l to receive, to arrive || We will arrive at your home this evening. 

'^^■'^aj] wealthy, rich || Only a wealthy family can own their own car. 



q^^"'^3j'5]".V^5J| bourgeoisie || Karl Marx had a lot to say about the 
bourgeoisie. p'i^B'5^^'p'^'".vq|^^''^3j'5]".V^5^'|,^J!]'3jM'^=^'^'»l!;^W^] 
'^^■^^l property, wealth || Most of his property is livestock. 

q^^'5^=^] poor II A beggar is a poor person, s^'^'aj's^'^^^^'s^^'^aj] 
q^^'»l=;'5]",V^»l] the proletariat || Most of our country's population is the 

proletariat. =;-§fq-^'^vpq-|-5^-5]=;'N-»l=;-i-?i'^-^-q|^^-s^=^-5]".V^»l-«S3jl 
'^"-l] (^"-1] ^"-1] ^"-1]) to avoid, to step aside, to escape from || Avoid him 

and avoid trouble. ■p^".v|p.VS-^J!]-q^".V".v|p.vq-'^3Jl 
'^g'^'l (^^'=:] ^^'^'^] ^'^'^]) to follow, to go after || We will follow you 

wherever you go. ^=^'J!]=^'".V'^^3j''^'§^'^^'|'5l''^g=;'|,'^3j| 
^^'^] (S^Sl ^Sl ^Sl) to scrape, to grate, to scratch || Please scratch my 

back. ^^'S^'^S'S^'l It took a long time for me to scrape away the 

burned food from the pot bottom. :;!5i-?j-:;<^-5]§aj-aj!^-g!^-(^^q|-?-g!^-q^- 

'^^^l (^^1 ^^^1 ^^^D to lash, to whip || Don't whip your horse hard. 

qg"l] (gt^l gt^] g"l]) to come to be apart, to be separated, to be without || I 
don't want to be separated from my husband. ^■^=;'Jn'|5'J!]'^R|^''^g",V5^' 

'^g'^] rice II I like rice cooked with butter. 

qg^'<^^^] Sikkim || Sikkim is a mountainous place. 

^^^^31 'fruit, result, outcome; "fruit; testicles || ^The result of evil deeds 
is unhappiness. |=^'^3j'^''^g^'g'3j'^«^^'J!]5^'^3j] "The tree bore fruit in 
autumn. ^3j''']^'f ^'q'^-V'^g'^'g'^^'^l A eunuch is a man who has had his 
testicles removed. 3^'5*l'=^%'^g'N-g-qy3j-qq-|'N-g-^J!]-5S3j| 

'^g'^'g'SSj] fruitful II It was a fruitful discussion. 

'^^'^^'^^1 to castrate || We will castrate the calves tomorrow. 

qgs^'si!;] fruitless, without an outcome || All of our efforts were, finally, 
fruitless. =;-^'^-qq^-qf3j-^^-q-^=;-»i-»i5Ji]-»ig^-qg'N-9j=^-^=^| 

•203 • 

'^^l female yak || Female yaks are smaller than male yaks. 

^%] (|l I^N] I'Nl) 'to write; "to paint || 'I'll write the letter for you. =^'^-(i=^-".V 
q^3j'«JJ!]'^'qg'^^] "The famous artist is now too old to paint. =^'<^'=^'s^'q' 

qg'^q^ writing and reading || I want all my children to learn Tibetan 
writing and reading. =;'N'^!;'S|'|,'^'=J'cdk-5^3;^:^-t^q^-q|-^qj-|2;-^-(^q|-qY^| 
qg's^paj] writer || The writer of the book bought a computer. 

^^^] Yangtse River || The Yangtse River is a long river in China. 

'^^'S^l notebook || He lost his notebook on the way to school. 

q|-5^^1 yak butter || Fresh yak butter is delicious. q|-5^^-J!]'^^-q-^-^5^^^=^l 
^^^] yak cow II The yak cow's milk is very rich. '^g's^'S''^'«^'3j'=9'5^'gs^] 
'^^^■q] middle || I am the middle child in my family. 

q|!;-S,»i| middle class || My family is middle class. ^=^'cf=^'^'5]".V^»l''^|=^'5]'^' 

qg^^s^Aiq'g]] middle school || My son graduated from middle school last 

July . 3j-^=;-S]^-qs3j-q^-=;q-g-qg=;-^»i-^q-5]-3j'^-»ig^-|^l 
'^^Sj C'^^S] |si IS]) to lure, to entice || The promise of a high salary lured 

him to work in that remote area. 

^^\ (5] ^^1 g^l) to dig out II We will have to dig out the mud from 

around the tires. =;-§f'N-qp=^-"rq-»igq-qp'^-3j'N-q=^»i-qg-=^3]''^-^-^=^l 
'^^] grain || Grain is the main crop in many areas of Qinghai. 

'^^P^l granary || There are a lot of mice in the granary. 

f^^'^^^l grains || What grains do people in Sichuan grow? ^■(^Sj'S's^'^s^'^' 
^'N''^g'=^J!]^'5'(^J!]''^^q^] Rice, wheat, barley, millet, and beans are five 
important grains. '^g^N'^^-^ Sf^\] «^'^^'^^ 233j-s^-q3'N-^-qg-^£!]'N-J!]".vi3j-q^- 


^^^ dragon || The dragon has a long tail. '^gJ!]'^"".V^'«^'^^'q'^^'"^=^] 
qgj!j'^=;] thunder || The thunder was so loud that the glass in the 

windows rattled. '^g^'^=^'i'5=!l'^'^'N'|!3'(3'^'^'-^"-l'|^"-l'^'^''^=^^'§^'5!^'Nl 

Thunder follows lightning. ^^■<^^'^'<^S^'^'5]'gjr|'S'(^g5r|'f '^jtriis^i 
'^l^ (|^ l^'^l l^^lj) to cut, to shave off, to shear || ITl have my hair cut 

tomorrow. '^^■^3j'^'^'^2;'5n'a''^|^'y'^'^'^'"^3jl I got tired of having a long 

beard so I sheaved it off z;-^z;-^-|-3;-^c,-q5;-^3^-§z;-|!^-3^!^-|-5;-gq|!^| we 

sheared the sheep yesterday. |^''5^2;'!;'S'5^'^Jr|'qi^'gsr|!5i| 
'^^"^1 to be connected, to be joined, to relate || I don't understand how 

these two ideas are related. =;'N-'^-#>l-q^-J!]|'N-|-'^^-q|".l-Sr=^-q-".v3fq-5^-'^3jl 
'^^".VcB^'^l coherent, continuous, to be connected || His explanations are 

not very coherent. pq-q^".vq.P|^-".V^-q5q-q|".Vc5J!]'N-s^=^l 
'^l".!'^!^^ 'contact; 'to contact || 'l no longer have a contact at the 

publishing house. =^'N-^^'^3i'P'^'"-V=^''^''^|"-l'^^^'|,=^'|3i'«^^l "After you 

leave, how can I contact you? ^^■'T^^-I^N] '^'^■(i=^-".vq|".VJ!]^J!]-|-'^^-|^l 
'^^"-V'^^'^l connection, familiarity || Don't let your children have a 

connection with that bad guy. 

f^g^l'q] relationship, connection, link || What is your relationship with 

that man? ji^'^=;'|'S5-q-^<^-q|n,vq-^-%-^J!]t^3j] 
qgf\l"5^^5^'^| place where two things meet, borderline || This is the 

borderline between desert and grassland. 

'^g^ remote place, pastoral area || I lived in a remote place when I was a 

child. |!5i-q<^-^!^-^] '^■'^I'^'^'^'^'q?^! 
'^^^■^^'l wilderness || That is a wilderness where no people live. 

'^^^'^l herdsman, nomad || The herdsman rode his horse into town. 

qgj!]'s^] female nomad || The female nomad spent her days herding 

sheep. q|i!]'s5^'^''5'^'qcf'N'3j'^y»i'q^".il 
'^g^''^"-!] pastoral area || The pastoral area in this township is much more 

than the agricultural area. (^'^■(^-TT'I) '^^'^■'^|'^'^"-V^''^'^'f^"-V"-l'N-=9-5^-il 
f^^Jn'"!^! herding/pastoral work || I do herding work all day. 


^^'^'^^'fl^] dairy plant || That dairy plant produces cream, butter, 

cheese, and yogurt. '^|'^-^'^-p'^-^'^-'?T|-^!^-^^-qi ^^S^N^aj-l^'l^^j 
'^^^'^l nomad's area || The nomad's area is a vast grassland. 

^^'^] C^^l ^'^l ^'^D to escape, to flee || Don't try to escape from 

your hometown. ^=^'|'=^''^"-l'3i'^-q|^|'N-»l-|=^l 
^■^q^J] wave || The wave of ocean water crashed into the side of the 

ship . |;»ic^'^'5.qM'|'^-5^§f 5]q-q5]»iwJ!]^J!]'Nl 
^S'S] absolutely, entirely || I absolutely agree with you. 

g'q] bubble, foam || This glass of beer has a lot of 

foam. ^•c5=;'-Pi".l^^''^^'".vg'q'»l=;^qw^l 
q^ (q^ q^^l q^'^D to Stain, to pollute, to contaminate || Don't pollute 

this landscape with garbage. '^".V'^^^''^=^'J!]^'^J!]'^'^^'«^'^J!]'5^ He spilled 

a bottle of ink on his shirt, staining it black, i^^s^'f Jr|'S''>5]'q'qi;:;'^c;'q|'^' 

^J!]'^J!]'(^pj^'i^| motorcycle || It didn't take me long to learn how to ride a 
motorcycle. =;'^-^J!]-^J!]-(^f^5;-aI-n,v^3j-^-^q-q^-S^-«J3j-^=;^»l-q3]'^l 

^J!]'^J!]'5]'5]!;(^i machine gun || This machine gun was made during the 
nineteen forties. ^J!]-^J!]-s^-»l=^q-q^-9^<i>o-3jS^-"^'s)-»i'N-^^3j-|=^-^«51 

^^] (^^] ^^lI'^D to light, to bum || Let's light a fire. s^-^J!]-^^-q^-^] 

^"-vq] frog II A frog lives near water. ^".vq'^'=^=^y'N5;-qag] 

^'^■-PjJ!]'^] potential || What is the money -making potential of your 
business? ji^'|'§f=^''^l'N-'^VS^'^J!]-^J!]-qq-^'N--fl'^'N-|-q5-Sr^l 

^Jlj'^R] hollow II This plastic ball seems to be hollow inside. 

^q] (^q] ^q'^] gq^]) to turn over/upside down || The child turned her toy 
upside down and stepped on it. 


g'^ wrestling || Wrestling is something I did when I was much younger. 
g'^ wrestle || Young men like wrestling with each other. 


1^] (^] ^^^l^^l) to hide II He hid his cigarettes under the bed. 

ql (ql q'^l) to swell up, to become inflated || The balloon became inflated 

after he blew into it. p''^'^g^'^'^=^'^'"-l'g'^^^'=^'3j'^g^'^'^=^'|''^l 
^'^] (^=;-] ^=;'Nl1=;'^l) to soak, to wet || Let me wet this cloth and clean the 

table. =;'S)-^^]-q^-^:;^]-3j^]-5J!^-^:^|-q^-^| 

as^'sj] 'thick in circumference; 'low (voice) || 'The tree had a thick 
circumference. a^'q'=;'a5^'i!'"^3j] 'His voice was so low that 1 couldn't 
understand him. p'^■^^■■^s^^^3j■qM■p^l■q^P|=^■q■^My!]M■5^■^ql 

g^'^1 assignment, homework || Did you finish yesterday's homework? 

g^'qg'aj] study, diligence in learning || Diligence in learning is important 

in order to accumulate knowledge. •^'^■^■^'^^■^^■|^'qg'3j'^^'i'3j'^"-vi| 
g^'^^] exercise || The grammar exercise was too difficult. 

g^'^'f^g^] fruit of study || What has been the fruit of your study of 

English? ^^■^■=^|,Sj-'^J!]-^-|=;'^-qg'N-^-5-^J!]-^3jl 
g^^'cf^ slogan II Have you heard the most recent slogan about water 

conservation? ^'23 =^'|'=^'|^'=^'Syf^l«^'|,'§^'l^^'^=^'|'N-W'N»ll 
gaj] (g3j] ^] ^]) to give, to offer, to present || Although it's my birthday, 

you needn't give me anything. ^■^=;-^-=;q-|'N-^^-^3j-sr^] ji^^'^'s^-^^-n.v^-u^:;- 

g3j'q=;J!] donor, patron || He was an important patron of temple 
construction. p^'=^^3j'^''^^J!]'N-^aj-|=^'^q-|3j-q=^J!]-J!]".vi3j-^J!]-«Sajl 

asj'^l charity, donation || What is the size of the donation you plan to 
make? ji=^'|'N-|3j-q-5'5»l'J!]y^'|'NW^] 

l^-] (|=;-l I'^'^l Ik'Nl) 'to study, to learn; "to wash away, to repent || 'l 
want to study Tibetan, Chinese, and English. ^^■q=^'^J!]'^^'^'"^J!] =^^' 
".!J!]'5r|^5]'^c;'q=;=;] "He prayed every day, hoping to wash away his sins. 

a^'qs^] training, practicing || How much training do you have in 

medicine? |]3j'|,^J!]'3j'^-^=^-".v1k-q^^-3-5»l^qi 
g=^] (g=^] g=^] g=^]) to stick, to attach || He stuck a stamp to the envelope. 


g^'^l combining, combination || Water is a combination of hydrogen 

and oxygen. ^•^•£53j'=^=;'=^^!;'5;|^!^-§-|^=^'q''^3jl 
a] yak hair tent || The yak hair tent swayed in the strong wind. 

S^ f ^1 post office II I'm going to the post office to mail a letter. 

a^'S^'J] postage stamp || I bought this postage stamp at the post office. 

a^'c5^] drizzle, light rain || The light rain fell while the sun was shining. 

l^^'gi bee II The bee stung my hand. |=;-g'^-=;q-".1J!]-q-".V|=;-»lS=^-5]'^l-q^q] 

S^'g] honey || Bees make honey. a^'5^^'a^'g''^=;3j] 

a^] to become numb || My feet are numb from the cold. 

W)W\] anesthetic || After being given the anesthetic he was operated on. 

S2^-||aj'q^q'|'Nl (^".l•^!]^P|^!]•q5'^•^^l 
S^] (S] a^] a^]) to make dough || ITl make the dough and you chop the 

meat. '^'N-^-S-=^=;-^=^-|'^-.P|-J!]^q'^l 
35^] to be pregnant || She is three -months pregnant. 

W\ snake || Snakes are reptiles. S".V^'<^q^q'^J!]'c5J!]'^'^J!]t^3jl 
a".l] to link, to join together || He joined several short pieces of rope 
together to make a long rope. 

^^\ ^ stock; 'basis || ^He made a lot of money buying and selling 

stocks. 'p^-»l-;if^!^ys?=;-^'^-aj'N-|'=^-s?»i=;^q=;'^l "Buddhism is the basis of his 
philosophy. 3j=;-q^3j-^-pq-»icf3j-|=^-^J!]-qq-»i-if^=;-«S3ji 

s^'if|^''^^J!]'»ip3j] stockholder || Any stockholder may attend the 

stockholders meeting this afternoon. ^'^^^'^'^^^'S^'ifj^'^^^^'s^paj'^'f^tn'oia;' 


Si'^\ down there || Down there in the valley there are a lot of flowers. 

«^'«^J!]".l] chin II He bruised his chin playing basketball, p'^'az^'f '^■^■'5'|''5I' 

^'^'^ maternal || I have a lot of maternal relatives. R",VS^'^=^'^y=;'S^Rq'^^| 
s^'s^^aj'i]] ^invisible; 'latent, potential || 'The strange creature was 

invisible to everyone but him. ^W^'53j'^'5^cf3j'53j'^'3j'p'J!]5^'g'"-l'^'5^'^(^3j' 
q'".V»lcf3j'3j'»l'«^T3j'q'^J!]'^=^] "He has great potential. 'fS^".va'^'q'»l'»i^3j'q'i3j^ 

5^'^^'pJ!]'J!]"^J!]si| to vilify II He tried every means to vilify me. 

s^'^^^'^] except for, unless, besides || My children are all boys except for 
one girl. g,'5]'qi-5qi'5]'sn^qi!5^'s;(^'g!5^'q'qi(a3;'S=;'5]'g,'ai3;| 1 won t be happy 
unless you visit me. |f=^-^!;-:;-'^-q'^-^<?:;-q-5]-q|^q|!5rs;-^c;-!^q|(^-q-2rc,-5]-^!^| 
I have two hundred sheep besides one hundred yaks. ^'"I'Jll^^Jll'qgi's^' 

si'^'J] as soon as || As soon as you pay the money you can get the goods. 

s^'s^^^l at least || I want to buy at least twenty young yaks this summer. 

si'=^^] not dare, unable || I did not dare to tell him that his wife had just 
died. '^'^•^^".Vf^^'^z^'aj-t^s^i^-aj-gsn-^a-qJ^-qisi^-^aj-q.PI^^-si^:^] 

^'§1 'original (of document); "maternal grandmother || 'Do you have the 
original document? (i=^'".V"^^'c5'S'5^'^'i^l'^=^] "My maternal grandmother 
is older than my paternal grandmother. ^'^■s^'§'3j'^'l'^'^=;'^'^'5^''^l^''^V3j' 

W'qi mother and son || The mother and son were both killed in the 

accident. »l-g-J!]|'N-'T]-c5J!]'|^".l'^-q^=;'^l 
si'Si] ewe, female sheep || The ewe bleated to her lamb. 

s^s^i^ cotton II This shirt is made of one hundred percent cotton. 

^'^'^'"^'^^ maize || I like to eat boiled maize with butter. 


^W^ mother and daughter || That mother and daughter are dressed 

exactly alike. «^'^^'^|'^'|'N'3f3j'=^'^5J!]-s^^'^'N-^-|^gjl 
5^'§] capital II He had enough capital to start the business. 

s^'g'f^^J!] to invest capital || I will have to invest capital in this enterprise 
if it is going to be profitable. 

®^'S'^'^''5^'^1 capitalist || He is a capitalist, not a socialist, p^'s^-g'^'^-'^qj'^-q- 

^5!^-«Saj-q-".l'N-|-§&]'N-^=;-'5J!]'N-q-^J!]-5^ajl America is a capitalist country, i^vv 

s^^'^] not only, more than || Not only did he rob, but he also committed 

murder. 'p^''^|j!]'q5'»l'^'^'q'»l'cf^'5^'"^=^'q'N^l 
s^'^i^l main, chief || My main worry is getting enough money to pay my 

debts. 5Ss^'N'f^^%s^'J!]^'^'|'^'s?q=^=;^^J!]'"r3j'3j'N'=;q'g''^3j'q^'^v^'^^ 
s^''^^'^] future II He said that, sometime in the future, he would return my 

money . j^^•s^•'f$;'N•qq•3js^•^^!]•'^l•=;q•|'^•s?|^•^^•^■^^3j•q^•q^P|=^l 
s^'^^ 'draft; 'original || 'Please read my draft and make corrections. ^'^^ 

^'^^■^^^^■^i^l'^^'^S^'^'^] 'The original document is very valuable. 5^' 

s^'^^^'^] to be displeased, to be undelighted || He was displeased with my 

examination score. ^q'^J!]'^'qg^'",vpq'"^=^'s^'^^^] 
s^'^q'^] scurrilous, unprincipled, vulgar || He is an utterly scurrilous 

businessman. p^'«^'^^'3j^'§§k'q'«^'=^qM'-^^'^=^l 
s^'^^'^'sj] malevolent, ill-intentioned || When he looks at me I know that 

he is ill-intentioned. p'^-=;-".V'^-S^l p'^-q'N»l-1=^-»l-^=;'^-q-q5=^'N-Sr^-q-=;'N-^'^l 
s^'".l^ the main branch || What are the main branches of Buddhism? 

s^'f^iaj] innocent || I'm innocent of that crime. ^'^■i!'^'^'".1"«^'".13j] 
»l'"i£!]'^] 'bad; 'unlucky, unfortunate || 'That family received bad news 

yesterday — their son had died. 

he could not pass the examination. s^'"iJ!]^'q'",l] p'^'^J!]^'5^'q^=^] 
s^'SjSj impossible || It was impossible for me to come see you last night. 


s^^'t^l bridegroom || The bridegroom is wearing new clothes. 

5^^'] many, much, a lot || He has a lot of money. p'",Vg^=^'s^'S^R] 

5^^'c5'q] the majority, the greatest part || The majority of the students are 

Tibetan. ^q'»l'»l=^'i'q'^^=^'5:q]'Nt^3jl 
s^^'j^^'l amount || The amount of money I spent is about fifty yuan. 

»^^■^P|'^] the most, the majority || The majority of Chinese citizens are 

Han. ^!;'3]q'|'=^»l=;'N'»l!;'?i''^'^'^'^J!]'s)T^3j| 
5^^'q] many, numerous || He has numerous books. p'".V^i!'c5'5^^'q'"^^] 
5^^'^5^] a little more || I'd like a little more salt in my tea. ^'^'^z^'tri'^ajR 

5^^'c&]'^] the masses || This newspaper is for the masses. 

si3j] below, under || Many audience members stood below the stage 
watching the performance. 

»13j'^^ secret recipe || I have a secret recipe given to me by my 

father. =;'".lWS5'^'J!]3j=;'qq'»13j'=;J!]'5J!]W^l 
»1^1 butter II I like butter in my tea. =;-^-3j=;-^-»l^W^-aj-^J!]qi 
s^^'q^q] to become degenerated, to decline || During last year, the 

economy declined. aj-^^^-^T^l ^q".vq|^^-»l^-q^qi 
s^^'c5^ to be decreased || The number of livestock needs to be decreased 

so that the grassland can recover. 


«I==;'8S| butter lamp || Butter lamps lit the temple. 5^^'s^!^-'^-|^:;-3i:;-q|!^nj-q^- 
5^".vj|] bed II This bed is too small for two people. 
s^".!'^!]'^] bedding || I need to wash my bedding today. 


»l"^'-f|^ sleeping quarter, lodging || Our lodging was expensive. 


«| person, human; negative particle || You are a person and I am a 

person. ^=;'^'5^'^J!]'=;^'^'^'5^'^^'"^3j] 
s^'5^'1 bachelor, single || He remained a bachelor all his life. 

«'P| gossip II Ignore gossip and do what you want. 

s^'ps^'q] busy time || Now that she has been married for ten years, she has 
a busy time taking care of her children and her home. =;'<3'p'»l'J!]aaj'aJ!]' 

5^'(i] crowd II The crowd marched down the 

street. 5^-(|-^-J!]s=;-",W^^-3j'N-q|=^l 
s^'^^li^^] migrant, refugee || He is a migrant and finds work wherever he 

can. 'i^'5^''^(i^'^J!]'^3j'q'^'gq'J!]=^'3^'^'^=^'^q"^'^'J!]5;-(^S'^'q'^3^1 
^ 5!^'^1 population || What is the population of Qinghai Province? 

5^■=^^'^] to dislike, antipathy || Why do you dislike her? 

5^■=^^■ql misconduct, malevolent || Don't worry too much about your 

misconduct. (i^'|'^'5^'^5i'q'".i'^-q^-^-q5q-'^»i'^-(g".v»i-|^l 
5^■=^'Jl'^■q| unnecessary || It is unnecessary for you to shout — I can hear 

you clearly. =^'^'ji^'^'^^'S'Ji]'N".vq'^-9]%qi ^^■|'^-'T|-q^q'^-q-^-^^^-5i:^-^q]-^2^] 
s^'^^^^'q] steady, unchanging || His view on the matter is unchanging. 

5^'^3j] old man, senior, veteran/experienced person || He is an 

experienced and intelligent old man. 

si'g^l lineage, descendent, generation || His lineage can be traced back 

to Lhasa. p'l'5^'f!^'™''^"".V'^^^'c5^ I am the descendant of a famous king. 

5^'^=^1 individual || I am a single individual. ^'s^'^^^'p^^'J^'^^'^Saj] 
5^'^3j] evil person || She is an evil person. p'«^'3j'5^'^3j'(^J!]'"^3j] 
s^'^S^'q] different || English and Tibetan are different languages. 


5^''^^'^] unable, incapable || I am sure that I am unable to complete this 
work by tomorrow. 'N=;'^3j'|q^-^zT|-q^-R-^c-Sj^-g'q'q^'q5]q'5^'^J!]'N'q'!;!^' 

si"^"^"^| somebody || Somebody may know the answer to that question, 
but I don't. pr%J!]-5|'N%q'^q'".l3j'^'N'3j'^J!]'N'^J!]'N's^=^iq3j'^=;'!;^V9S'^^ll 

s^'c53j] important person || He is an important person. p'3j'5^'c53j'(^^'"^3j] 

si'c5^1 moral law, principle of humanity || Kindness is a principle of 
humanity. ^»l'N-q|'^-5^-I'^--PjJ!]-"^3j] 

s^'cB'^'^^''^^'^] humanism || His philosophy is essentially humanism. fJ^si' 

5^'ft^'l not little, not small || The number of students in that school is not 

small. ^q'5!'^'i'3j=;'Sl'^q'»i^'5]=^'N-'T]-5^-R=;-l 
5^'5^a5^'q| unequal || Treat your students equally, don't treat them in an 

unequal manner. (i=^-|-^q-»l-q5-»l^»l-|,'^-|k-q-",l'N-'^-#>.V5^-»l^»l-q-»l-qW3jl 
s^'^^'^l hostage || He was a hostage for two days. p'aaj'Jl]ft'^'".VS^'^^'^'^'^=^] 
s^'^^'^l impermanent, not everlasting || Life is impermanent. 

s^''!] to neglect, to ignore || You ignore your health. 

s^'gjj] generation || The new generation has received more education than 
older generations. 5^^J!]-5!]'^=^-q-"l-5^^5!^-3j3j-q-".1'^-^q-J!]'^»l=;-s|gqi 

s^'s^aj'iJ] in conflict, disagreement, difference || They have had a 

disagreement for one year now. ^■'^■p^c?".vp5'5^'s^3j'i!'^^'3j^''T^5^''^^] 

s^'^^'si] adult, person in the prime of his life || After he married he was 
considered an adult. ■p^J!]^3j-^£!]-^^-1'N-5^-=^^-5^-^J!]-y»i=;-l 

5^'5''] aristocrat || They were aristocrats before Liberation. 


9)'q^l uncomfortable, uneasy || I'm cold and uncomfortable. 
s^■^=^^l to be unwilling, to be reluctant || I'm unwilling to help you. 
5^'gl member, person || What organizations are you a member of? 
5^■=^^^■| witness || The witness testified in court. 


s^'^nS^^'^] the people, the mass || He wanted to speak directly to the 

people. p'^'5^'^s^^'^'".vg^''^^'^'^^''^'^=^l 
»l'=;»l^^'g'5^3j'g",vpq] people's republic || I am a citizen of the People's 

Republic of China. '^•^•^!;'y9S'=^5^=;'^'|'s^3j'^".vpq'^'|'=^5^=;M'-PjJ!]t^3jl 
s^'=;s^^^'=;s^^'^'J!j5] people's democracy || That country is not a monarchy, 

it is a people's democracy. 

»l'=;s^^^'5j=;'=;qR] people's political power || The people's political power 

should be supreme. 9S-=^5^=;'N-|^-=^q=;-^-q-3j-s^=^-q-^J!]t^3j-q^-S>Ji]'Nl 
5^'=;5^^^'5j=;'J!^(aR| people's government || The people's government is now 

holding meetings. 5^-=^s^=;'N-^^-J!](g=;-S^'N-=^-<^-iJ!]'N-n^-n§&]-q^3j-Sr=^l 
5^'^^^'] unclean, dirty || Those clothes are unclean. 9]3j'q'^'^5[j-5^-qj^^-| 
5^■cf'^] not only, in addition to, model || Not only can he sing well, but he 

can also dance well too. 

p^^'=^^=;'N'q=;'N'aj'qg!;'qq'5^'cf=^l p'^'i^q'N'l^'^'qg'^^^'^'^'Nl 
«^'j§i life II His life was short but meaningful. p'S'5]'^'^s;'^^'=^3j'^R'^3j] 
5^'§&]'^] crowd II The crowd had waited for his arrival all day. 


s^'qg^l not good, bad || The weather today is not good. 

s^'^q^^l generation || The new generation was not very interested in 

traditional culture . 5^-^q'N-J!]'N^-q'^-^".V^aj-|,-^J!]-J!]3j'N-".V^J!]q-(^3j-i3j^5^-|=;i 
s^'^^'^] nationality, ethnic group || What nationality are you? 

5^'=^J!]^'5]^^'R^'] minority nationality || China has fifty -five minority 

nationalities. ^^■^".V5]'^'N-g^-5^-^J!]'N-^-<^-2r!^| 
s^'^jj^^Aiq'^ nationalities school || He attended a nationalities school in 

the city. fS^=;-|g^-^-5^-S,q^^i-^q-5]-n,vq^»i^i| 
8^'^=^'q==^| soon, before long || I'll see you soon. =;'N-9S-^=;-q=^-jik-=^!;-»l^".V^-«S3j] 
s^'^l everyone, each person || Everyone must come to my party! s^'sX'S]' 

5^-qqj^]-q| bad II That's a bad idea! ^■^■'^■^".V5^-":i£!]'^-q-^J!]-^=^l 
5^'-PI'^'^^'-PI^| erudite with practical knowledge || He is erudite with 


practical knowledge and can do many different things. 

»l'.P|'^'i!] ignorant || He seems ignorant of modem technology. 

s^■^^P|'^] human nature, individual's character || Can human nature be 

changed? 5^'J!]-Pj'N-^-q|^-^q-q-^J!]-5S3j-3j5^1 
»1'^»1^] people's mind || I don't really understand people's mind. 

siAl^l citizen, populace, subject || I am a citizen of Great Britain. ^'Sj'^^^aj' 

C\ cs CV -^ C\ 

s^'s^^'^n.!] to colonize || Africa was colonized by European countries for 

many years. S5Tq-^q-pq-^'s)-i3vr|-S,-p-af5|:^^3;-8^-5S3;-an,va^aj-c-q|5;| 
5^''^^'^n,lt^n,l| colony II The colony was granted its independence last 

year. 5^'5^^'^".lt^".V^'3j'^!;''55;-^:;-q^3j-i!^3j-q-psi-q3j-^si| 

s^'SjS] impossible, impossibility || It is impossible for a bull yak to give 

birth. J!]wiJ!]'S]'N'q'3'q^q5^'|=^l 
s^'Sj"-!] humanness, humanity || What did your parents teach you about 

humanity? 5^'^"l'|,^J!]'3j'N-^=^-|-'^-s^'N-(i=^-".vq^]q-^-5-^J!]-qc5=^l 
s^'q's^si'^i'^] understanding/enlightened person || When he talks, we know 

he is an enlightened person. 

s^'^^'^'tjj obstinate person || He is such an obstinate person that he never 
changes his mind. 'p^-5^-|=;'N^^J!]-«S3j-q'N-pq-<^-q-3j»l-«J=;-5^-q|l 

s^^'ai^'l outlook, vision || His vision for the future of his work unit is 
admirable . '^■f^'^'f^=;'N'^'s^''?$;'N'qq^J!]'3j'N'(^'5^J!]'^=;'^'«S=^'^3j'^=;^ 

si^'5^'^^'1 short-sighted || He is short-sighted in terms of his future. 

9)J!]'gR^R] far-sighted || My father is far-sighted because he sent his 

children to school. =;q-i3M-s5-5^J!]-^=;-^=;-q'^-|,'^-q-§^q-5]^-q^".ll 
5^J!]'^=^] recently, presently || Recently the weather has been fine. 


Si^^] look II He gave me a nasty look. p^'^'".V5^J!]'<^'^3j'i!'(^J!]'^^] 
s^5[^'s^2;q| meaningful glance, amorous glance || With a meaningful glance 
he signaled his intention. '^'^•5^Jl]'»l^q-(^!a:;?)-3i?)-^=;-S|-q'^»l'^nj'q^3i| 


s^^'^S] eye signal || He indicated his desire to make friends with her with 

an eye signal. p''^'5^J!]'q^'q^3j'3j'N'pW=^=;'^J!]'N'|,=^'q^=^'qq'q^=^'^'^'q^3jl 
s^^■3j=^l eye disease || She became blind from an eye disease. 

s^^'^sj] model, example || That student is a good model for others to 

follow. ^q'5^'^'^'^q'5^'^(^3j''^5n'|M'^''^g'^'=^^'^'=j^'9S^'=^^'q3=;^^J!]'«Sajl 

*l^'^l to open the eyes || Please open your eyes and tell me what you 

see. (i=^'|'5^J!]'|'3j'N-5'^J!]-5Jg!;-q-!;-n,v?i=^] 
»iq^'=;»l^] Tuesday || Tuesday comes after Monday. 

5^J!^'n,15^] line of vision, before the eye || The man was outside his line of 

vision. |'^'q'^'pq'5^J!]'".l»l'3j's^=^l 
5^^'".1^ fierce stare || He gave the naughty student a fierce stare. 


5^^'".F'] blind II The blind beggar sang some songs. 


5^J!]'.P|".l] eyeglasses || Where did you buy your eyeglasses? 

9)^'] ^name; 'reputation || ^ What is your name? (i=^'^'5^^"'^V^'i=^] 'As a 

Tibetan poet, he has a high reputation. 

s^^'[^=^'3j'^] in the name of || This gift will be presented in the name of our 

whole class. =;-§fq-ql3j-5!w;'N-|-5^=;-f^^-3j'N-'^iJ!]'N-|'N-q^-qg".v^-5S3j] 
5^^'^J!]^] signature || Put your signature here. (i^'^'5^^'^^'^''^^'5''^p^l 
5^^'^] list of names || I put the list of the students' names here. ^^Ajq's^'S' 

s^^f^^J!]^] to name || My father will name my son. 

5^^■5^=^] anonymous, nameless || The anonymous letter threatened his 

life. '^|3jt^^'«=^'«^'^'^'p'^'i^^'"1''^^^'^'|=^'q^".ll 
8^^'^^ word II How many words are in your vocabulary? (iS'^'M^'S^^S' 

d^^d^!^ dictionary || This is a dictionary. f^^'^'sS^'s^^^'S^'^^;] 

s^^'Sj^'l brother and sister || The brother and sister look a lot like each 


other. 5^=^'|=^'J!]|'N''T]'^aj-^3j'"-V=9'5=^''^51 
s^=^l to swallow II My throat was dry and it was hard to swallow. 

s^S'^l throat || My throat is sore. ^'^■s^=;'i!'3j] I have a cold and my throat is 

sore. =;'".Vc5»l'i!'^'^'3jM'5]!^-q-3j] 
«3j] 'negative linking verb; 'not || 'He's neither tall nor handsome. 

p<^-qj|q]^)-q|^-^K,-s-5]!^-aj-5-f -^z^-aj^^-q-ais^j -I'm not the killer, I'm 

innocent. !;'".lJ!]'^»l^'5^3jl ^^•".V^'^'q's^'^l 
5^3j'^] beside, except for, apart from || All the eggs are white except for 

two brown ones. |=;'=^'|J!]^J!]|'N-5^3j-=^-|k-!;-cf=;-»l-^'T]^-q^=^l 
5^q'5^cf3j'a=;] human character || Human character is 

complicated. 5^'S'5^cf3j'^=^'3j'=9'5^'5^'5'£5] 
»iq'^J!^^] mankind || The history of mankind is several thousand years 

old. 5^q'S:q^^)-^-nr^^)-n.rnf^=;'g5n-qJ!]q-qq]'^-sr:^] 
5^q'=^Jlj'^'^'=^Jl]'i!] anthropology || He will do a graduate degree in 

anthropology . p'^'5^q'^J!]'N'^'^J!]'qq'^'^'^»i'^'qq'gq'g=;'"iaj'^'^^l 
5^q'J!j,P|'^'<^J!^^] human nature || Human nature is both good and evil. 

5)s]-q1s]| man-made, artificial || Plastic is man-made. ^^■q^J!]'^'9)^'qg^'^3j] 
s^^'qg^'qp^'^^l satellite || The satellite went into orbit this morning. 

^■^] famine || Many people starved to death during the famine. 

^■^^ pearl || This is a pearl necklace. q^'^'^'^J!]'S]'^'^aj'^J!]'^3j] 

^■^J!]'^'^!] pagan, heretic || That pagan does not believe in Buddhism. ^' 

^•5^gq'gf\l] endless, boundless || The ocean is boundless. g'5^S§k'^'5^gq'gn,i] 
^■qg".l] in sequence || Please do these actions in sequence. 

^^■gq] poverty alleviation || The government has spent a lot of money 

on poverty alleviation. |=^'^'^'^'^'N'?J'^'|q'|,=^'q^'^3^-'^^nj-»l=;^q^!^'l 
^^■-P|] death caused by famine || Death caused by famine is rare in China 

today . =^'^^'N'^^'^^'?i''l'^''^^'^'^'=9'3'^'=^'T3il 
^3j'3i^ darkness, dimness || After the sun set darkness came to the earth. 


^=^] 'to chew on; "at the same time || 'l want to chew on a piece of dry 
beef. =;'^■^5^'N■^P|■^»^^'^lq■s?^^!]■^^■3j■q^=^l -She sang and watched the 
animals at the same time. p^'^'^J!]^'n§f q^'^=^'".V^'q^^] 

5^1 fire II I made a fire with coal. =;'^-^-'N".V5^-".vg'Nl 

s^'^^p^] train || I must catch the train at ten o'clock this morning. ^■■^^' 

5^'qp^'qqq'SJ!^'^] train station || The train station is near the bus station. 


5^'^] U.S.A. / America || English is spoken in America. 

5^'g^^] artillery, cannon || After the battle the cannon were quiet. 


5^'|l flame || The flame shot into the night sky. s^-|-5^cf3j'srq-=^^=;-".vq§^] 
5^'^^ flower II That flower smells nice. 5^'^J!]'^q'5's^'(^s^] 
*1'^^'^^'^1 wreath || We put a wreath of flowers in the temple this 

morning. ^■^2;'5'5'=;'^'s^y!]'§]'|!;'q'^J!]'=^^3j'qq'3j=;'S'q(^Jl] 
5^'^^!] spark II The spark ignited the gasoline. s^-^J!]-^'N-5.=;'N-|»l-".VS^-q|3j] 
si■^^^^] gun II These bullets are for this gun. »l^".vq^-=^J!]-^-s^-5^=^q-q^q->SS3j| 
^^^^1 flame, fire || I threw water on the fire to put it out. 

5^''q=^l flame, blaze || The flame died out. s^-q'^-^si'N-g".!] 

si'^] volcano || Hawaii has many volcanoes. W^'^g,'^'3j's^'=^'5^^'q'"^^] 

sp^] cinder, ash || Cinders covered the ground near the furnace, ^q' 

s^'",V.P|=^] to catch fire, to be burned || The house caught on fire and 

burned down. p=^'q's^'".V?f^'3jM-§'q-ajM-qa^J!]'Nl 
5^'".l^'l mirror || A mirror shows reflections. 5^'".F'".l^'^^'q53j'qc5=^] 
5^'-P|^'] firewood || The firewood burned quickly. s^'.P|RS^^J!]^'s^^'qq=^] 
s^'-Pj^'^l heat II Coal gives off much heat when burned. 

s^'-f\^^^^'Si^\ rocket, missile || The rocket struck its target. 5^'-P|J!]'^'qg=^' 

m'-m^^^-m^'^] missile || The plane fired a missile. Jl]3j»l-5]'N-s^--P|'^'N-qg^- 


s^S] negative existential verb, there is not, there was not || There is not 

one person in our classroom who can speak 

French. '^■§f'?'^q'p=^'^'§'^=^'q.P|=^'^q'»ip3j'|-5i-i|Si^-^=;'«^^l 
5^=;'q^'qg] Ho destroy; "to alleviate/eradicate || 'To build is better than to 

destroy. s^=^'i!^'ql^q'".l'^'q^£!]'^'^3j'^!^'aj'^£!]q| -He wishes to alleviate 

poverty. 'p^-=^g".i^=;'N's^=^-q^-qg-q^=^] 
«^^1 to be full of II The glass is full of water. =^'T]^-Sr".V3j=^-^-§'s^^l 
sSM'^"^!! motherland || We love our motherland. '^•^^:;-^<^'s^'N'|,t^'"^'«^'3]q| 
5^^'q] grandfather, ancestor || My grandfather celebrated his eightieth 

birthday yesterday. p-!^=;-=;q-5^'N^»5-^-'^3j-^^)] 
«5j female || Female and male should be equal. '^J!]|'^-q5-»l^»l-5S3j-q^-q^)] 
5^'5^'l single woman || She was a single woman until she was forty. 


5^'3j^] gynecological disease || She suffers from a gynecological disease. 

si'"^] woman's age || What is that woman's age? ^'^■5^'^'s^'"1'Jr|'S'^'"^3jl 
s^'^'^^^] young girl || That young girl has not yet been to school. s^'J!]'^^^'';' 

5^'"S] goddess || I don't know the name of that goddess. 

^^ dim II It's dim, turn on the light. 3j»l-|-5«]-q'N-^J!]-p'^-5J!] 

5^Jlj'5^J!j 'stuffed dumplings; 'dim, misty || 'He cooked stuffed dumplings 

for supper. p^'=^^^'3^'".VS^^'s^^'J!]"^'^".V^^| "It was very misty early this 

morning. ^■^K,'^'sr^'3j»l^'=9'5=;'s«]'s«]'^^l 
5^^'^] abundant, plentiful || Grass and water are abundant here. 

5^^'".l] at the same time, meanwhile || I'm going to college, meanwhile, I 
am learning English in my spare time. 

s^'^] to like, to be interested in, to admire || I'm interested in improving 

my English. =;-3;K,-S|-=^|gj->^q]-1-^q]q-qjy;-q^-sr^] 
s^'^'^'^1 respect || I have no respect for dishonest people. 


^■^3jl mourning, grief || They are observing a period of mourning. 

^^'^] peep II Don't peep through the window. ^!3'f^^'"'^'^^''^'^'^Sl 
^■^] seedhng, sprout || The young seedling needed water. 

Sfl'^3'^1 to sprout, to germinate || The wheat we planted some days ago 

has sprouted. |3j-qJ!]q-^3j-=;-§?^-q^q'^-qq-^".v^-^-ng'Ni 
^^ Ho saunter, to ramble; 'to shake || 'Let's go ramble outside for a few 

hours. ^■cf^5'^'^^''^^'^'"-l'^J!]'i!=^''^^ 'He will shake his shoulders when 

he doesn't know the answer. ■^'^W"^3j-^^-5^-^'N-qq-^q'N-^-^g=;-q-^J!]-|^l 
^^] fast, rapid, swift || That horse runs fast. ^■^■^J!]^'q'^^] 
^^■s=;i fast march, going quickly || The army unit did a fast march for 

an hour. ^*l^'^^'^'5l'N-^'§f^'^5Jl]'".V^^'|=^'^^l 
^^■gq] emergency aid, first-aid || The doctor gave the accident victim 

first-aid. ^3j'q'N-c5J!]'|^q'^-»ipaj-^^-|q-^'^l 
§^'5]g,qi!5^'J!](a^'",15^] highway || Where does this highway lead? 

^'5j\ quickly || Let's walk quickly or we will be late. 

^^•^^•q^i rapidly, quickly || I walked quickly to class. 


^^■cf'^l speed II What is the speed of an airplane? 

^"11 Ho spy; 'to roam, to saunter || 'Don't spy on my activities! ^"^'^'SS' 
f\V5^'^n,li 'Before he was fifteen he roamed about the countryside. "I'qs" 

^"-I's^l spy II The spy was executed. ^".V5^'23J!]'|g5^'^'".va=^] 
^n.V(^q] reconnaissance, investigation || The army spy made a 

reconnaissance of the area. =^»lJ!]-=^g!;-§]-^",V»l'Nt^",V5]-^-",V^",V^q-^'^] 
§nj'(aq'gs;'q] to reconnoiter || We will reconnoiter the enemy's position 

tomorrow evening. !^:;''^3;'!^fc5j^':;'S'^'^5]'=^s^J!]'5n'qi3;!^'qi(a'aj'gaj'(aq'g!^'s- 

S^l (S^l S^'^l S^'^l) to experience, to undergo, to taste || Have you 
experienced living in another culture? 


^^'cb^l experience, feel || What did you feel when you went home after a 
long absence? 

^'^l to be drunk/intoxicated, to be delighted || I am delighted now that 

Spring has come. =^|=^-'T]f]q'N-q'N-'^-^t^=^-^5^'N-^^l 
^«'3] army, soldier || The army marched for two days. 

=;s^J!^'|gs^M] martial/military law || Because of instability martial law was 

declared. q^3j''^^^'N'5^3j'q3;-qsisisi-3jsi-:^»iq^-^sisi-q|^q^si| 
^«^^'n|gJ!] war, warfare || He fought in the last war. |?'§^?J'^3i'sj<^'=^sj!i|'Aa!i|'S' 

^5^^'5]] war ship, naval vessel || The war ship sailed into the harbor. 

S^^''^^/^! to start war || I don't want to start war, I want to encourage 

peace. =;-=^»iJ!]-q|,=^-q^-5^-=^J!]q] '^'N-^-q^-".v^".vq^=^-|^-q^^l 
=;s^J!^'c5^] military equipment || Tanks and rockets are military 

equipment. g3j-p-=^=;-s^--P|J!]'N-ng^-»l=^q-5;]^!^-^-=^»lJ!]-c5's)->^3j] 
=;5^J!^'^q^] armed force, military strength || The army's military strength 

was increased with some new tanks. 


=^5^J!^'qgq] warfare || Warfare raged for two years. =^5^J!]'ngq'".VJ!]^'^'".vq|^| 

^«^Jl]'=;3j'i!] military strategist || He works as a military strategist for the 
army . p'^'^5^^'^g=^'^'=^5^^^3i'=^'^'^'3j'N-^'q'|'=^'l 

=;s^J!j'=;t|R] military force || The newly trained army was a powerful 
military force. |k-q^^-J!]'N^-q^q-qq-^»lJ!]-=^g=;-^-^»lJ!]-=^g=;-5J!]^^J!]-'^3jl 

=;s^J!j'2;q3j| military officer || He was a military officer before he 
retired. p^"1's)-q|g^-»l-^^]-qjk-=^»lJ!]-=^qaj-^J!]-«S3jl 

2;5^J!j'2;q3j'c63j'«^] general || When did the general obtain his 
position? =^»l^'=^'^3j'i3j'55^'".vp'^'^^3j'N-3j5^-§?=^^qi 

^^^ll commander-in-chief, generalissimo || He was the commander-in- 
chief of our forces. (^■^3j'c5=^'=^'§f'^'^»lJ!]'^=^'^'^»lJl]'|''^ajl 

2;s^£!j'g'pR] military headquarters || I found the general in the military 
headquarters. =;'s)-:^siq^-|-|^:;-^-:^5^qj-|-^;^| 


^sS^Jjj'g^'l military training/drill || The military training lasted for four 

months. 2^»iJ!]-|k-|-q^q-S,!;-a,v^^| 
=;»iq^'g'f\l| military drill || After the military drill the soldiers were given a 

ten day holiday. ^»lJl]'g'".V|^=;'q^^'|,'|'^-^-^»lJ!]-5^-".v|3j-q^q-J!]3j=;-q-|;3jl 
2;5^J!j',P|=;'53j] warlord || He was a warlord in Northwest China before 

Liberation. q5^'N-q^f\V^3j-f\vp^-5!^-q[q-^q-^^-Sl-=^s^J!]--Pi=^-53j-§-|-'^q3^^ 
=;5^c,^'^'^R^J!^^] public opinion || Newspapers seek to inform public 

opinion. cfJ!]'N-q^-|^-=^5^=;^v|-^=;-|5!]'N-|J!]-^-na?Kll 
=;s^^^'|g=;] folk II He collected folk songs from among the folk for ten 

years. p''^'"rq§'l'^=;'".V=^»l'^'N'^^'S'^»l=;'N'^'q^'"i3j'^^l 
^si'^'N-^^^-^J!]-^-".!! folk art || He collects folk art. 

^s^^'^'|g^'=^J!]'§'"l'q] folk artist || He is a famous folk artist because of his 

paintings. p'^'|s^'cf3j'^'srq-^q'N-|'N-(^-=^5^=;'N-^=^-^J!]-g^vq-5]J!]'N-53j-^J!]-«^ 
SS^^^'^1 folk song, ballad || I can sing only one folk song. 

=;s^^^'=;3j] public/civil affair || The public affair was attended by hundreds 

of people. =^5^^'^^3j'|,'^=^'S'5^'q^'^^'S'»l'(^'^'^l 
=;s^^^'g2;] civil, public || The park is a public place. 

s;s|!^'^'Jlj5] democracy, democratic || Democracy is one form of 

government. ^»l=;'N-Jl]^-^q=;-|^-|-^»l-q-^Jl]-^3jl 
^sS^^'^'qi^q'^'s^ajl democratic republic || Have you been to the People's 

Democratic Republic of Korea? 

=;5^^^'J!^Sq'5^'^| democrats, democratic element || The democrats had 

much political power. ^»l=^M'J!]^'?'5^'|'"-v|=^':g5i]'^'i3j^W^l 
=;s^c,^]-5j2:| civil administration || The Civil Administration is responsible 

for helping people during earthquakes. 

=^«^3j] inferior || That product is of inferior quality. g3j'^^'^'l'^^''T]'=^s^aj] 
^5^3j'] to be inferior || I'm not inferior to you. ^'li^'^-l^'s^'^^siSj] 
^s^'^] low, inferior || He treats his staff as though they were very inferior 
to him. |^q'f^Jl]'Jl]Sw]'i'p^"l'^''5'5!^'^s^q'^=;'p'^'JT^"l-|-niaj'^'^| 


2;5^q'qqqsj| degradation, humiliation, insult || He endured the degradation 
without a word of complaint. p'^■qpR^■^!j5^■^^■s^■g'5^■'^^■=^sl'^■'^qq'^■".l■q^^■ 
qSjaj'^'^l Ignore insults and feel better. '^5](^-(^qq!^-|-S5i]W|!;-s^=^-g,^-^-§Sk- 

=;s^q'^5^] low level, primary || My knowledge of English is still at a low 

level . =;'l'^|,3jt^J!]-§]-S'^^'^'^=;'^»l'T^»l'^J!]'3jW^l 
^sS^q'^s^Aiq'^ primary school || My daughter is in primary school. 


^NSirr^l low position, low-lying area || The river is in a low-lying area. 

^»l^l red II The sky was red at dusk. '^■||J!]-S^-3j=^-S-3j»l-»ipq-^-^»l=^l 
^nS^^'I^^;] teaching by practice, demonstration || His most powerful 

teaching was teaching by practice. p^'J]^'(^^'^'-P|^^'55'-P|'^'3j'^s^^'(^^'"^3il 
^s^=^'^'] bad omen || I said a prayer to counteract the bad omen. 

^^s^^•s^c5=^] sacrifice of killing an animal || The sacrifice of killing an 

animal is done once a year for the mountain god. 

=;s^^'^3j] raw, naked, exposing || He ran naked out of the building into the 

cold night air. 


5;»1^'^| smell of blood || The smell of blood was everywhere in the 

slaughterhouse. q.P|'^-^<^-3j=;-S-^5^^-5-£!]=;-'N^-q^".ll 
=;s^^'q^R| hand to hand combat || After they ran out of bullets they 

fought hand to hand combat. p^S?".vq'^-»l^".Vcf^-|'Nl f^§f'N-=^»l^-qWk-^'^] 
^nS^^'jjj'^!;! slaughter, murder, massacre || The sudden attack resulted in a 

massacre of the civilian population. 

=;5^^'^] to be aimed at, to consider || Your question seems to be aimed at 

2;5^J!^^'2;3j| aim, purpose || What is the purpose of your question? 

=;s^q^M'qq3j| target, goal || Our company's goal is to increase profits. 


•223 • 

=;5^q^s]'cfe] target, goal || Our target this year is to increase production by 

ten percent. =^'f^^'=;'§fq'=^5^J!]^Vcf=^'^^3j'cf=^'q^'c5'l'q|'^'N''l's^g^^^ 
=^5^q]^)-tAja,i| goal, aim || What is the goal of life? 5^-6gq-^5^J!]'^t^".V^-5'^J!]'^3Jl 
!>5]sr|!5^'^] destination || It will take me two days to reach my destination. 

2;s^J!^^'q^n.l| exception, specialty || There is an exception to nearly every 

rule . ^J!]-^",v5,-5,-a,V!^-a,i5|-;^5^qjS]-qs]a,v^q^-Sr^| 

^^^^1 barbaric, savage || His attack on the much weaker man was 

completely barbaric. p'^■5^■^■q'N■J!]^s^■^^■".l■^".l■q■^■=^^■^=^■^P|■^J!]■^^l 
^^3j'i!] foolish, stodgy, dull || The stodgy man does not have a good time 

at parties. 5^'=^?J3j^-f^lWcfj!]'N-".l'N-|^^»l-^=;-l 
'^^] to chew, to gnaw || The dog gnawed on the bone. (i'S'^'5'^''^'S'S?i^l 
^5^] ^polluted, filthy; 'internal strife/murder || ^He didn't want to swim 

in the polluted river. p^f'^^«^'^^''l'^'S'3j=^'Sl'5'^l'|=^'*l''^'^=^l 'Internal strife 

occurred in the tribe. c?q'".V3j^'=^5^'^^'l 
^5^=^] to blame, to scold || The teacher will scold us if we come to class 

late. '^'c^q'^=^'|'1'^'^''5'^'^'^^'^3i'|,^''^'c?"-l'=^«5=^'^-^^l 
S^S^] curse, blame, abuse || I don't care about your abuse, just please 

speak quietly. ^=^'c5'-P|q'y^=^l =;'N-^=^-^'^5r^'q'".V|=;'q'9S''^W3jl 
^5^=^■&!] incantation || The monk chanted an incantation. 

^^^q-ps^s^l hell II Where is Hell and where is Heaven? 

^ wound II I washed the wound with hot water. ^'^■^■cf3j'^'^'|]'p'q^'^] 
^'S^'^l bandage || I need a bandage for my wound. 

g]'^] Yellow River || The Yellow River flows into the ocean in 

Shandong Province. |]'^'53j'Ti^''^^'^3j'3j^'g'»lc&l'3j^'<^c]!^l 
^^1 peacock || I was surprised to find a peacock in my flower garden. 

^^] scar II The knife wound healed but left a red scar. 

gj'^^l to cure a wound || The doctor said he could cure his wound. SSj'^!'^' 


^^ foundation, base || What is the foundation of your theory? 

Sf^£.] foundation stone || Last week we laid the foundation stone of the 

house we are building. 5i]gq-qpk-|3j-»i^-!;-§g^-".i'N-qi^3j-qq-p=;-q-".ri]=;^q^=;'^l 
gj^'J!^(^'q=;RS^p3j] founder, originator || Who is the founder of Buddhism? 

g]^] marvelous, wonderful || What you said is very wonderful. [iS'^^'^'f S' 


^^\lS^l outstanding, marvelous, wonderful || What a marvelous speech 

he gave! p'^-J!]3j=;-qq-Ji]^»i-q.P|=^-^-5-q5q-|]=^-s-^=;-q-".vi3M!;-] 
gj^l to be injured, to be wounded || He was wounded in the 

battle. '^gq''^(|^'|g'^'p^'^'g]'^'55;|l 
Ij^'^ajl injury || Please let me treat your injury. ^'^'(i^'^'lj^'^Sj'^.V^jaj'J!]'^'^] 
Ij^'5^] wounded/injured person || Please take this wounded person to the 

hospital now. |]'N-5^-q^-=^-<^-||3j-p=;-S-n^=^-Tj!]'^] 
^1 (IjI Sf^\) to dream || I dreamed I saw my parents last night. 

Ei"^^] dream || I can't tell you about my dream because I can't 
remember it. =;'N-^:;-S|-|-".l»l-5^-53j-q'N-(i=^-".vq.P|^-5^-^qi What do dreams 
really mean? |-".l»l-|,'^^5^'N^3j-3-^J!]-»l§?3j-q-«S3jl 

|^'q5^'q|gq^'5^| to have a nightmare || I had a nightmare and awoke 
screaming. =;'".v|'".l»l''^(gJ!]'^-q-^=;-=^=;=^'N-^^-5J!]'".l'^-'N=^l 

Ij^'t^l hoof II The horse's front right hoof was caught in the wire fence. 

^^^^\1^^^1 to wipe out, to destroy completely || We will try to wipe 
out all polio in the next two years. 

gj'f^'^q^] plow and sow || Tomorrow we will plow and sow our 

fields. 'N=;-|3j-=;-sf'N-'N-^=;-".V^q^q'^-|=^-^-5S3j] 
gj'^^'^l plowing animal || The yak is used as a plowing animal. ^"^^■^" 

|]'5^] grandmother || She became a grandmother last year with the birth 

of her first grandchild. 3j-^=;-'prq-cd^J!]'5^'|'N-3j'N-pw^".V^^l 
gj'i^^'l arable field, farmland || Most of the land here is not pasture, it's 


farmland. '^^■J!]'S-'N-||3^-»l=;-i-^^V^yM-5^3j-q^-^^=;t^3jl 
l]'"-!'^] tillage II Tillage in this area has already started. 

g]^ helmet || The motorcycle rider wore a red helmet. aJ!]'aJ!]''^p=^'".V"1' 

g]^'^] to be ignorant || I'm ignorant about modem economic theory. 

gj^'^'^aj] foolish, idiot || I was angry when he called me an idiot. 

Ij^'^'^;^] 'mystery; 'blind faith || 'Religion is a mystery to most people. 

5^-»l=;-i-^'^-".V5^a?3j-3j-l'^-'5J!]'N-^-^=;M-=^=^-«S3jl 'He has blind faith in the 

Buddha. p'^''N=;'^-^^-".V^=;'N-=^=^-|,=^l 
l]^'^'^] stupid, ignorance || Some people suffer from ignorance about 

what is important. 5-^J!]-J!]".vi-q-".V^=;'N-3j'^-5^-".V.P|'^-|'N-^J!]-|5-l 
|]^^'c&>] blind guess || Although his prophesy was a blind guess, it was 

correct. p'^''5=;'q^3j-^-|k'N-S?'^-3£!]-«S3j-5r=^-l %^=^''5'^'q^aj'^''^^^''5k-l 
^S] (IjI li^l li^l) to plow II I plowed the field this morning. S'^^'f 5' 

g^'] to stretch || After I awoke I stretched in bed, and then stood up. W)'^ 

^■^1 beard || He has a heavy beard. p^",V^-^-^J!]^^J!]-Sr^] 

S^ darkness || He could see nothing in the darkness of the night. 

^^ v^l thick darkness || The light cut through the thick darkness of the 

W^ the lower part || The lower part of the tree had been chewed on by 

goats. ^=^^q-^=^-".V^-s^M-=^^^l 
S^'^'^] skirt, clothing for lower part of body || Her skirt was made of 

cotton. p5q-^=^'3]''^'^-|!;-q",v|,^-ql'^l 
SS'gS] lower part || The lower part of the house was made of bricks. 

SS'cB] the second of two parts, lower part || Have you read the second of 

the two parts of his history of Europe? 


S^'naSk'5^] whore, prostitute || The prostitute became infected with a 

sexual disease, ^=^■'^cf^■»^■".l■^^■3j=^■'^^] 
Ij'^'^] calumny, slander || Slander is made by people who themselves are 

despised. |!^-5;-^-^c-aj-g!;-^!^-gq?)-q<^-s]<^-|k-q-^J!]-^3j] 
S3j] 'medicine; 'to be useful || 'That medicine is expired. S3j'^'?i'^l'"^^'^^"-ll 

'His advice is useful for you to achieve your goals. P'^f'y5j'|5=;'^' 

S3j'p^'] hospital II He died without ever going to a hospital. 
S3j'pq] injection || The injection infected his arm. 

S3j'^'5^] efficiency of medicine || The efficiency of the medicine is very 

high- ||3it«^'=9'5^'il 
^jaj'qS'^] medical care, medical treatment || Have you received medical 

treatment for your illness? ji=^'^'^'^=^'^'aj'cf ".V|]3j'q5'^'|,=^'S'iJ^-q§J!] 
Ijaj'qS'^'p^'] clinic II The clinic was near the road. |j3j'q5^'p^'^'".W=^^'^] 
^aj'qS'^'s^'^] medical personnel || That hospital has twenty -four medical 

personnel . ||3j-p=;-^-3j-||3j-q5''^-5^-|-^^-q^-Sr=^l 
S3j'c5'^] medical equipment || The new medical equipment improved 

medical care in the local area. 


S3j'^] liquid medicine || Take two drops of this liquid medicine just 
before you go to bed. (i=^'*l'^'^l'^=^'||3j'f §^'N-§'J!]|'N-^=;'N1 

S3j'^3j] dosage, dose || What dosage of this medicine should I take 
everyday? ^3j-^^-|]3j-q^-^^-||3j-^3j-^-S=^-q^^-=^^^l 

asj'^l doctor, physician || My village does not have one doctor. ^'c^'S'q'".!' 

w^^S^^P^'^l diagnostic specialist || That doctor is a diagnostic 

specialist. |]3j-q-^-^-^3j-^^=^-5ip^-q-^qT5j3ji 
S3j'g^l compound of medicine || This substance is a compound of 

medicine that can treat several illnesses. 

^3j'g=^'p^'] pharmacy || The Tibetan Medicine pharmacy smells nice. 


^j3j'g=^'q] pharmacist || She learned to be a pharmacist in night school. 

S3j*^'p^'] drugstore || The drugstore does not have the medicine you 

wanted. |]3j'cf=^'p=^'^'(i^'".V^^'^'q'l'|]3j'^'s^=^l 
^3j'f ^] medicine || How much did this medicine cost? ^3j'f ^'q^f^'^a"",!' 

^j3j'J!](5^'] medical book || He kept a medical book near his bed so that he 
could read it at night. 

S3j'"^3jl medical treatment fees || This clinic doesn't charge local 
residents medical treatment fees. 

S3j'^"^J!] nurse || She is studying to be a nurse. 

S3j] to mature, to ripen || The apples will ripen before late autumn. 

|]3j^ ripe II That apple is ripe and sweet. 'T|-.p|-^-^-|j3j-^K,-»i!;^-5rT^3j| 
^j3j's^] eyebrow || He cocked one eyebrow. p^'||3j's^'^'J!]3J!]'J!]l^'^] 
W^'^] fog, mist II The mountain top was covered with fog. 


Ij] mole II He has a small mole near his mouth. P'^'P''^5]^'3i'||'^^'f^^'^^l 
^K] (^K] ^K] ^K]) to abuse, to insult || He insulted his friend after he 

became drunk. q|-|'^-p''^-^J!]'^^".V|]=^l 
S^'cf^ curse word || I punished my son for saying a curse word. 

S3j] to wish, to desire || I wish that you will be a good and diligent 

student. =^'^-ji=^-^-qf3j-q5]M-i-qq-^q-5^-qg=;^^J!]-5S3j-q^-|3jl 
gaj'^^aj] wish, desire || My wish is that you can be healthy and happy. 

S3j'cf^ good wish, congratulatory wish || He gave me a good wish and 
then said goodbye. p'^-=;-".v|3j-^Jl]-qg=;^^J!]-5".v|'N-q^-Sf|^'^-|=^l 

S'^] to say, to speak || I said that I believe in and trust you. ^'^■q-f|=>'S^':;' 

S'^'5'^^'^l needless to say || Needless to say a mother loves her children. 


gSj'^l matchmaker || The matchmaker escorted the bride to the groom's 

home. |3j'=J'N-qJ!]-»i-»iJ!]-qq-^»i-s-|".v»i-^'^l 
SSj'^S] media || The media includes magazines, newspapers, radio, and 

television. |3j'|=^'|'3i'^'^'^'^'^^l ^^^N-q^] ^'^■q|^J!]M'=^=^'q^3j''^|3j-q5'^'n^^l 
S'^1 pen II This pen was not expensive. S'^''^^'^'^^'^'^'']'^! 
|^'«^] bamboo || Pandas like to eat bamboo. =^s^'|g'|J!]'5^'g'q^'^J!]q] 
fij (fil fi'^0 ^o tie mad/crazy /deranged || Her never-ending questions 

made me crazy. p'^'fJ!]'^-»ig'^'s^=^'q^''^5'&!]'Sl'^-=;-|^5-q§J!] 
g'3j^] mental illness, psychosis || The doctor said he has a mental illness. 

g'q^l to pretend to be mad/crazy || I will pretend to be mad to play a 
joke on my friends. ^^'^^§f".V=^3]'^-J!]^»l-^=;-q^-=;wqf -l^-^-tSSaj] 

g'".iq] crazy talk/speech || I can't understand your crazy 
talk. ^^•^^•^•|^'^=!''^'^=!'s^'"r3ii 

gSj^qj crazy man, madman, crazy || He s a crazy man. p'3j'g3j'i!'(^J!]'=^^] 

g3j'»l] crazy /deranged woman || The crazy woman talked constantly to 
herself. ^aj'sl'^M'slcfsi'N-s^-cB^'q^'p^'^.iq'^^l 

111 (111 Sl^l Sl'^1) to say, to tell, to speak || I must tell you a secret. 

a'i] Hongue; "enunciation || 'l bit my tongue. ^^■^2;'5n'|3'^'",v^'q^q] "His 

enunciation is very clear, p'^'fj''^'^^ 
|3'^J!]^] wailing, lamentation || The daughter's lamentation for her dead 

mother was moving. gW'si'!^5]-q:^-i-^J!]'N'n^aj'q'^'5^»l'N'q^".vgq'N'q'^J!]'5;2^| 
|3^'] to be sad, to be downcast || He was sad about his friend's death. 

S^'^1 sad melody, elegy, dirge || The sad flute melody made us all 
weep . |=^'g'S'i'^'^'^'N-=;-§f cf=^-5^q-5^£!]-f ^'^'N] 



^■^'S^'^l trivial II It's a trivial matter so don't worry. =^3j'^'^5i'^J!]'^'(^J!]'"^3j' 
^'Sjl when, at the time, since || When you visited me I was sick. 

€^'^] dropping, trickling || The sound of trickling water made it hard for 

me to sleep. ^'§^'5'^'^'^'^'=^'"-i'J!]|=^-f^J!]-y»i-q§J!] 
^si| ^a little; 'this much; ^about || ^I want a little more sugar in my 

coffee. ^^■p'|(^'3j^'S''T]'=^'^'5^'^^'«^^'^s^'^^'^] "I want this much sugar in 

my coffee. ^^■p'M'3j^'S'^'".V'T]'=^''^=^'5S^'=^J!]^] ^FU come to your home at 

about three p.m. '^■|^^'^'§f=^'Jl]^s^'5»l'^'^^'cdk-n,vqk-l 
^^5j\ at about, in about || I'll be at your home at about noon. ft3j'^^'^5^'S'^' 

(i'^'S'(i^'?i'^^'^^'l I'll visit your family in about two days, •^a'tn'^^'^aj' 

^s^'(^^ about II Please tell me about your family. 

^^1 rat, mouse || The rat ate some poison and died. ^^'^■=;^■'^^'^■3^1■3j^l■^P|] 
^^■^] premier, prime minister || The premier will give a speech 

tomorrow morning. 's^!;•|3j•^^^•|3j•a:l!^v^!]^!;•q^P|=^•5^!]■^!]3j=^■^■^^l 
^^■| onion || Let's put some onion in this beef dish. 

^S'^^l (^S'^M] ^5J!]M1 ^^^'^D to stab, to pierce || He stabbed him with a 

knife. '[^'^•p^".V^M'J!]5J!]'^l 
^^] ^clean, hygienic; 'Gtshang (southwest part of Central Tibet) || 

'This restaurant is very clean. 3'p^''^=;'=9'3^'J!]5k] 'He's from 

Gtshang. fS^-J!]^=;-3j'^-2r=;] 
^^^■^^ cleaning || Cleaning dirty dishes is something I don't like to do. 

^S^'q] river || The river dried up last summer. 3i'3j^'^^^'p=^'J!]5k'q'^5^] 
^^^'s^l clean, hygienic || The new clinic is very clean, a'q^aj'gai'p^'^'^^^'q' 


Jlj^R'^",!] eradication, extermination || The extermination of evil should 
be our common aim. J!i^3j-'^5-J!]^^-^f^v|^-^%^-§?^-^3j-5r=;-Sl-=^5^J!]'N-t^f^-'^3j| 
^#1^] (^^q^] J!]^q^] J!]^q^]) to chop, to cut up II Please chop this beef. 

^^^'^l to bare (one's teeth) || The dog will bare its teeth when strangers 
visit. 5^-S'«^=^^3j'q'3j'^'N-'^J!]5J!]'Nl 

^^'^'Sj^l ^most valued property; 'head ornament || 'My most valued 
property is my gold ring. '^^•J!]§J!]^=^'^'=;'l'J!]'^^'|,'5^^q'=^^'N'«S3jl "My 
mother gave me this head ornament. ^^'i^M's^^'^n-VJi^^Ji^^'q^'^] 

^^^■"-1^ classics, scriptures || How many classics have you read? 

^^'^■".l^'p^'] temple || The old temple has been repaired. 

^^q] (^^^1 ^^^'^l ^^^'^D to rub, to brush || He rubbed the knife against 

the sharpening stone, p'^'^]'^^^^'".!'^!]^^^] 
^^] {^] ^^'N] J!]%''N]) to hurt, to damage || I don't want to hurt your 

feelings. '^'N-^=^-|'q|'S'^'"-V^%'''5^''^^=^l 
^S'^J!]3j] the main responsibility || My father has the main responsibility 

for earning money in my family. 

^§55'^] main, important, major || This is an important novel. 

^^q=^J!] leader, chief || He is the village leader. p^'=;'§f^-qq-qj^q:^qjt;^3j| 
^S^"1] principle and secondary, important and unimportant || He 
explained to me what was important and unimportant about my 

work. '[^^■'^■".V!;<^'^'q^^^'S]'J!]^!^".VJ!]=;'^3j'q'5!]'S)rn-q^:^-^5)| 

^Sqj main, major, principle || The main thing that I should do is to 
finish my work on time. 

^Sq^] mainly, foremostly || We mainly grow wheat here. 


^Sq^3j] leader || Who is the leader of your country? 


q^'^'^] to sift II The flour needs to be sifted before you mix it with water. 
q53j'^",l] force, compeUing || He spoke with great force. 

^'Sj'I^S] hijacking, holding under duress, kidnap || The airplane hijacking 

took place at ten o'clock this morning. ^3js^'5]'q53j'(|^'^'^'^'^'^'^^'f 'S*^' 

q5aj''^J!]"l] imposition || I know visiting you unannounced is an 

imposition. (i^'".V»l'q.P|^'q^^J!]^J!]M'i!%q5aj-q5i".V^J!]-5S3j-q-^^l-^^l| 
q53j''^J!]J!] forcible prohibition || There is a forcible prohibition against 

gambling in that country. ^"•Vpq'^'3j^'^3j'i!'q^3j''^^^'^^] 
q^aj"^"-!] aggression, attack || The attack happened at dawn. 

q^3j'5"-V^^''5^^1 imperialism || There was much imperialism in Africa. 

qssj'^^s^] strongly worded speech || His strongly worded speech was 

heard by thousands of people. s^'^^'^J!]'S'5^^'p'l'q^3j'J!]^s^'g'^] 
q^3j'J!]3jaj] oppression, suppression || Oppression of the masses cannot last 

forever. 5^=;-SJ!]'N-".vq53j-J!i^aj-|,=^-q-^-^J!]-5^-|=^] 
q53j''^] ^strong, violent; 'emperor || ^Peace is the opposite of violent 

activity. ^■q^'^'^'^'q^3j^".l^'|;Sj'5'"W] "The emperor lived in a huge 

palace and had many wives. q5aj'i!'=^'=^'g^'£53j'i!'(^^'J!]'3j^'S'q(5J!]^'3;'^'q^3j'«^' 

qsaj'^^JJ] forcible annexation/capture || Iraq's forcible annexation of 
Kuwait was short-lived. =^|,'^^'^'N-f^-^-g-q^3j-q|J!]-^^-q-^-5J!]'N-»l-q^ai| 

qsaj'^^^f^] aggression, invasion || The large country's policy of 
aggression toward the small country was criticized by everyone. 


q53j''^".V5^p3j] invader, aggressor || The invader forces were stopped and 
made to retreat. q^3j-'^".VS^p3j-|-^«^J!]-^^^-q'T]J!]-3j'S5-|^-q|i!]^)] 

q^3j'^^'] fortress || The old fortress was situated on a mountain top. 

q53j'q|^'] forcible occupation, forcible seizure || Forcible occupation of 
the area by the enemy was sad for all of us. 


q^3j'J!]"^5^] rape || He was convicted for rape and put in prison. 

q^aj'-PjJ!]^] violence, might, force, power || That country uses force to 
control other countries. g".l'pq'^^'q53j'-P|J!]^'q'Tjf\V3j'^'gf\vpq'J!j(a3jxqi-Js;- 

q^3j■-P|=^l force II He used force to make everyone agree with him. 

q#?| (q^f^l q^'^]) to give birth to || My wife gave birth to our son last 

night. »i=^=;'=^^!;'=;q'§=;'»i'N'=;'§§q'g'q^'Nl 
q#?] 'rust, tarnish; 'to look after || 'Rust formed on the unpainted metal. 

|-»l-^J!]'N-qq-'|J!]'N-^=^-".vq#?-c5Jl]'^l -I look after my young students. '^'N'^q' 

q5^'^3j3j] pressing, squeezing, crushing || Pressing oil from the seeds of 

oil-seed plants harvested by our family took more than one hour. ^=^■ 


q§3jl righteous, correct (in behavior) || His behavior has always been 


righteous. P'^-l^-^-ISj-^^-^lSJl 
q^aj'^l monk II That monk is bald. q^3i'=^'^'*l^'^^^=^l 
q^3j'«lj queen || A queen is a king's wife. q§3j'55^'g".l^'^^'«^'^3j] 
q^^R] smelting, refining || Iron ore refining requires a lot of coal. 

q^'^ dirty, contaminated, filthy || His clothes were so dirty that I burned 

them. p'^'^3j'=J'=9'5=^'q^'^'q'^''^'N'^'=^J!]'s^^'q^J!]'Nl 
q^'p^'] jail, prison || The jail was fuU of prisoners. q^aj'p^'S'q^aj's^^'p^^j 
q^'t^] prisoner || The prisoner wore a gray uniform. 

q^'^-V^^Jl] to imprison || The inmate will be imprisoned the day after 

tomorrow. ^'^'N'|3j'i'=^'^^'^'^^3j'"-V'^''l'^'^=^l 
q^'^'8^1 cooked II Is this meat cooked? ^P|■q^■q^^■»l■^3j■3j»l] 
^ 'veins; 'bottom || 'He was so thin that you could see all the veins in 

his body. f^q-'5<^^^=^-55;]!^-q'N-^^-|'N-pq-'3'N-^=;-^-§-gs^'N-5=^'^=;'«^g^^^ ' 

The army camp is located at the bottom of the mountain, ^s^^'g^^^'^^'g" 

•23 3 • 

g'jls^'^] constitution || Have you studied the American constitution? 

§■^311 gist, main idea, principle || What is the gist of what he is saying? 
p'^'q,P|2;'qq'g'=;3j'3'(^^'"^aj] The principle of human equality is something 
he believes in. 5^q'^J!]'^'q5'»l^»l'|,'f ^3i-^'p''^'«S=^'i'N'|,=^''N'^J!]'5S3j] 

g'^SjS] main point, main question, main thesis || I don't think I presented 
the main point of my argument clearly. 

g'q] root, basis, origin, source || What is the root of this problem? 

g■5^=^l annihilation || The annihilation of mice is difficult to achieve. 

S''^^'^! organization || The new organization had its first meeting last 

night. s^^=;'=^q]=;'§-q^'^'N'J!]'N^'q'^'N'§&]'N'qs^J!]'s^'n§&]'Nl 
§■^■1^ trivial, trifling || That is a trivial matter. ^■^^aj-'^Jll-g-J!]-!^!]-!^!]-^^^] 
§S■^5=^] investigation, inquiry, exploration || Was your investigation 

successful? ^'^■^■g'=^'J!]5=^''^lJ!]'N-q5]q-^=;-=;»ll 
g^'i^q] investigation, inquiry, survey || The crime investigation resulted 

in several arrests. ^'N'q'§'^'^q'^^'5]g3;-5^-qJ!]q-qW3j'q^=;'^^l 
g^l] skill, dexterity || My skill in playing ping-pong could be improved. 


g^Vg^'] exercise, drill || The morning exercise period lasts about twenty 

minutes. i^5;|!^-q(^-§'".v|k-aj-^^-»iy-P|-^»i-(^?^3;| 
SI (^Sl ^S^^l S^^l) ^to count; 'to obey; ''to consider as || ^Did you count 

the sheep? ^^■^'N''5J!]'q|'^'^»l] "I obey my mother and father, ^^'^^'si' 

J!]^^'",vq^ ^I consider you as my own son. ^^■(i^'^^'^'g'"-Vq|'] 
I'-Pj'^'l plant, vegetation || This plant is edible. |'-Pj=;-q^-qgq-lJ!] 
|j!] (q|j!] qlJ!]'^! %^^\) Ho pile up; "to build || ^Please pile up all the 

stones in the field here. (^^■p'S'^'cf^'5^''^=^'^=^'§'^'^l "We will build a new 

home next year. '^'^■^^■=^-a?^f'^-q-J!]'N^-q-^J!]-q|j!]-^-5S3j] 
S^l^l violent/crude behavior || I can't stand their crude behavior. 


g^'q] crude, rough || Don't use crude speech when you talk to me. 


I'^'^] yak hair || The tent is made of yak hair. a'^=^'|'=^'i!^'qg^] 
g'M] ^mathematics; 'calculation, computation || ^I was always very good 
at mathematics. ^■^''^■g3j'=;'§'^'".l'=9'5^'q3^'] 'This calculation requires 
addition, subtraction, and division. S''^''^^'"-l''^^'g3j'qJ!]'J!]^s^'^^'^Jl]'^] 
§''^''^p=^] calculator || The calculator needs two batteries to operate. 

§■^'5] records, account ledger || He keeps his records locked in a safe. 

§■^'11^1 handing over, transfer || The transfer of money will occur 

tomorrow at the bank. 'N=;-|3j-=^".vp=;-^-|'=^-s?|'N-|=^-|=^-^-^^l 
g'^'^^ mathematics || My daughter studies mathematics in primary 

school. ^q-g-sr=^-|q-^^-^-|<^)-^qT^q-|^-|^l 

g'^'^q^'sip^'q] mathematician || My father is a mathematician. 

§''^'q.P|=^] examination, audit, making an inventory || The audit of the 
company was done once annually. ".V^=^'7|^'g'l'§'^'q-Pi=^'g^^'J!]5^'|,^] 

§■^■^1 rough, coarse, violent, harsh || The women left when the men 
began using rough language. 

S^^l^l rough/violent/outrageous behavior || After they get drunk rough 

behavior ensues. R^f ql'^'^l S'^'SS'^^'^^'l 
§] top, summit, peak || The mountain top vanished in clouds. 

tl (SI S^^l ^^\) to play, to dance, to entertain, to recreate || We will go to 

the park to play this afternoon. ^'^=^'|^^'=^'S?|'^''']'"-v|'q^''^^^'^3il 
g'S]^] first class, the best || This is a first class hotel. 

g'^5^'1^] attentively || We listened attentively as he talked. 

^^'=:] Potala Palace || The Potala Palace is in Lhasa. |-'^g=;-^-™-'s)-3j-2r«^| 
g"*!] summit, top, peak || I don't think I can climb all the way to the 

summit. !;'N'5;K,-^!^-q5^-5aj-q3;-(^S!^-3^!^-S,q-|-s5^a,v|q!^-^q-q5;-5^-q^;^| 

t^ (^t^ ^t^^l] t^^l]) ^to pile up, to stack up; 'to bargain; ho brocade || 
'Let's pile up the rocks here. ^■^'N¥^^'5^'q^'^'q|'5l^'=j'\'^| 'Let's bargain 


for a cheaper price. ^■a§'^'^'=^s^'^W".vq|'J!]'i!=^'^] 'I'm going to brocade 

this afternoon. ^■^'^■|,^^'=^'N'^'5fq|J!]'^''^3jl 
S^l (^S^l ^S^^l S^'^l) to erect, to raise up || We will erect the monument 

here . '^■§f'N-'|'N-53j^=;-^-q^-3j'N-q|=;-^-^3jl 
§■^■^^1 entertainment, recreation || What should we do for some 

entertainment? '^■^^■|=^''^'^-^5i]-^".vq^'^'=^^Ml 
g'S's^l game, play, recreation, entertainment || What game do you like 

best? ^'^■i'N-^Jiiq-qq-l^-sJst^aji 
W^ (^S^^l ^S^l ^%) to argue, to debate, to quarrel || I don't want to argue 

with you. '^'N-(i=^-^=;-q§-=^-5^-q^^l 
g'S'^^'l argument, dispute, quarrel || After our argument we did not 

speak. f=^'^=^'^'1'N-3j'^-=;-§f'N-p-»l-5]J!]'Nl 
g'^N'sq'^Jj^'q] dialectics || I studied dialectics in college. 

§■=^■^] argument, dispute || The argument was over control of grassland. 

f^-qWk'l fight, dispute || What was the fight about? f=^-qWk-^-^%q-|^-5S3j| 
§■^■^(^1 subject of debate, basis of controversy /dispute || The subject of 

our debate is 'Will Mankind Destroy Itself?' 

^^'c^'f^'J!]^'^' 's^'S'^Jil'N'^'^'^'^'l^'qj.J!]'^!]^! 'l^'q'^'^Saji 

§■5^] composition, article || He published his article on Tibetan history 

last year. 3j'^=^''p'^'^=^'^^^'|'"r^'^-^^-|,-f'»l-^n,i] 
f»l] (qg-si] qg-si'Nl fsi'^l) to compose, to write || What will you write your 

article about? ^^■|'N-'^J!]'N-fs^-5-^J!]-f 5]-^-«S3j| 
g's^'s^paj] author, writer || Who is the author of that book? 

g's^'g^] translation || My translation will be published next month. 

g's^'SJl] editing || Editing translations takes a lot of time. 

g's^'gjJl^'q] editor, compiler || He works as an editor at the publishing 
house. p''^-=^q-^3j-p=;-^-f»l-^J!]-q<^-^-q-J!]^^l I was the editor of that book. 

g's^'qi^'^l selected works, anthology, collection of essays || A collection 


of essays he wrote twenty years ago has just been published. 

g's^'tj''^] author, writer || How much can an author earn? 

g's^'"^^ essay, article, literary composition || My essay was rejected for 

publication. '^'^'f«^'^^'^^'^3i'|=^'^''^'^^^'g,^'^^=^l 
g's^'^q^ literature || Have you studied British literature? 

g'»l'^J!]'g'g'",l] literature and art || He doesn't like literature and art — he's 
only interested in girls and watching television. 

g's^'^jj^'q] man of letters || He is a knowledgeable man of letters. 

g's^'f^jjj^l literary style || I admire his literary style. 

S^l {'^W^\ ^S'"^'! S'"-!]) to strive, to endeavor, to work hard || I strive to do 

my farmwork well, '^'^■^'^■".isj-qg'^^^-l^q-q^-f".!] 
§"f^V^] work, labor, endeavor, diligence || His life's work was the 

compilation of a Tibetan- Tibetan dictionary. 

^■".V-PIJ!]^] drive, vigor, energy || Even though he's more than eighty, he's 

got a lot of vigor. f^"?3j-q^=^-§-".l'N-q=^'N-^=;-l (?".vf".V-P|'^'N-i3j^25i^l 
S'] grass II Grass is green. S'3j''^^'[^'"^3j] 
5"^3j] rank grass || Rank grass grew around the deserted home. 

^^] vegetation and water || This is a good place for livestock because 
there is a lot of vegetation and water. 


^■5] precious, valuable || The old painting was valuable. 

S'^'>| pastureland, grassland || The pastureland was covered with 

livestock. ^g=;'".V§J!]'^-|'N-p=;'Nl 
S'^^SSl] grassy swamp || Two of your sheep are stuck in the grassy 

swamp near the river. S''^g]»l'|,'^'^^»l'=;'(i=^'^''5^'^|^''^g^| 


^".1] (qs"^!] qs"-!] a"-!]) to offer, to present, to give, to impart (h) || I will 
give my teacher a small gift. 

qg'q^^l respect || I have no respect for dishonest people. ^^■s^'^'qJ!]'53j'".V 

qg'^RJtj respect || I have great respect for my parents. 

qg's^g^'] respect, regard || I hold my teacher in high regard. 

qg'Sj^l abide by, comply with, follow, observe || I will abide by your 

order. ^'N-(i=^'|'q'^'^'qt'|^'|=^'^'Nl 
q§] to love, to have compassion; "to tingle || I love my children, ^'^^^'^n' 

|,'^-q-".vq|l -My teeth tingle after I eat that fruit. =;'^-'^".iy!]-l'^-3j'N-»?q|' 

q§"=;^'] love, affection || I have much love for my children. 

qg"*^*!^] love, affection || 'Love' is the opposite of 'hate.' 

' q|-S^»i'^ '^- ' (^•^!;'-S]-'^J!]^-^3j] 
qg'ajl to strive for, to endeavor || I shall endeavor to read your paper 

qg^aj'^^S]^] diligence, industry || I admire his diligence in study. 

qg^aj'tJ] diligence || His success is due to his diligence. 

qg^aj'^iaj] striving, endeavoring, exerting oneself, struggle || We are 
striving to work as well as we can. ^■cf'N'=^^'5'^%'^^'^'N'q^''^13j'^^] 
The struggle for success is not easy.^^-l'p'^f 3i''^3i'|,=^'S'^'"-l^'^[5?5^3j| 



cf] fever, hot || He's sweating from a fever. p'".Vcfq^q'3j^'^".V^'q(5=^] 
^[^"-1] tropical area, the tropics || There is no cold winter in the tropics. 

cfs]^'] temperature || What is the temperature right now? =;'<3'cf5]^'^'c&^'^^] 
cfg^l to get a fever || I don't want to get a fever and be sick for several 

days. =;'N-^;;-nj-cf§M-ajM-|aj-q£!]q-".v3j-cf^=;'3j-5^-q^=^l 
cf^l hot spring || I bathed in the hot spring and felt much better, ^'^'cf^'l' 

cf^5^] thermos || A thermos keeps water hot. c^5^''^lM'^'5^''^|gJ!] 

cd^=^l heat II The stove gave out a lot of heat. |5l]'N-qq-")'N-^=^-i3j^^=;-l 

^3j=^] sunstroke || He didn't wear a hat and got sunstroke. 

c^ ^hot; "extremely, very || ^This summer is very hot. =^^^■'']■3j■=9■3^■c^ 

^=^1 -She is extremely beautiful. p^-»l?'N-»l-cd^^=^l 
cd^ ^nephew; 'grandson || 'My sister's son is my nephew. ^^'|c,-srq-g-3i'=vq' 

cf^^sj] "My son's son is my grandson. ^'S'g'S'g'^'^^'cd^q^aj] 
cfs^] 'niece; 'grandaughter || 'My sister's daughter is my niece. ^^Jj^s^^' 

g'5^'3j'^q'cfs5^3j] "My son's daughter is my granddaughter. ^'S'g<^'g'*l'3j' 

^^^ pain, agony || The pain from my broken leg keeps me from 

sleeping. =;q-if^=;-q-c5J!]^^'cf|J!]'Sl'N-=;-".VJ!]|=^-f^.J!]-y5^-q|J!] 
cf^l lambskin, fleece || His robe is lined with lambskin. 

cf".l] solder, weld || The weld holding the two pieces of metal together 

broke . '^J!]'N'"iq'J!]|'N'5^^5^'S'cf "-V^M'^T^^'il'^^^l 
cf'^'5^] orange || The oranges were produced in south China. 

cf£!]^'=;»l'i]] compact, tightly packed || I bought a new compact disk that 
has my favorite songs on it. =^»J'S^'S'=;^''^=v'5?r=v!i|(^'q(^'gi'=v§^?j'Sv!i|'^=v'q(^' 


A=v'S=;'6f^^'=^9j-q-q|^3;-q-^q|-^^i All of our clothing was tightly packed in 
several cardboard boxes. !^'J^'<^'q'^:;'5]"-nsr|"S5]"(^qi(^'3;s;"^"^qi!5^'s;5]'q^" 

^'J]'^'i!=^] newspaper || I read the Tibetan newspaper every week. 
^'5]'^'^=;'i!] well organized || That is a well organized construction team. 
c5'5]^'"JJ!] record, document || That document is at least fifty years old. 

^^''l^^^'Sl to be prepared, to be well organized || I am prepared for 

anything. '^^■^■q'g»l'^-5=^-cfJ!]'N-^-^=^l 
^^■] nest; 'household, family || The little bird fell out of its nest. 

^'cf^'aj^'™^'] "There are six people in my family. ^^'^^'"-VS^'^^'^'^] 
cf^'] to be complete || I'm writing a song but it's not yet complete. 

^=;'»11 all, every || Do all of you agree? ^=^'§fcf=^'»iwng^] 
cf^'ft^'] very dense/thick || The trees in the forest are so thick that you 
can't ride a horse through it. 

^^^1^1 good deed/behavior || You will be rewarded for every good 
deed that you do. ji^'|'N-cdk'N-|'^-qW3j-g=;'^-5;^-j|'2^-n,v^-2^qjq-S3^-^-^:^| 

^] ^measurement; 'degree, level || ^I don't agree with your 

measurement of who is a good student and who is a bad student. 

ii'i'S'^'^^'*"'^^'^''^^'^'^^'^'^^'^'^'^'^'^'^^'^'"-'''^'^''^^^! 'He has a high level 

of knowledge of Buddhism. aj=;'q^3j'I'^''5J!]'N-|-^=;-3j'N-f^q-i^3j-^3j-|-cf=^-»ij 

cf'^] (cf=^l cf'^] c&^]) to measure, to weigh || Let's weigh ourselves. ^'cW'^'^' 

cf'^■^'^■53j] some extent, definite limit || To some extent I believe what he 

says. 'p'^'%'q.P|^'q'".Vcf=^'^'N-53j'^J!]'3j'N-=;-«S2^-i^)] 
cf'^■'^^".l] to measure || Let's measure you and see how tall you are. 

cf'^■'23j] ^standard; 'qualified || 'He speaks standard Chinese, p'^■5■^^■cf'^■ 
c^^^ 111 'Do you think he is qualified to teach written Tibetan? |i^' 


cf'^'s^l criterion, standard, truth || What criterion do you use to judge 

people? ^=^-|'N-5^-".VJ!]^=;-qSj!]-|^-q^-cf^-»i-5'^J!]-ql3jl 
cf'^'s^^l limitless, boundless, infinite || Space is limitless. 

cf'^'^i^l standard, specification || This machine part needs to be made 
exactly to standard. n^".VS'N-™-".lJ!]-q^-^-5]-^-q^3^-^-^!^-q|(^^-q|^q|!^-3^!^- 

cf'>'"13j] measurement || Measurement of the students' heights required an 

hour. ^q'5^'§f'^'^|^^lWcf=^-":i3j-|=^-q^-^-§?=^-J!]5J!]'=^^'^'^=^'l 
cf'>'"l^^] to be able to reach the standard/qualification || The quality of 

this product reached my standard. g3j'^^''^^'S'^'^^'^'l'cf'^'".V".F'^] 
cf3j'p^ department, section, division || Which department do you teach 

cfej'^^'l small section/group/division || I work in a small section. 

cfej'^] paragraph, section || This paragraph should be deleted from your 

article. cf3j'q''^^'^=^'|'f»l'«SJ!]-n.i'N-q^q-q^-R'3]'^| 
^^^ science || Chemistry is a science. ^^■'^^=^'3j'cf3j'=^J!]'3J!]'^3j] 
cf3j'=^J!]'p^'] Academy of Sciences || He is a member of the Chinese 

Academy of Sciences. p^'^=;'3]q'cf3j'^J!]'p=;'Sl'5^'|'^J!]'^3jl 
^3j"^^"^l scientist || He is a nuclear scientist. p^'^^'S".Vcf3j'^J!]'i!'^J!]'"^3j] 
cf3j'^^'".l^'§'"l] scientific technique || Scientific technique questions all 

assumptions. cf3j'^J!]'".lJ!]'g'".v|,^'f3^''^q5i]'cf'^'»l'".lYl'^'^^''^3jl 
^q'S] on behalf of || On behalf of all of us here, I want to give you this 

gift. =;'N'q^'J!]q'=;'§fcf'^'s^'S'sq'g'^'3^'^'"iJ!]'N'|'N'q^'(i^'".vngn,i] 
cfq'g^;] compensation, reparation || Your error made me lose money and 

I want compensation. (5=^'|^=^'^^^'^'|3j'|,'N-^'"-v|'^-5rq-|k-^=^-gq'N-q'Nl ji=^- 

cfq'q'#1'q] flurried, flustered || His flustered face told me he was worried 
and too busy. p'^^«Y^'^=^'^'^'^'^'^''^l'^''^'^'j^'^«^'^''^f5^''^'^'|'^l''^'^'i'^'^^ 

cfq'5^] substitute, replacement, on behalf of || This substitute cloth is poor 
quality. ^'^■cfq-»l-q^-^-^'^-(^3jl 

cfq^'cB] serious, severe || He has a serious illness. ^■".vaj^'cfq'^'cB'i^J!]'"^^] 

^s^'s^'SS^'5^1 hesitation, shilly-shally || His hesitation in business has 


meant that he has lost many opportunities. 

^^] Ho be finished, to be completed; 'time || ^ What time will class be 
finished? J]q■(g^■3j5^■c&^■cf^■g■^=^] 'How many times did you read this 

book? ji=^-|'^-=^q-c5''^^'cf^'5i]-S'^'q^J!]'s)] 

^^■^5^1 eradication, annihilation || The eradication of the grassland pest 

was not successful. ^^'^•^•5i]^'^'(^g,'^5]!^-cf^-J!i52^-|,2^-q^-qJ!]'N'q5]q'»l'^!;'l 
cff^V^s^] vegetable || I thought the vegetable that we had for supper was 

overcooked. '^'N'=;'§f^r=^^=;'g'N''^ll'^'qq'cf'^V™s^'§f^V5J!]'NW^'q^^ 
cdHvq] a half || I have half of a piece of bread. =;-".v3y^-cf".vq-^J!]-Sr=^l 
cf] dirt, filth || Your clothes are covered with dirt. [i'^'^'^aj'^'^.Vcf'^^'pq^l 
^ word II I don't understand what this word means. ^^'ft^'f^^^'aj^'^^aj's^'J!] 
sl^'if^^'l sentence || This sentence is too long, ^^'iif^^''^^'^^'^^'^] 
|gJ!^-q^a,i| explanatory note || After I read her explanatory note I 

understood her better. =;'^-prq-6^J!]-q^".vq^J!]'N-1'^l =;'N-pW".V™'^-y^'N-"rajl 
S'^'^^ decision || I don't agree with your decision. 

^^^ verbal, oral || It was an oral promise. '^^■^■S^^'gJ!]'S]'p'^''^13j'^J!]'"S3j] 
MJ!]'g^] rhetoric, phrasing || His rhetoric was emotional. 

ft'^'f ^1 harsh/rough word || The rough word the teacher used surprised 

all the students. ^^■^3j-|,'^-af|!^-qq-&!]-|!:!-^'N-^q-»l-^»l'N-=9-".l'N-^-q§J!] 
SJ!]'5^^=;] dictionary, glossary || This Tibetan-English dictionary is very 

useful. q=^'=^|3j-&!]-s^?=^-q^-^-=^5i-s53j-=9-3^-ii 

ll^'f 3jl lie II Don't tell a lie, tell the truth. S^J!]-f 3j-»l-q.P|=^-q^-q^3j-J!]^»l-?i'^l 
ftJ!]'",lJ!] retort, contradiction || His retort angered the man he was talking 

to . 'pq-i^J!]-f^J!]-^'^-p''^-p-q^-|^t^".v|,-| '^■q-^-pk-^n-i'^'^-^-q^J!] 
cf^^] ^joint; 'station || ^The old dancer's joints are no longer flexible. 

J!]=^'s^p3j'^3j'i!'^'S'cf^^'".V=^'<^'s^^3j'c5'5^^] "The gas station ran out of gas. 

cfs^l (cfs^l ftS^^]) to be satisfied/content || We will be content when you 

pay the price we are asking. ^=^'^'N'^'§f'N'q^3j'i!'S'^^'^'^'^'§f"S=^'a^s^'^'^2;] 
roSl'^^^'^Sl to satisfy, to cater to || I want to satisfy your every wish. 
^^'(i^'S^'^'^^'^'^^''^^'l/^''^S^l Catering to the leaders is something that 


he always does. s^^(|=^-^s]!5i-^s]-q^-|2^-q-^-ps)-3j»i-iJj!;-^5^s]-qaj-|^-q-^J!]-5)3j| 
^'J]'^| to be started, to be founded, to set up || The project was started last 

month. ^'S^^3j'^^'f3j'«^^''^^^^'Nl 
^^'^''T] posture, pose || Her pose in the photograph looks unnatural. 

^S] to get included in, to fit into || Will my short story be included in the 
anthology you are editing? ^=^'|'N-f»l-^J!]-|,=^-q^3j-qq-f5^-qi2'N-|-aj=;-S-=;q- 
|3^'^^'^'>'g'"^3j'3j5^] He was included in the group of best students, p'ai' 

^3j] since, from, until || I've known him since he was a little boy. |^5' 

^3j'c5^1 since, from, until || Since I was a child I have liked to listen to 

music. |,^'q'^5l]'^3i'q<^'^3j'c5^'3i'^'q^=;'=;'^'=^^=;'N'".V^3j'i!^'|j 
^^] hither, toward this side || Please walk toward this side. ^^'".V-Pj^ 
^^■^".1] attack II What time was the attack? ^^■^".V3j»l'cf=^'^^''r=;-1 
^^■^^■] reflection || I can see the reflection of trees in the lake, f^'q*^' 


^^'§^^1 this side || Boys are sitting on this side of the room. 
#^1] manner, way, method, how || He has a courteous manner. 
^q'^s^'^l moral law, commandment || That monk abided by moral law 

well . q^3j'q'^'S)-^".v^»lS]-q|:;-q-qg:;-| 

^"I'Sl in manner/way of, as if || He talked in a frightened manner. 


#^V«^3j] immoral, improper || My behavior last night was improper and I 

apologise. «^=^=^'=^3]k-=;q-|=^-q-#^V5^3j-^J!]-'^3j-q^-=;'N-=^^=;'s)-:^q^-(a| 

^"-I'^^^l manner, virtue, custom || He did not know local custom and 

soon had no friends. p'^-'N-J!]3j'N-|-#>.V'5J!]'N-»l-^'S)-q!S)-5^-q^:;!Sj-q^-^qj!S)-5^:^-|^;^- 

M''VR'^ lifetime, whole life || He has spent most of his life working as a 
farmer, (^^'jf J!]=;^q's^=;'i'?f^'^=;'q'i^J!]'S]'#iVS''^l'N''T]''^l'N'3j'N'q^ f^l] 

S^^M] ^spouse; "friend for lifetime || ^He is my spouse. p^'^'S'JS''^^'^3j] 
'She has been my friend for all my lifetime. p'«^'3j'^^'^'Jl]^'q^'^'5]Jl]^' 


JS^f 's^l previous life || I wonder who I was in my previous life? ^^'^z^'sri' 

JS^^S^ one lifetime || A person can accomplish a lot in one lifetime. 

^s^^'^ the later part of life || He became a scholar in the later part of his 

life. i''si§J!]'".v=;'^q'q|J!]'q'^J!]'«S3ji 
JS^^'5^1 next life, reincarnation || In my next life I want to be a rich 

woman, ag^^-s^-"!] '^■g=^'«^'^'§^^^%y|''^'^'^l 
JS^] the first part of life || In the first part of my life I was a student. 

S^g^ lifespan || The average lifespan is now more than seventy years. 

JS^5=^] saving life, sparing life || I'm interested in sparing life not taking 

life. !;'jg''g^''^i'«j=^'|5!]'N'q'".i'N'^J!]'J!]5=^'q^'5^'=^£!]qi 
^■■SSJl living, alive || Living creatures deserve humans' protection. 

JS^q^Sjl life imprisonment || He was found guilty of murder and 
sentenced to life imprisonment. 

§§^=^^'1 long life, to be long-lived || He had a long life and died at the age 

of ninety -four. p^'J?^!;'3j'^''T=^^'q^q'gJ!]'S''^'^''^^'Nl 
JS^ life II All sorts of life should be protected. 

Jg^J!]'c5=^l to die II I'm afraid to die. ^^'Jg^^ll'cB^'q^'^^ 
JS^q'^^] happy lot, good fortune || He has a happy lot in life — enough 

food, enough clothes, and a nice family. pq'5^'agq'^2^'^'afq»r=^%J!]'S52^| 

M'^ dot (used between syllables in Tibetan) || You forgot to put a dot 

between these syllables. ^=^'^'N'J&!]'(|«^''^^'^^'5^'q=^'^'^^''^'&]'S'q|^'^^'] 
5&!]'^] Ho suffer; "to work hard; ^difficulty || ^I suffered from too much 

work. ^■".l'^''T]'s^^'5J!]^'3j^'J§J!]^] "I work hard until I'm exhausted during 

harvest season. '^3j'q^^'^q'^-^'g=^'c5=^'^J!]'q^'^'=^'".l'^-'T]^-JgJ!]'^l 'Did you have 

any difficulty in finding my apartment? i5=;'^'N'p^'q''^^"l'q=^'^Jl]^'5^^^ 


sS^M'cB] very difficult || Learning a foreign language is very difficult. 

j^5^] (q^s^] q%s^^] aSs^^]) to sew || She will sew the buttons on the shirt 

soon. ^^'^•^^•5r^'i^''^l3j'|,^J!]'".V^J!]'^'q%''»l'^'^=^l 
^s^'^^l needlework, embroidery || She is famous for her skilful 

needlework. p?Jg'»l'5q'".V^=^'qM'5^=^'5]J!]'N-il 
^^3^1 tailor II That tailor is from South China. 

a^'^l Mate; "day of the month; ho begin || ^What is today's date? S'^^'^' 
ag'^^'J^I'S'^-^'^l -Today is the fourth day of the month. ^•^'^•^^•q^q'jg''^'q^' 
"^3j] Next month will begin tomorrow. ^'^'s^'S^Ai^aaj'JS^'g'^^';] 

§§■'^■^1 date II What is the date of your wedding? ^=^'|'^^aj-'^aj-^'J§''N'q'3i5]- 

^p^ tribe, group, unit || What tribe do you belong to? 

c^^^qijl tribal chief || He's our tribal chief (^■'^'aS^'sf^^qaj'^Sajl 
cfq] tribe || The tribe has become very large. *q'^'=9'5^'553j''^=^'^^] 
c&]^'pJ!] group, unit || Which group is responsible for this project? 

c&]^'p^'] assembly hall, auditorium || The auditorium was full of people. 

c&]^'l53j] meeting, conference || Will the meeting be in the auditorium? 

''I'^'^l assembly, meeting || The assembly included students and 

teachers. §f^'^-q^q-(g^-S-^q-»l-=^=;-=^^-^3j-5;]^!^-'T|-rK«)l 
cW]'^'^] organization, group, association || How old is that organization? 

c&]^'=;i!3j] leader of organization/group || She is the leader of the 

women's group. pw^'|'^'5^'S'^^^'^'l'c&]'^'^'^3j'^3j] 
c&]^'5^] member of organization/association || Are you a member of the 

Youth League? ^^■^■3j-Jl]^3j-6&]'N-qq-§&]'^-5^-5S3j-3j»l] 
jfq^sj-qj^mj^l fortune, luck || Luck was not with him. p^".Vc&]^'q'^5n'^'g'^| 
*^'] trading, business || His business is mainly buying and selling 


incense. p'^'c§k'^'J!]^=^''^^yi=^'|=^'q'^'^3jl 
c5^'p^'] shop, store || Where did you say the shop was? 

c5^'5]J!]^] business partner || Would you like to be my business partner? 

S^'f^S]".!] commercial intercourse, trade relation || Commercial 
intercourse between Russia and China is very brisk. 

c5RgJ!j'q] marketable, saleable || These goods are of such poor quality 
that they aren't marketable. 

s^'S^'^] trademark || The 'Panda' trademark is common. c5^'SJ!]'^''=;«^'5".r 

c5^'q=;J!] shopkeeper, merchant || The merchant lost money and closed his 

shop . §f=^'q=^J!]'S]'N-5^-§'c5J!]'3j'^-sf=;-p=;-Si-|^q^qi 
*^'q] trader, merchant || The trader opened a shop yesterday. 

cSk'^Sj] to be marketable || I want my goods to be marketable all across 

China. =;'^-^=;-^S5':;'^-^-^=;-^-§?k-|aj-3j-q^^l 
^^'S^'l label II The beer bottle label was so attractive that sales 

boomed. '|'c5=;'^s^'qq'5!;-g!;'^=^'^q=^'q^J!]'N-q-^J!]-«S3j-q^)-!9-5=;-|3j-q-Hs;-l 
ft^'^J!] commodity, goods, merchandise || Where can I buy good quality 

merchandise? =;'N-iklJ!]-^'N-'^lJ!]'^-53j'J!]=^'^y^qi 
S^'gJ!j'=;q",vq^^] commodity economy || The buying and selling of goods 

is a commodity economy. §§k^^y§§k'^=^'^'^'§§k^^'=^^"-Vq^'^3j] 
*^'"^] business partner || My business partner and I leave for Lhasa 

tomorrow. =;'l'cf=^'^'=^=^'^=^'J!]|'N-'N=;-|3j-™-'^-".vq^^-«S3jl 
ft^'^l market || You can buy food and many other things at the market. 

c5^'".l'^] commerce, trade || Commerce between China and other countries 
has increased. ^=;-^^=;-^".vpq-J!](^3j-q^-|,-§?k-".l'N-".V^=;-q^".V^=;-l 

cK] 'amount; 'limit || 'What amount of barley did you buy? (iS'^'N'Sj'^'^' 
5§k^] 'Is there a limit on the amount of money you want to spend? 


fe'qjj^s^l 'to test, to try out; 'to elicit || 'Would you like to test this car 
before you buy it? (i=^'^'N'5.=;'N'qp'^'s^y^'^=;'^=;'s)-qpk-q-6g=^-qJ!]5^-|,=^-i?;rq^=^] 
'We tried to elicit an answer but were unsuccessful. ^'OT^'^'^-iaj'g^' 

cb^''3| experiment, trial, test || I'll try to sell this product as an 

experiment. §§=^''^'l'i=^'^'^^ra3j-f'N-q^-qf^-gqM-|=^-§-^3jl 
S^'W'p^'] laboratory || A scientist does experiments in a laboratory. 

cP;'=;qJ!^ estimation, guess || My guess is that this yak weighs four 

hundred kilograms. =^'N-sf=^-=^qJ!]-^^-3j-J!]«^J!]-q^-".v|-^-q^-q^-Sr^] 
3^si] vegetable || Spinach is a vegetable. '^#>.V^'cf'^'«^'^^'^3j] 
*S'5^S] no limitation, no control || There is no limitation on how much 

you can buy. ji=^'^'N'5'^»iys^'i!=^'^^'«^=^l 
c&^■'^^3j] control, restriction, limitation || How much control do you have 

over your children? ^=^'|'^-3;c;-S|-|^)-q-^si^)-n,vaf2^-qW3j-S-^»l-|=^l 
Sj] dye, color || I want to buy some black dye. ^^■§§3j'3jJ!]^'^J!]'^y'^X=;| 
c53j■5^=^^^] color, luster, hue || That red color is very bright. 

Sj's^'^ color II Red is my favorite color. =^s^=^'q^'^'i^'=^£!]'^'q'7'§§3j'5^'^'")3j] 
c§3j^ fat II I like to eat fat beef '^-^s^^N'-Pj-sfaj^g-q^-'^siiqi 
c53j'g'^] painting || The painting was done by a famous Western artist. 

c53j'§'l 'enamel; 'varnish || 'The enamel on the cup was chipped. ^'T]=^'"^".V 

^'^■^■^t'p'^'^l "He put varnish on the chairs. 'p'^'c?3j'|'if^q'^J!]'N'^'^=;'".V 

cw] to hesitate, to vacillate, to have doubt || When faced with a problem, 

he will hesitate. ^^'T^q-J^q-q-q^^^-jg^q-'^^^-fs^l 
cBS^'^'p^l hall II In winter the hall is very cold. 

c5^1 to sense, to know, to feel || I sense that you are unhappy. ^'^■|5=;'5^s]!5i" 

c5^'q'a5^^| to lose the sense of feeling || I've lost the sense of feeling in 

my right hand. =;'l'".lJ!]'q'J!]«^'N-qq-§?k-q-^»l'Nl 
i«)| 'dye; 'to be cooked || 'Where can I buy red dye? =;'N'i''N'^»l^^si]=^'S' 


^■^q] 'This food needs to be cooked before six p.m. l,^'^^"^^^^ ?^ 

c^l salt II I like salt in tea. =;-^q-3j=;-".Vc^W^'3j'^J!]'^l 

^siMq salt lake || The salt lake has little water. c^-»l^<^<^-3j=;-^'g=;'5''^l'^-5^=^l 
s^^] fault, crime, delinquency || Constant quarrelling in that household 
is the fault of the entire family. 

sicf^'^S"-!] exposing/showing fault/crime || Exposing crime is the duty of 

the police. »icf=^'q^"-vq%^3jy!]-qq-".i'^-qji]3j-'^3ji 
s^cfsjl ^name (h); 'night-time || ^What is your name? (i=^'^'5^cf3j'".V^'^^'i=^] 

'I watch television at night-time. «^cf3j'«^=^'^M'q53j''^^3j'".vq<^] 
5^cf3j'if|3jl burglar || A burglar stole my television set. 

s^cfsj'^^'l all night || We sang and danced all night. 

5^cf3j■^=^■^^■'^] philosophy || He studied Buddhist philosophy for five years 
at the monastery. 

5^cf3j■^=^■^^^■i!■q] philosopher || Karl Marx was a philosopher. 

s^cfsj'SSjl reputation, fame || His fame has spread far and wide. 

5^cf3j'S^'^] omen, sign, symbolization || Those dark clouds are an ill 

omen. |3j'3jJ!]-^-§^-5^cf3j'^J!]'^-=;3j-q-^J!]-^=^l 
s^cf3j''3'^] sign, omen, symbolization || A dream of death is a bad omen. 

sicfsj'^'N] night-time || They went for a night-time walk. 

sicfsj's^l 'mark, sign, symbol; 'genitals || 'The tiger is the symbol of our 
football team. ^'J]-^-'^-i''^-Jf^'^-|^-1^"r5-pJ!]-Sl-s^cf3j-5^-«S3jl 'A gynecologist 
treats diseases of the female genitals. g=^'5^=^'cf3j'p^'^'^]3j'i!^'|^'s^^'5^cf3j' 

s^cfsj's^l night, evening || We looked for the missing yaks at night. 


»lcf3j'"l'^l night shift, night work || Night work pays more than daytime 

work. |3j'".i'^'".l'N'»lcf3j'".i'N'".v^-'^^'^'si=;^^^l 
s^^s^'^] place where two or more things meet, demarcation, joint, 

boundary || This mountain is where the boundaries of two countries 

meet. ^^q^'^'|_".vpq'J!]|'^'^'^".V»lcf5^'N'^'5n3^!^-Sr=^] 
s^^si^'p^'l hermit's cottage || The hermit's cottage is smaU but 

comfortable . »lcf»l'N'p!;'^'^=^'«^=^'q^'s5^ajl 
»lcfsi^'J!^5=;] to stop, to discontinue || I want to stop smoking and 

drinking. ^'N-^-c5'^-5^cf5^'N-J!]5^-q^=^l 
»lcfsi^'q| hermit || The hermit lived alone on the mountain. 

5^cfsi^'S3j] rosy cloud || As the sun set a single rosy cloud slowly moved 
out of sight. ^•s^'Sjq'^q'Nl »lcf»l'N'|3j'g=^^^5[^'^^'sr^'8^5!]'f^si'3j'^'^".ll 

s^cfsi^'g^l recommendation || I need your recommendation in order to 
get a job. '^■".V^'q'^''^gq'q^'ji^%»l^»l'^-|'^-=^^'^1 

»lcfsi^'5^cfsi^] sometimes || Sometimes I like to listen to the radio. 

s^cf^'^^s^] jest, farce || That was such a good jest that we all laughed. 

s^cf^'f ^ beauty || Her beauty made us all notice her. 

s^cf^'q] 'miraculous, fantastic, wonderful; 'strange || 'it was a wonderful 
song. '^=^'3j'^'=^^^'^'«^c5=^'q'(^^'=^=;] "His ideas are very strange. p'^'<^'q'^'=;J!]' 

5^^^^] like, similar, equal, same || That little boy is like his father. W'^' 

■NO -NO 1 I 1 -NB 1 

5^j?5^] twins II The twins looked exactly alike. 

^^^5^1 shyness, bashfulness || He lost his shyness when he went to 

school . 'p^q'5]'".v|;3j-q-3j-pq-»iS'^-^=^-^=^-s^2^-q^-^^] 
5^j§^'^] pasture || Herdsmen have a summer pasture and a winter pasture. 

^\ lake II The lake water is very cold. 5^§f^'^'=9'5^''^|i^Ml 

s^l^^Rj coast, shore || The coast is covered with sand. s^^R'^'s^^'Rq^j 


^^^ bay II The ship sailed into the bay. s^cf5]'^'s^sf[^^'".V'^'^'q^'^'^] 
^^\ ship II The ship moved slowly across the ocean. si*5!'^'g'si* 

5^*^^^^ strait II The boat moved into the narrow strait. 

s^M^S]"-!] sea travel || Sea travel is slower than air travel. 

5^*5^] along the coast, off-shore || The fishing boats moved along the 

coast. ^■'^l3j-5^S?5]-5^§?^^=^-^=^-3j'N-q|=^l 
5^1^'^] shore, beach || How far from the shore is that boat? 5!'^^'^'»1* 

s^M^] sea level || Shanghai is only a few meters above sea level. 5^'^' 

s^R^ pirate || The pirate was caught by the police and imprisoned. 

5^1^ maritime || That office is in charge of maritime affairs. 

5^*^5^^ navy || The navy recently obtained some new battleships, si* 

=^s^J!]'".iy".ls^'qgq'q^^'=^s^J!]'5]'J!]'^^'q'qj!]q'gq] The navy warships were 

huge. 5]S'^»lJ!]'^'^»lJ!]'5]'^'=9'S=;'il 
s^ro^q^] wave, tide || The wave of water pushed the swimmers 

ashore. »l§f5.q'N-|'N-^-^".V»ip3j-^Jl]-»li^Jl]'N-".V^^l 
5^*".is^] marine route, shipping route || This marine route is short but 

dangerous. «^§f".W'^^'^'gJ!]y«^'^'^3jfil 
5^*23^'l sea defense || The new battleships have strengthened our sea 

defense. '^gq''^lk-^»lJ!]-5]-J!]'N^-qM-=;-sfq-»l§f 23 =;-1-5J!]-yq^=;-l 
si^l to symbolize, to show, to represent, such as || What does this 

drawing symbolize? ^^'sl'^^^^^'S'i^JJ^'S^Saj] 
Slft3j'c5] weapon || A gun is a powerful weapon. 

Slft3j'c5'33jl armed || The armed bandit is dangerous. 

s^*3j'S^'^| symbol, sign, embodiment || That symbol means 'fertility.' 


5^*3j'=;3j] meaning, significance || What is the meaning of that symbol? 

si*3j'3j] 'for example; 'in terms of || 'China has many different 

nationalities, for example, Tibetan, Han, Mongolian, etc. ^RJ!]'",V5^' 
Rq^isj-sii^^W^-^] ;^^^-si-g3j-3j|qi^-;^:;-^| 55'qj^q^s]-'^ 'l^ terms of your 

academic work, you need to improve yourself. (iS'^'^^'^i^^'^'^'"-VS^ft3j' 

5^*3j■^=^] indicator, symbol || Increased income is an indicator of social 
development. 2^'^''^qq''^=^^'q'^'|'§f^'^-^=^-^".v|,'5^cf3j-|=^-3J!]-^3jl 

HcfJ!] (q^ qsJ!]^] §§J!]^]) to strain, to sift || After we finish frying the bread 
we will strain the oil. =;-§f'^-^^-q^'^-cf^-|'^-J!]t^'N-q^J!]-^t^3jl 

Hcf^^'l (^^] ^^^\) to force one's way, to jostle, to push oneself in || We 
had to force our way to the front of the line. 

^'^] (q^^^'l q^'^'^l 3^^\) to fill, to stuff in || Let's fill this wooden box 

with grain. ■Pj=;-§^»l-q^q-3j=;-S-qg-^J!]'^-sf=;'Nl 
^'>\ (f^^'l ^^'j) to be clogged, to be blocked || The drain was blocked. 

Hcf^'p] crowd II There was a crowd at the cinema last night. 

'l^^'p'.P|5[j-,P|qj crowded together, shoulder to shoulder || The passengers 
were crowded together inside the bus. 

n^q] (Hcfq] ^cfq'^1) to be nervous, to be anxious || I'm nervous about the 
talk I must give tomorrow. 'N=;-|3j-=;'N-Jl]^»l-q.P|=^-|=^-=^^^-q-".V=;-q^q'N| 

Hcfq'n^l] hurry, haste || Don't be in a hurry, ncfq'^^^l's^'l,^] 

n^5^] (ncf»l] ^cfsiM]) to be proper, to be suitable || What do you think is a 
proper name for my child? ^=^-|'N-q<^'N-3j-=;q-|,^-q-".V5^=;-5'^J!]-qcf»l'Nl 

qcfsiM'qg 'visit; 'sending one's regards/respect || 'Our visit was a short 
one. ^■c^'ncf«^^'q5'^'=;^'^R5'^J!]t^3j] 'While we were sending our 
regards to old people in the village, it began to snow. ^cf^lsi'^^s^'SiSi^' 

q^s^^'q] proper, suitable, appropriate || What would be a proper gift for 
the old people in our village? 



n^^] (Hcf^l cf^) to finish, to end || We will finish the harvesting work in 

ten days. '^■^M''^3j-q^q-".lM-'T]-|3j-5^-q§q-3j=;-".l'^-cf^-^'^=^l 
flcf^'"l^^] growth II The growth in the economy has surprised everyone. 

nSl] (HftJ!] &!]) to get burned || My hand got burned when I accidentally 

put it in the fire. =;'N'Sq!^'5]-aSqi!^-q3;-n,iq^-q-g^-gj!^-a.vq(^qj-q-3j| c^q-rnqj-q-q^qj 

nSl] to be anxious || I'm anxious about the weather. 
nM^'ij] anger || Anger should be rarely expressed. 

ns^] (q^^l q^^] ^^]) to wring, to squeeze || Please wring the water out of 

these wet clothes. 3]3j'^^3j'q''^^'=^J!]'".l'N-f S^^] 
^'^ ('^Sl ^Sl) to get included in, to get put into || My short story was 

included in this published collection. 


n#l] (q^q] '^#1'^l) Ho be turbulent; "to be full of || ^The weather will 
surely be turbulent tomorrow. ^^'aaj'ajs^^'f^^l'p'gJlj'^^^;] 'The sports 
field is full of students. '^^'^■"-V^'q'Sj'^q'*!''^^^! 

q#1'5^] ^whirlwind; 'storm || 'The whirlwind picked up a small bush and 
moved it a few meters. g=;-n^q-s^'^-'|k-^3j-^J!]-J!]3j»l-".vq^J!]'N-3j'^-q^»l-q-qq]q-".V 
^^^] 'The rain storm brought heavy rain. c5=^'^^''^#1's^'".l'^'c5=^'q'J53j'^' 

q^s^l (q§»l] ^§5^^1 ^s^'^l) to close II Please close your eyes and go to sleep. 


nj§i to hurt, to harm || Please don't hurt me! ^■".VS^'f^JS'] 
nJSs^'^q] embroidery, needlework || She uses silk thread in her 

needlework. pT'^'njg'si'^q'l^'q^'Sf^'^'^'q'ff-ll 
n^^] 'to shine; 'to feel bashful; ho neigh || 'The stars shine in the night 

sky. »1^3j-s5q-»ipq-^|,=;'^-^-^^-»l-qSk] -I felt bashful when many girls 

looked at me. g=^-s^^-»l=;^^-=;-".V<^-^q'^l =;q-|=;-q-njgk] ^The horse neighed 

to another horse. yqyJ!](^3j'(^J!]'".V'^JS'^] 
qJSk'^R] bashful feeling, embarrassment || I felt such embarrassment that 

my cheeks turned red and I couldn't talk. 


n§§] to live II How long do you want to live? ^■=^^'^M''^3j'J!]'§§=^'".vnaf'^'^^] 
^] (^] ^'^] nsf'N]) to herd || My son is ill, so I'll have to herd the sheep 

tomorrow. =;'S'g'".V3j-cf ^'^'q^N] 'N=;-|3j-=^'^-'^5i^-fl^^q]''^] 
n§PgR] rearing, looking after || I'm busy rearing my children, ^'^z^'sri' 

n§fq§^] nutrition || Water has little nutrition. ^■".V'^cfq^^'s^'^] 

n§f^3j] ^foodstuffs; "livelihood || ^The bag was full of foodstuffs. [^J!]'s^'^q' 

3j=;'3j'n§f^3j'|,^'q'T]!;w^l "Farming is my livelihood. '^aj5^'^'=;q'q§f^3j'5S3j| 
napgq^] livelihood, means of livelihood || Business is her livelihood. 

n§pq] life II Life has both sadness and happiness. 

n§&]^] (qc&]'^] §&]'^] c&]^]) to convene, to assemble, to hold a meeting || 
We will convene in the large meeting hall. 

nMk'] (q^^'l q^'^l cf^^]) to sell II I will try to sell some of my wheat in 
order to earn more money. 

nsP;] (q^ q§N] E^\) to cook || Please cook some mutton for our supper. 

nSqj to fuse together || The ice of the two sides of the river fused 
together in the second week of winter. 

^"']] (qsHl] q#^l] §f"^l]) to look for, to seek || Tomorrow we will look for 

the missing yaks. 'N=;-|3j-=;-§f'N-J!]"^J!]-q'^-»l-^-na?Kv^-«S3jl 
nftfWf^^] inquiries || He did not answer any of my inquiries. 

qs",V^=;] collection, compilation || Have you seen his collection of 

Buddhist writings? ^^■|'N-p'^-q^3j-q3'^-qsf".V^=^-^^-Sr=^-q-".vq'^^-'NS^l 
'w^Vi^q] search, investigation || The search lasted several days but they 

did not find the missing livestock. 



^5^ urgency, seriousness || I understand the urgency of the situation. 

^5J!]'53j] urgent, serious, violent || She has a serious illness. R's^'"l'3j'^ 

s^^^'^'gs;] upright manner || He always behaves in an upright manner. 

si^^^^'sij intelligent/learned woman || That intelligent woman is a 
university graduate. si^'^'N-si-^-^-^q-SJ-iaj-srq-sig^-laj-^q-si-^Jlj-^ajl 
5^^'^l to do (h) II What do you want to do tomorrow? 

5^^=;'g^] ritual, ceremony || The religious ritual will be done tomorrow 
morning. '^!;'|3j'i^5;|!^-q5;-ls]-(^q^s]-^-»l^:^-^an,v^-5,:^| 

si^'^^] deed, act || Did you do a good deed today? 

5^^'^■^■^| 'maker; 'author || 'He is the maker of the religious images, p^'^' 

^q-»l^=^-q^T^3j] -He is the author of more than ten books. p^'^^q'cB'qf ^^^^ 

Si^^\ friendly, harmonious ||That is a harmonious family. ^'^'S^^TS^aj'^' 

5^^q'5]qj^]| bosom friend || He has been my bosom friend since 

childhood. |M'i!^'^^'3jM-q|=;-p^-=;q-»l^q-^£!]'^-^3jl 
si^'^'^^^'^] harmonious, intimate, friendly || My dormitory roommates 

and I live a harmonious life. 

5^^'^'5^3j'5"-Vpqi friendly country || That's not an enemy country, that's a 

friendly country. ^■^■^5]'q'^'^"-Vpq'5J!]'»l'«S3j'q^'»l^'^'s^3j'^".vpq'5J!]'^3jl 
s^^f^'q] 'intimate friend; 'boyfriend || 'l went to see a movie with my 

intimate friend. '^•^:;-S|-»l^'Tq^=^!;'5^^»l'S'^J!]'q^3j'".vq<^'^''^=;'l 'I married my 

boyfriend last week. 5!]gq-qp'^-^aj-»l^-=;-^:;-S|-»l^q^^=;-J!]^aj-^J!]-^»51 


5^^q"5^| girlfriend, intimate female friend || I walked with my girlfriend 

to her home. =;'^;;-S|-»l^q's?^=^'q^J!]'^'3jM'if^!;'g!;'S'p^q'^»lw'^!;-l 
si^'^'qg'] friendship || Real friendship is hard to find. 

»l^q'^s^M] friendship, love, good will || He offers friendship to 

everyone. 'p'^'9S'^!;'5]3;-5^^q-^»i^]-qj^£^| 
5^^] finger || He wore a large gold ring on his finger. 

^C^^^'^l finger ring || My husband gave me this finger ring. ^'l'|5'J!]^'^'"l' 

^C^R^l instruction, guidance || My teacher provided me with good 

guidance . =;q-^5i-^3j-|,'^-=;-".V»l^q-^=^-qg=;^J!]3j=;-l 
s^^q'^] finger || I burned my finger on the stove. ^^■'^J!]^'gq'^'^^'^!;'5n' 

s^^q'S^'] little finger/toe || I broke my little finger. 

s^^q'^aj] direction, instruction || His direction to his students was in the 
form of interesting short stories. 


s^?'^] beautiful, showy || She's beautiful wearing those expensive 

clothes. fSw-q]3j-q-^=;-i3j-^-=^£!]-|^3j-3j-5^W''Ni 
s^^'N'gaj] decoration, ornament || That gold decoration costs more than 

ten thousand j'Maw. J!]^^-|,-»l?'^-^3j-^-".v|'^W^-J!]5J!]'™J!]'^3]'^l 
s^^M'HcB^l decoration || Where did you buy this decoration? 

si^^'^^'^ beautiful scene || I painted this beautiful scene last year. 

si^si'as^'s^l beauty, charm || She had such charm that everyone wanted to 
talk to her. pWf\v^-q5q-«^S^-^s^'N-'^3j-q'N™-|,^-pW=^=;-p-q^-|=^-q^-q^=^l 

si^'N'SJ!] beauty || The landscape's beauty attracted many 
tourists. '^".V'|k'N'^'si?'N'^J!]'§]'N'«J".V^^'q'8^=^^5=;'Nl 

s^^'^'s^] beautiful girl || The beautiful girl had many boyfriends. s^^'N's^'^'"-!' 

5^?'N'§'"l'=^Jl]'s^| aesthetic || Aesthetics is the study of beauty. 


siSj cross between a yak and a cow || It's not a cow, it's a cross between 

a yak and a cow. '^^^'aj'q's^'i^^'s^aj] '^^■3j's^e'(^J!]'^3jl 
5^?'^l storehouse, treasury || He keeps his valuable possessions in the 

storehouse. p'^'5^?^'p!;'S'^:;-S|-=^T'^^§-i3j'^^l 
s^^=;'p^'] storehouse, warehouse || The grain was put in the storehouse. 

q^q^ (q^qj gJ!]^]) to leak II Water is leaking from that bucket. 

q^=;] ('^^S] 3=;]) to run out, to be exhausted || We have run out of flour. 

'^^SSl^l expenditure || The expenditure for food during our travel was 
less than we expected. =;-^q-^»l-^J!]'N%q^=^-^3j-^-=;-Sq-q'^»l-S'^-".l'N-R=;-l 

'^^'Sl^l consumption, utilization || Consumption of sugar has increased 
in the last ten years. 'T]-^-|-s^q-q^=^-|=^-^yqq-'Tq|q-^=;-".v'|-»ig'^-|;Sji 
Consumption of coal is increasing. 5'^"-V^'<^^S'^S'SS'^'5jg^'q5]] 

q^s^'^^l the world, the earth || The world consists of many countries. 

q^qg^l currency value, exchange rate || What is the present exchange 

rate for renminbil k-'^^^^'^^^'^%^€^^^5{^^^\5^\ 
q^^] (^3=^1 q3=^]) to hang down || A red tassel hung down from the top of 

his hat. .P|»i-g-=^5^^^^J!]-s-»iqy3j'^'^^'".vq^^l 
q^^'l (q^^i qlk'N] ^^^\) to fight, to battle || The two armies will fight 

tomorrow. 'N^-|3j-=^s^J!]-^^^-J!]|'N-qlk-^-^=^l 
q^aj] (^l^'l q|^'l |^^1) Ho hold, to grasp, to seize, to keep; 'to recognize, 

to remember || ^He held my hand and would not let go. p'^'^q'".!^'^!' 

q^^'Sj'^'q^j'^'s^'q^J!] "Because I had not seen her for ten years I did not 

recognize her. !;'N'pWTq§'".V»l'»ig=;'q'N'p^^'q|!;'»l'^qi 
'^laj'S]] class (in school) || My class had a picnic 

today . ^■^^■'^^■q^3j-5]-|-5-|^J!]^^-".v'^=;-l 
qSaj'"^^!] Miploma; 'receipt || 'His diploma is from a famous university. 

(^^■s^g^'|;Sj-ql3j-«JJ!]-^-^q-^-i3j-5?5^!;-5]J!]'N--Pj£!]-3j'N-"r3jl "Did you get a receipt 

for that purchase? '^c5-q^q-q-".VJi=^-|'N-ql3j-«SJ!]-q^'N-'NS^l 
q^Jlj^l (Jij|Jij q^'Jlj^l ^^^|) to establish, to set up, to plant, to found || We 


will establish three more companies next year. 

'^J!]^'^3j] construction || Building construction requires water, concrete, 

and bricks. p=;-q|5!]'N-q^Jl]'^-^3j-|^-q-".Vf =^=;-i3M^-q=^»l]^i^J!]-q^!^-=^qi'^] 
^^] to smile, smile || You'll smile when I tell you this story. ^'^'JJj^si'g^' 

q^s^'s^^sS^is^l smiling appearance || Everyone thought her smiling 
appearance was charming. 

'^^l (^1^1 ^1^1 1^1) ^o avoid, to elude, to give way || I try to avoid 

trouble in my life. =;'^-5^-Jgq-^=^-3j'N-^'T]q-^5!]-"l'5i]|^] 
'^"-l] to enter, to come in || Please come in and sit down. 

q^q^ (q^q^ q?J!]^] q^^!]'^]) to climb up, to ascend || Let's climb up that 
mountain. '^■^^■^■".V'^SJ!]'^^'^! 

q^i^jl (q|:^| q|=^| |=^|) Ho hold a bag open; "hold out || ^Please hold the bag 
open while I put in these potatoes. ^'^■(^J!]'pJ!]'q=^'^J!]''^J!]'^'^'|=^'p'l^] 
"Hold out your hand and I'll give you a piece of candy. (iS'^'"-l^'^'5S' 

q^s^l (J!]|5^] q?5^«5] q^s^'^]) to refrain from, to shun, to shy away from || 
Please refrain from drinking too much during the lunar New Year 
holidays. '55!]'^-|=;-fTJ!]'N^-|,-^!^-i3i-^q'^-^-c5=^'q^=;'5J!]'^-q-".vq?»lTj!]'Nl He 
refrained from eating too much salt because he had high blood 
pressure. |Taj-|g^-^^3^-5]g3^-q-2r!^-q!^-^-sj!^-q-g-S5;-(^^s]!^| 

'^^s^'q] shyness, restraint || Shyness is not appropriate in business. R*^' 


qSs^'qj!^ scruple || That businessman has not a single scruple. 

qSs^-qjl^'Saj] modest, discreet || Be modest, don't boast. q?s^'qJ!]'53j'(^^' 

q^s^'gaj] carefulness, heed || Please pay heed to what the enemy plan to 

do . ^g]-^»i5!]-5]'^-5-^ J!]-^-|'N-sr=^-q-".vq?»il3j-|,'^l 
f^^';] to be j arring/grating on the ear || His loud voice was grating on the 

ear. p'^'^^^'swij^'^'"-!''^?^! 


f^^';] Ho stab; 'to nail || ^The butcher stabbed the sheep in the throat. 
q^P|3j■i!^■'^J!]■^■s^=^■gJ!]■".l■5]■'^W^] 'Please nail these boards together. 

qSk'f^^!^'! conical-shaped || The barley flour and butter mixture was 
made into a conical-shaped ritual object. 

qf»l| (qf»l| qfsi'^1) 'to be abundant/plentiful; 'to gather || 'That family 
has an abundant supply of food. ^s^'cf^'^'^-Vg'^'qSs^^'q'ar!^] "Villagers 
gathered in the temple last night. s^=^'^-=^^=^-^-5^-cf!^-s^-=^q]3j-q-".vqf5^'Nl 

qSa^s^'qi abundant, plentiful || This grassland has an abundant supply of 
water. ^■'^■q^-".V^''^f»l'N^W^l 

'^^"-l] to be mistaken, to make mistake, to lose the way || I now 

understand that my earlier ideas were mistaken. ^"^'^''S'^K.'JTi'^aj'cB^'^' 

g] 'rock; 'clay || 'This old house is made of rock. p^'q'5^'q'q=^'3j'^'".l^'qg'^| 

'Clay is sticky when it's wet. f^3j'^^'5,^'3j''^=^^''^=^%y'^5,^''^^ 
^■p^ pot II The peony was growing in a flower pot. 

^c5^1 pottery || His pottery is expensive but good quality. 

W^ altitude sickness || The symptoms of altitude sickness are nausea 

and headache. f-SJ!]-Sl-3j=^-^J!]'^-^-»iqyS5'»l-qp'^-^=^-»1^3jl 
Ws!^ clay vessel || When he dropped the clay vessel it shattered on the 

floor, p''^-^ •1=^-g!;wq^!;'N'q'3ji f •1=^'c5J!]'3j'N'g=;'".vqg'^i 
^q'^q'q] hypocritical, sham || No one believed his hypocritical speech. 

f 5^1 vat, clay vessel || The vat is full of water. f-5^q-3j=;-S-f5)^]-q;Tj:;-| 
^A] slate mountain || There's no road up the slate mountain north of 

here . '^^■^^■^'^■|5!l'^-|'?-^'^'"-V"-W«^^l 
^«iqi tile II Tiles are made in a kiln. ^«iq'^Ai^=;'3j=;''^wq-^3^1 This roof is 

made of tiles. ^'^q'N'q^'^'^-njq-nj'N'gqi 
^'J] material thing, chemical, element || Hydrogen is an element. 

^^■q^=^] chemistry || Chemistry is the study of elements. 


^M'q^^'^jj^'q] chemistry || Chemistry and physics are related subjects. 

^^''^^/^'^^ '^^l chemist || My father is a chemist and my mother is a 

physicist. !;q'i3vi-!^-^-f'N'q^^'^J!]'q'q'^J!]'=^=;'!;q'i3vv5^'^'^T^''5J!]'N'^J!]'q'q'^J!]'t^ 
^'^■g] substance || I'm not able to identify this substance. 

I] (q|] q|^)] 1^)]) Ho knead; "to mix; \o trample on || 'You knead the 
dough for the steamed dumplings. ^=^'^'N'5«]'5«]'".l^'q=^'^'|'^l "Please 
mix some water with the cement. ^■=^^■^?^B■'^^5^■^^•^^5^■^^■=^R] ^The horse 
trampled on the straw. 5'=;'^''^J!]'s^'q^'^] The livestock trampled the 
crops when they crossed the field, f ■gsn"^^"p"q^^'=;^'"™]'q^'^] 

^■q] herdsman, protector || The herdsman slowly drove the sheep back to 
the tent. |^»5''5^'=^"-V5r^'|^'|'^^'|5!l'^-".V^^1 

^»1] eyelash || He accidentally burned his right eyelash with a 
lighter. p'^'^q'^'»l''^lJ!]'N'q^'s^'c5''^'^'pq'|'»l'q^J!]'Nl 

^Jjj'as^'^] awe-inspiring, elegance || His voice is awe-inspiring. p'S'^^;''^' 
^sn-'^5]!5i-ii It was an awe-inspiring speech. ^■3j'^J!]'^5^^'i'q^'^™'q.P|=;' 

^jjj'Jlj^s^l intimidating/frightening word || He said "listen" so loudly it 
became an intimidating word. 


^^■^] majestic, mighty in appearance || The lion is a majestic animal. 

?^'?^ intimidation || The teacher's intimidation angered the students. 

W] (q?l q^^l ?^l) to disguise || He disguised himself as a businessman. 

^■'^^"l] magic, enchantment || The practice of magic has a long history. 

g;q5ll hypocrisy, pretence || His hypocrisy was immediately obvious to 

everyone. p'^'fqJ!]''^%i!'^'9S'cdk-»l'^'n^".VS'^'^l 
^■qJ!]'53j] hypocritical, insincere || Everyone knows he's hypocritical so 

they don't believe him. 


f 3jl lie II No one will believe your lie. ^^■^■i;3j-".V5^-J!]5J!]'^=^'^=^'5^'i'^l 
?3j'5"l] liar, falsifier, crook || He's not honest, he's a liar. 

^aj'SJl] fabrication, to concoct a lie || His story is a complete fabrication. 

f 3j'J!]^5^1 lie, deception || I don't believe your lie. '^•^=^'^'f 3j'J!]^»l'".l'«S=^'5^'65'^| 
^3j'5^] fake, phony, false, counterfeit || This looks like fake money to 

me. ^^M'q'^M'aj'q^'^'I'^'sf^aj's^'^aj'q'q^i 
^Sj'ql^] false, forged (not real) || This is a false passport. '^^'^■^Sj'^^^'^' 

^^■q^] to forge, to counterfeit || He was imprisoned because he planned 
to counterfeit money. 'p'^'I'^Wf 'N-qi^|,=^-|'N-^^-q'N-q^3j-p=;-f^-q§Jl] 

I] (q|] q|^)] 1^)]) to fold up, to roll up || It's hot so I'm going to roll up 
my sleeves. 3i*l^'cf=^'=^'i'q'N'=^'N-5'5=;'q|'^'^3il 

^^^] to be finished, to be fulfilled, to come to the end || Our lives will 
be finished in some years. "T'^^'S'|'^'^'^'§f^'J§^^'^^^'^'^=^l 

g=\| fort, fortress || The fort was built near an important road. 

^^'1 county II I'm from an autonomous Tibetan county. 

■^i;-] (q^-] q^:;^]| ^:;^]|) Ho send, to forward; "to stuff in || 'The bride's 
father sent her dowry to the groom's home. s^ajTS^^'i^M's^^'s^q'^^'^'^".!' 
5^^''J'cf^'".vq^^'^] 'Don't stuff your dirty clothes under your bed. (iS'^' 


"^=^■^"-11 dowry || What is the bride's dowry? qJ!]-5^q-fk-^".V^-5'^J!]'«S3jl 
^RS^p^l fortress || The fortress was built on top of a mountain. ^RS^p=^'^' 

^^■=;i!3j] county head, county magistrate || The county head has just been 

replaced. fk-=^qaj-'^-q|'N-s^-gJ!]-'^3jl 
g^'q] dowry || The bride's dowry included three yaks. 

§2^1 (q^^l q^^l ?^l) Ho blemish, to disgrace; 'to contaminate || 'The son's 

crime disgraced his parents. g^'ajJll'ft^'^'N'^'»l'q^=;| 'Don't contaminate 


this clean water with that dirty water, ^'s^'^^^'^'^^'^'^^^'s^'^^^'s^'f ^] 
fq] dirty, unclean || Those clothes are very dirty. ^3j'^'^'=^^''9'5^'^q] 


■"d] fox II The hunter killed a fox yesterday. p-'N=;-^3j-q'N-'-d-(^J!]-q'N=^| 
■SJ'S^] female fox, vixen || The female fox had beautiful fur. 

■jJ'i^] fox-fur hat || The fox-fur hat was red and brown. '=3W^'^'=^s^=^'SJ!]'")3j] 
'=3'"^] hey II "Hey!" he shouted to me from across the road. ""iJ'".!"' 


1^] to become paralyzed, to be disabled || He had a stroke and became 

paralyzed. 'p^".V5c;-5q|-3jM-(^-»r=;'l 
(^] to have responsibility || I have the responsibility to finish this report 

before tomorrow morning. 

(^^1 lead II Lead is a metal. (^y^-'|J!]'^-^5!]'^--?|5!]-'^3jl 

(^^1 lame, handicapped || Handicapped people come here for medical 

service. «^'(^'q'^J!]'^3j'q5M'^=^'i!=^'^=^'J!]=^''^^'] His limp became worse after 

the operation. J!].P|J!]'N'q3^r^^'^'N''p<^'<3j'q^'5n3^!^-qq-t'^J!]-",v'^!;-] 
i^J!]'5]^^] number of days || I can't remember the number of days I've 

been ill. =;'N'^!;'".V3j'cf^'^'3jM'(^J!]'5]'^'N'S-^5]-qqik-q-5s:^-n,v5aj-5^-^q] 
(^JJ^'f^J!]^] some nights || There has been no moon in the sky for some 

nights. (^^•'^^'^•".V3j»l'»ip'^'^^'q'»l'nc5^1 
i^^'Saj] greasy || I couldn't eat greasy food. ^'M'g'5^'(^J!]'53j'3'5^'^q] 
(^J!]'^=;] staying overnight || Staying overnight at your home will only 


give you trouble so we will go home now. 

(^^'^■^] lasso, lariat || The lasso got wet in the rain. (^5!]'^'^'c5=^'^^'q^^l 
<^^] maternal uncle || The maternal uncle was the most important 

wedding guest. (^!;^'J!]^3j'^3j%»1^3j^i's)-q^n,v563ji5TS|3j| 
(^^] flaw, blemish || The clay image was without a single flaw. '^^^'S' 

(^3j] weak, bad, inferior || These products are of inferior quality. 

(^aj'cB] shortcoming, drawback || His one shortcoming is his hot temper. 

i^q'^] 'bottom; 'feet (h) || 'The bottom of the well had no water, j^'^^' 

(^q^N'Sj-f s^=^l -I washed Father's feet. '^^NW^^q-i^q'^-q^'Nl 
(^qs^'^jj^l service (h) || How much do I owe you for your service? 


(^q^'^jj^'q] male servant || The male servant quietly brought and lit a 

cigarette for the customer. (^q'Ny!]-q'^-»1^3j^".vg-»lJ!]-q(i^-25k-3j'N-s^-q|3jl 
i^q^'f^^aj] disgrace, shame || Your behavior was a disgrace to us all. 

(^q^'f^^aj'i!] scum II His criminal misdeeds are typical of the scum of 

society . pq-^'^-|=^-^-|-sfj!]'^-(^q'^-q53j-qq-=^q-»isf3j-^J!]-5S3ji 
(^q^l'jqj to get a hole in the bottom || My water bucket has got a hole in 

the bottom. '^q-flq-i^q'N-q'^".!] 
i^q'^'^] service || The service at that hotel is very good. 

(^q^N-fj dance || Can you perform that dance? (i=^'|'^-(^q'^-|^-n(gq-^'N-'N»ll 
i^q'^'CT service || The service in that shop is slow. §§k'p^'^'l'3j^'S]'(^q^'(5'=9' 

^P:f^\] What service do you provide? ^^^'I^N-i^qwc-^qi'l^q-lajW^l 
(^q^'OTj servant, waiter || The wages for a waiter are very low. i^q'^'ig' 

<3^^\ to be blind || I don't want to be blind when I'm old. ^'^'^k,''^'^'".!'^^' 

i^^^'q] blind II The blind man sat quietly in a comer all day. 


(^^■^^■] additional, appended || I did not add additional material to the 

textbook. =^'M'^q'^q'".v(^^'^!;'S]'^=^'J!]^'»i'q|3jl 
i^^'s^l blind woman || The blind woman sang sadly. 

la^'ia^l Hn passing, incidentally; 'at the same time || ^He told me in 
passing that his father had died. p'^-(^^-^-^-".vp'^-i3M-s5-q=^'N-q<^-^3;-q.P|^l "He 
smoked and talked at the same time. p^'S'q'^^^Sj'f^^'S'p'q^'^'^l 

(^"-V'^^q'^] donation, contribution || I will give a donation tomorrow to the 
monastery . 'N=;-|3j-=;M-=^^3j-q-".V(^".vq^qM-^J!]-^-«S3jl 

^] to calm down, to be tranquil, to be pacified, docile || The quarrel 
between the two clans has now calmed down. 

(^•q^jj^^l calm, peace || He has a calm personality. 

(^•q^s^l peaceful, gentle || She has a gentle personality. 

^■gq'^] peaceful means || I hope the quarrel can be settled by peaceful 

means. =^'N-f'=^-J!]^-^-^-gq'N-|'N-gJ!]-J!i5=^-q^-^-q-q5=;'NW^l 
^■=;".l] gentleness, gentle, docile || The gentle yak calf followed me 

wherever I went. =;-J!]=;-".V'r=;-^=;-^-S".v|,-q'3-^-=;q-|'^-".vqg=;'Nl 
(^■S".V53j] meek, docile || His meek manner encouraged other people to 

take advantage of him. 

(^■q^l peace || Our country has been at peace for many years. ^'S^'g^-Vpq' 
f^si^^^^-^-q^^-q^aj^N] Peace is better than war. ^•q^'^''^5]q|-q||J!]-n,i'^'»lIilj 

(^■q=;'S'=^^''^5[^'^] pacifism || Pacifism promotes the idea that violent 
struggle is wrong. 

^■"^1 boy II That boy plays the flute well. ^■":v^-|=;-g-qg=^-q^-»ip'^] 
(^^ a, an, one || A boy ate an apple. ^'^■q'(^J!]'J!]^'^'-P|'(^J!]'g'^] 
^'Jl'sil'^] restoration, repair || The temple repair will be finished 

soon. =^^3j-q-^J!]-J!]»?|=^-q-^-^^-5r^-q5]q-^-^^l 
(^^'1 agriculture field, area, crops || The agriculture field was planted to 

barley. ^=^-f^-3j's)-q^q's)| 


^Rps^s]| area || Our area has irrigated fields. ^■S?^'^^'ps^^'3j'^^'^'«^'25=;| 
(^^'l^"-!] agriculture tax || We pay the agriculture tax with grain. 

i^^'S]^'] agricultural town || I live in a small agricultural town. 

(^^'£5'^] agricultural implement || A plow is an agricultural implement. 

(^^■c53jl province || The capital of Qinghai Province is Xining. 

(^Rq=;J!] landowner || He was a big landowner before Liberation. 

^^■f] village II The village has sixteen households. 

^=^■=^1 farmer, peasant || My father is a farmer. =;q'i3M-s5'^'^=;'q'^J!]t^3j] 
(^^■g3j] serf II She was a serf before Liberation. 

(^^■g3j'".15^''^^'^] serfdom, serf system || The serf system was abolished 

after Liberation. q5=^'N-q^".v1'N-^-^=;-g3j-".l»l-'5J!]'^-s^=^-q==;-q^=^-| 
^^■"-1'^] agriculture, farming || Agriculture is only twenty years old in 

that township. J!]^J!]-'T]-^-3j'N-^=^-t^'^-t^-"5^--fl-^J!]-^J!]-s^-J!]yJ!]'N-q3f^-5^=^| 
^^■qis^'Jsqq'q^^l agricultural economy || Most countries with many 

farmers have an agricultural economy. 

(^^■"-I'^'cfsj'^^ agronomy, the science of agriculture || He studied 

agronomy at the agricultural university. 


^^■'^l 'arable land "land || 'The arable land at the foot of the mountain 
produces wheat and barley. ^■<^=^^'^'5'(^^'^'"-l^'5]'3j^'53j'|=^'^^l "That 
land is too rocky to be cultivated. ^*l''N'^^'N-«S3j-5J!]'N-q'N-|^^=;-S-^J!]-5^-^qi 

^q] detailed, careful, thorough, fine || His detailed description helped us 
all understand the situation better. 

raq'^^^l detailed statement || Please write a detailed statement 
explaining exactly what you did last year. 


(^q'5^1 detailed, 'elaborate || His novel is a detailed account of Tibetan 
life in the late twentieth century. pq-q^s^^N-l^-^-^M'^q^Ny-Pj-qq-s^^Jll-^-q^^- 
8^q-q§fq-»l§g3j-|,2^-^q-^^-^J!]-5S3j| -Re had an elaborate plan but I didn't 
agree. p^".vnc5^'J!]^'^q'|'^'-nJ!]'"Pj'^=;'=^'^'".V»l''^g=^l 

sq'qgJ!^ research, examination || He has done a lot of research on 
Tibetan wedding songs. p'^'q=^'^'J!]^3j'q.P|=^'g'^'(^q''^'^'s^^'q'^^] 

^q'T^] in detail, thoroughly || He cleaned the house thoroughly. 

^q'<3] looking into, careful examination/investigation || His careful 
investigation of the problem led him to offer several solutions. 

(^q'q^^l Metailed discussion; 'detailed comparison || ^We had a detailed 

discussion about our factory's future. ^■§f^'q^5j^'5^S3j''^ls^'^^'3j'^'^'§f'^l' 

(^q'q^^'^^l "The teacher made a detailed comparison between the 

British and American systems of government. S^'S3j'^'N'i3^'5^'=^'R'=;^' 

^q'^] detailed, thorough || He wrote a detailed description of Tibetan 

funerals. p'^^=^'|''^=^'N-5^I=^-|-^^-3j'N-q|-f»l-^q-^-^Jl]-^'^| 
^q'si] detail, careful || Please pay attention to detail when you write your 

article. (i^'|'N-f'»i-t^J!]-q|-^q'N-^q-srw;-q-".v5^^»i-qSj!]-|,'^i 
(^q'q,P|^| check-up, inspection, investigation || The police investigation 

of criminal activity required three months. 

^8^] tasty, delicious || This mutton is tasty. f^qj'-Pj'q^'^s^] 
(3] (CT (m] (m]) ho tell, report; "to copy; ho ask || 'I'll tell you what 

happened tomorrow. 'N=;-|3j-=;M-^=^-".1^3j%-^J!]-^=;-q<^-^^-W^-«S3jl "Please 

copy this letter. "^■J!]''^^'(a'=^J!]'^] ^ The monk asked the Living Buddha to 

visit his home. ^13j'=^'^'N'|"-l'^'P^cf=^'S'^^'N'^''^'^l 
ff^i^J!] prosecute, sue || To prosecute the criminal in court will require 

much time. ^»l'^-p=;-".V^'^-53j'(5-J!]^J!]-|^-q^-S^-§?=^-»l=;^=^^^-^-^=^l 
(a'J!]KJ!]'5^p3j] plaintiff, accuser || His accuser refused to appear in court. 

S'Sajl present for asking a favor || His present for asking a favor was two 


bottles of liquor. p'^-Tj!]s)-^»i-(a-qq-(a-^aj-^-c5=^'^"-V=^»l'J!]|'s)-^:^| 
i^'S^ proof-reading, correction || Proof-reading the newspaper articles is 

his job. ^^'^■q^-|,-fs^-"^^-"1-(^-=^J!]-|=^-q-^-p'^-^-q-^3il 
wq] petition, request || Last year, the village residents all signed a 

petition. 3i'^=;'S-5^-^»l!N-^!N-(a-q-^q^-n,vS|:;-^qj^]-q?fJ£^| 

wng",l] petition, request || The official received a petition from the local 

people. =^q3j'5^'^'".V'^".V5^^'W'^g".V^J!]''^^l 
(s:^'^ written petition || We submitted a written petition two weeks ago 

to the authorities. '^■cf'N-J!]gq-qp'^-J!]|'N-|-|3j-'^VJ!](^^-|5!]'N-".V(^-«Sq]-5J!]-§".1| 
(5^*5] 'to participate in, to attend; 'to be blemished || 'Will you 

participate in the meeting? ^=^'§&]^''^'".V(5J!]^'^'i?^'"^3j] 'His character 

was blemished after he was arrested, p'^^^aj'^l^'^'sj-l^j-pq-q^^sj-^-q^:^- 

S^] to be thin || I'll be thin after not eating for ten days. 

(53j] 'molten liquid; 'a Tibetan food (solidified mix of cheese, barley 
flour, sugar, and butter) || 'He heated the gold until it became molten 
liquid. p''^-J!]'^^-(g3j-S-q^^-^J!]-q^-S-s^-".vq^J!]'^l -Eating sweet Tibetan food 
will make you energetic. (53j's^^=^'5^'g^'^''^'N'^q^'^'N] 

(55^1 'to be intimidated, to be afraid; 'to be discouraged || 'The students 
were intimidated by their teachers. ^^■^3j'^'N'J]^'5^'^s^^'^'^^'T(55^'S'q§^ 
"He was discouraged after making a low examination score, p^'g^*)' 

ss^'q's^!;] dauntless, fearless || He is dauntless in the face of danger. 

(5"1] 'to digest; "to melt || 'Pandas can digest bamboo. ^s^'l^^'p^'Sj'^'S^'s^' 

(aq-^q| -The ice melted in the sun. |'<?'^-'qJ!]'^-c5q''^»l'(5".ll 
15] heart, love || I loved my girlfriend with all my heart. 

(^■qpaj] hatred || Over time her love for him slowly turned to hatred 
because of his cruel character. pq'J!].P|^''T]'q^^'q'=^q'^q^'^'N] p's^'^'p'f^' 

i^'qSJ'^l animosity, hate || The hate between them was mutual. 


<^^S] naughty || My young son is very naughty. ^'^'^''^'^iS] 
(^■^3j] malevolent intention, bad mind || No one trusted him because of 
his malevolent intention. 

i^'^5^ forty-one || He lives in apartment number forty-one. 

i^'^^^] forty -two II In nineteen forty -two I was a primary school 

student. |-"Fj!]5J!]''^=^'^^'q^'(^'J!]|'N-"r^l =^%^q'^=^'^'^q'*l'^^''^3il 
(^•gq^'qM| sincerely, truly || I sincerely hope that you will be successful. 

(^■5^3j] compatible, harmonious || They are a compatible husband and 

wife. 'p^§^'ji^-P|'^'(^'«^3j'^J!]'«S3jl 
(^'5^ forty-six || It's now seven forty-six a.m. 

(^■q=\5] forty-seven || My class has forty-seven students. 

(^■f ^'1 hatred, animosity || His hatred for new ideas is something I do not 

understand. ^'^■'^■q'J!]'^^-q-".V(^-^=;-q%q-^-=;'Ny!]'^-5^-^q-q-^J!]-^^l 
(^■tnstn'q] sinister || The man had a sinister look on his face. 

^E^ honorific word || Do you know the meaning of this honorific 

word? ji=^'|'^-(^-&!]-q^q-qy^3j-^'^-'^»ii 
(^■qi^] forty -four || This building is approximately forty -four meters tall. 

i^'^^s^l forty -three || This year, I am forty -three years old. 

(^^■] width II What is the width of this building? 

(^^■^^■] narrow || A narrow road went up the mountain. 

(^3j] to love II "I love you," he whispered to his girlfriend. 


(53j'[^] Hove, fondness; 'hobby || 'He felt such love for his children that 
he spoiled them. |5'^-3;!:;-S|-|*i-q-^si'N-".Vi^3j-p-i3j^q|=;-aj'N-|^-q-^=;3j-"l=;-"l- 


q^=^'l -My hobby is stamp collecting. =;'S'(^aj'p'^'gJ!]'N'^J!]'N'qs?".V^=^'|,=^'^' 

(^3j'S^'^l to be reluctant to part with, greediness || He is reluctant to part 
with his daughter for two months. 

(^3j'i!'".l^ to dislike || I dislike drinking and smoking. ^■R'5!;''^'(^3j'^''^Jl] 
(^"^'sj] so-called || That so-called teacher can't even read. =^^■a3j■|^'^■'J■^^■ 

(^] yogurt II Yak yogurt is richer than cow yogurt. 

(^^■p^ potato II I like to put butter on my potatoes. 


^■3j'>'^] this morning || I saw you exercising this morning on the sports 

field. 2j5i]'^-q=^-^^'|'N-'5'N-§-'^v^-q-^^!^-§-'^v|k-q?3;-|:^-q^3j-q-=;'N-5]gc,-H^^ 
(^Jj^^'q'^'SJ] early morning || Though it was early morning I couldn't sleep 

so I got up. ^J!]'N'q'^-5j'«Saj'^=;'i !;-".vJ!]|=^-»i-f^J!]'s)-=^'^-siq-q'^-q!;'^] 
i^aj] (q(^3jl qi^Sjl i^Sj]) to ride II Do you know how to ride a horse? 

15=^1 incidentally, in passing; 'meanwhile || ^Incidentally, he mentioned 
that he had received an important promotion. (^=^'S'p'^'^=;''^=>'^'^3j^'J!]"1' 
S3j"^^"y^=^'q<^'a^'^^'l -He was a teacher, meanwhile, he did research 

on Tibetan culture. p^-^5i-^3j-^J!]tSS3j| ^^■a,v'p^l-q':^-|-S,q^-q^3ji5^TH-^q-q|qj-^s]| 

(^^^■".l'^] side -job, sideline || A major sideline production in the village is 
making Tibetan handicrafts. 


(^".1] lower part, below, bottom || There is a big tree at the bottom of the 

mountain. ^■'^^■^"■VSj'^'^^iaj^^JljW^l 
1^1 hat II Where did you buy this fox-skin hat? (i^'^'^''=3'i^''^^'^=^'^y^l 
J!^(^3j'=;J!] others || Did you tell others what I told you last night? 

^(^3j'^] others, other people || We are farmers and the other people here 

are herdsmen. =;-sf^-^=;-q-«S3j-".vq^-J!]q-J!](^3j-q-^Jl]-^-qgJl]-q-«S3j] 
Jlj(^q] (J!](^q] qi^q^] ^iji^qM]) to skim off || Did you skim the cream off the 

milk? ^'^•^'^•'?Tsi'"i'^''?T|'qi^q'N''N»i| 


si](^'^| to hide II The child hid behind a waU. l^'^'^^'^'^'^'^^'Ji'Sq'si] 
^t^^\ (^f^^l ^f^^l ^(^^D to shave, to cut off || He cut off his long hair. 

^(^■(i3jl scale, size || What is the size of your new house? 

^(^■§] basis, foundation || Learning English is a good foundation for 
learning other European languages. 

J!](^'^»l] primary level, basic level || The basic level of production is the 

rural area. g3j-|=^-|-J!]^-^5^-^-«J".vgJ!]-^=;-^J!]-«S3j] 
^!S^!^ (^f^^ J!](^J!]'^] ^(^^) to examine, to think about || We need to 

carefully think about how we can increase agricultural production. 

^(^^■'T] estate (agriculture) || His grandfather owned a large estate. 

JljS] (JjjS] Jjjs^]] ^i^'^D to beat, to strike, to hit, to slap || I was so angry that 
I slapped him. =;'".vp=;'(gl53j^".l=^'N'3j!^'p^".V(^5]5]-iq|-Sq|-J!](a'^] 

^(5^!] behind, following || Four people are waiting to get on the bus 
behind me. 5^-q^-=;q-J!](g'^-3j-|-|'^-5.=;'^-q'p^-".v§^J!]-q^aj-«r=^l 

^(5^'3j^] in future, afterward || In future please study harder for 
examinations. ^'^^'3j'^'^^'^'|'i^'^^^'|'^'"-l'™'^-yqf3jl 

JjjSJj^'s^] next one || I want to sell this ticket to the next one in line. 

JIIS^'I ^center, middle; "official; ''theory || 'The arrow hit the center of the 
target. «^^'^'^^''^q3j'^'J!](5^'".l'^J!] "He works as a government official. 
p?)-qj(aR5](^'^'q'f q] Not everyone believes in the theory of evolution. 

^'^^'l^'r'^1 office II My office is downtown. ^'S'^«3^'f ^■p'^'5]^'|3^'S5'^' 

sr|!ac;'!;3;'5]'^] civil servant, cadre || He got a job as a civil servant. 

^ra^'^^'^] official side, official || The official agricultural policy was 

well received by local farmers. 


^(^^'cd^l'p^'] embassy, consulate || The embassy is located near a large 
department store. J!](g!;'cfq'p'^'^'|'5^'^'§§k'p'^'i3j^^J!]'^'"W]'N'^W^] 

J!](5^'cfq'c53j'5^1 ambassador || He was an ambassador to three foreign 
countries. p^'|<^-^".vpq'J!]^»l'^-q^^'q'l'J!](5=;'cfq'i3j'«?^J!]'^3jl 

q^s^'n,!^] government work || When I asked him what his job was he said 
that it was government work. 

Jjjs^'q^'p^] government office || The government office is near the 

hospital. J!l(^^'".l'N-p^-^-^3j-p^-S|y'N3;-sr^l 
^'^^'^^'^l theory, doctrine || His latest book discusses his theory. 

^S^''^^^'^] theoretician || He's a theoretician with no interest in 
practical matters. '[^••^5]!^-aS3^-aj-s]-!^q|(^-qq-Ji](a!;-njq]'^-q-^q]T^3j] 

qjSRjjR] 'to confess; 'to narrate || 'l don't want to confess anything that 
I didn't do. '^'N'siz^-Sii^-sj-qf q!^-q<^-'^3j-2^J!]-q|iq|-^c;-J!](a!;-^!;-3j-5^-q^=^] "I 
narrated my misdeeds to my supervisor. ^'^■'^Jll'q'"l'=^^'Jl]'ft^'g^'J!](5^'23^' 

Jjjs^l (^"^^l ^"^^l ^"^^D to skim off II He liked to skim the cream off the 
milk and eat it secretly. ^»l-q's)Tf|-^q]-yq(a^-3j'^-('T|)g-q^-=^J!]qi 

^(^'^■ft3j] three days after today || I'll come visit you three days after 
today. ^'^'^■^3i'=^'(i^'"-vq'^'5''^^'l 

J!](^^'aj^'] the year before last year || I got married the year before last 
year. RJ!](^^'3j^'J!]a3j'aJ!]'g'^] The year before last year we visited the 
Great Wall and then traveled to Shanghai. 5i]<^'^-^=^'"r^'=^'§f|J!]'N-^-^=;^"1- 

^<^^] (^(^^1 qi^^^l ^(^^^1) to whittle II I want to whittle a new walking 

stick. =^'N'".lJ!]''^aj'J!]'N^'q'^J!]'J!]^J!]'q^=^l 
^(^^^1 the side, by, near || Please come here and sit by me. 

qji^l young II He's not young, he's old. p'3j'§§=^'5^'J!]^3j] p^'"F3j'£5] 

J!](^3j'a] youth || The youth of the village like dancing. S'q'S'J!](^3j'a'S'(^q'^'g' 

^J!]'q^'=^J!]q] A youth is a young person. Jnas's-aj-aJ-s-mias-qf^-si'aj'i^] 
^(^3j'q] vice-, deputy, assistant || I'll ask my assistant to solve your 

problem. =;'N-^!;-S|-f^'N-Tjij'N-Ji]^aj-q-'^vii=^-^-Ji]ai=^^aj-g£i]-Ji]T^^ 


^(^aj'^^q'^l the young generation || The young generation dresses 

differently than the old generation. J!]^3j'^q'N'q'N'^3j'^q'^'q'^si'^''S^'^''^'!^' 

^(^3j'-P|'53j] youthful, young looking || Though she's fifty years old she's 
young looking, jw^r'^-q^n-vg^^'^^;-] p^•^!]^3j•^P|•53j•^^!]•'^3jl 

^(^^'51 bad smell of something burnt || His home was filled with the bad 
smell of something burnt. p'l'[^^'q^'3j^'S'J!](^q'5'ng",l| 

q(^=;'J!]=;] laughter (h) || His laughter filled the room. 

q^l four II I have four brothers. !;-".V^3j^-q^-SK] 

q^'qg] four hundred || I sold that big sheep for four hundred ywaw. ^'^''^^^ 

qi^'q^] forty II I was forty years old yesterday. p'^^'^'"-V^'^'^§'"-Vg^l 
qi^'cB] fourth II A fourth of the students are Mongolian. 


qi^'^R] four thousand || Four thousand sheep were sold here yesterday. 
p''^^''^^'3j^''5J!]'q^'^'q^^^] The small apartment costs four thousand 

q^'s^=;] crossroad || A tree grows at the crossroad. q^'5^=;'^'^^^'q'^J!]'^] 
qi^'q] the fourth || I'm the fourth child in my family. 

qi^'q] the four of || The four of us ate lunch together. 

q^3j] ^just like; "face || 'He looks just like his mother. q<^^'cf^'".vp^'p^'i3M' 

8^-^-q^3j-5,:^| "She has a pretty face. [^".vq^aj-^^J!]^^^!]^^] 
q(^3j'qgR5^] pretty woman || She's a young pretty woman. 


q(aJ!]«^] 'to have a seat (h); 'to reside (h), to live (h) || 'Please ask Father 
to have a seat here. i3M-i^''^^'3j'^'q(5J!]^'^'^^^l "Where do you reside? (i=^' 

qi^J!]^'!^] throne (h) || The Living Buddha sat on a throne. 

qsJlj^^'s^nj] discussion || What time shall we have our discussion? 



q(aJ!^s]'»in.Vc5'5]'^'n=;] round-table discussion || They held a round-table 
discussion in the meeting room. 

q(a5li'^''^| 'seat; "residence (h) || 'Which seat shall the Living Buddha sit 
in? g".V^'q(5J!]MAVJ!^Rf\vq(aJ!^M'^'«j3j] "His residence is on a mountain. J^^' 


^i^S] 'to set (for sun and moon); 'to pass (time); ""to leave || 'What time 
will the sun set this evening? ^■5^'^'^'5j*l'c5'>'q(5=;''^5]] 'The time passed 
quickly. S^^'sf^^'^^'sT^'qig^^l ^What time will you leave? ^=^'3j»l'cf=^'q(5^'|,' 

q(53j'5^] skilful, delicate || The tape recorder is a delicate product. 


^(^^] to flow II The rainwater flows down the mountain into the river. 


q^!^-j (q^c,-j q^=;!5^j q^^^^s^]) 'to get up, to stand up; 'to build || 'What time 
do you get up in the morning? jg^^'StnJ^'q^'ajs^'&'qi^Rq'^Saj] 'When will 
you build your new house? ^■^'N'^!;'sn-p^"q'5i^'^^'q'3js^'cf=^'q(^R^'^3j] 

q^2;"#i>lj intention, thought || I knew that her intention was not good. 

^(^'^1] 'to eat, to have some food; 'to promise (h) || 'Please eat some 
bread. J!]'^'qJ!]q'q(^^'^J!]'^] "The leader promised to help the local 
people . q^^=^'^'N''N'J!]3j'N'5^'^s^!;'N''^vTj!]'N'|'^'|,=^'^q'P'N'"i3j'q(^'Nl 

g (qgqj g?\ij gp to eat || Don't eat too much and be sick. 

g (^ g'.lp to get (angry) || Don't get angry, ^^cf^'q's^'g] 

^■p^'] restaurant || That is a Tibetan restaurant. ^'Sj'q^'^'g'pRf^J!]'^^] 

g"^"g^"^j confusing, unrest, unsettled || This is a very confusing situation. 

3"!^^fll itch II I have had an itch on my back for a long time. 


5-q|j leftover || This leftover food is spoiled. g-ql^q^-^q-ST^] 

^^'^'^] haphazard, reckless || He does his homework in a haphazard 

way. 'p'^'^»l'|,'".l'^-^'g'qWq'=^=^'^'|'^l 
Wd^ food II What is your favorite food? ^^■i'N-^J!]q-qq-g-»l-^-3-^J!]-5S3j] 
^"cfs] appetite || If you don't control your appetite you'll get fat. 

^^] vague, indistinct || The mountain top was indistinct in the fog of the 

early morning. '^^'N'^'S'3j'g3i'|,'^=^'3j'^'t'^'5'§'5«^'^'|'^'l 
5^"5^"] noise || Please stop that noise, I'm trying to sleep. 

g^lRsi'l^^l Rqi|=^f^)-|=^-q^3j-sr=^l 
5^'nI] copper II His ring isn't made of gold, it's a copper ring. 

5^'n!"^^] copper wire || Cooper wire is often used in electrical cords. 

g^'\l"c5'^l] copperware || All my cooking pots are copperware. ^^'^"J'S"-!'^' 

5^] to run out of, to be exhausted || We exhausted our supply of tea and 

then bought more. =;-Sq-^g=^-aj'N-R-5^=;^^l 
5^"5^S] inexhaustible || The river has an inexhaustible supply of water. 


3^] deep, abstract || I think that the theory is very abstract. ^'^■=^J!]'^'J!]i5^' 

^^■g^"] advanced study || He undertook advanced study at the university. 

W^'5^ deep, abstract || He often expresses abstract thoughts. 

gq't^^'vlj deep and wide || The river here on the plain is deep and wide. 

5^"^5^"1 composure, calm || He was not calm during the crisis. 

^q'^] depth II What is the depth of this lake? 5^§fq^q-gq'^-cf=^-^-5''^5-553jl 
35]'i]] bridge || The bridge was made of stone. gs^'^l'^'F'^l^'qg'^] 
55^"5^"SS"^1 continuous || The rain was continuous for three days. 


g5^"5^"g5^"5^j perfunctory || He gave a perfunctory greeting and then sat 

down. 'p''^'^^5J?)-^5-g»l-5^l5^-S^-^J!]-^^-3j'N'5^^'q^=^l 

^'^l food II Meat is a food. -Pj'^'g'N'^Jili^-^Jljt^ajl 

^'^'^'^l food and clothes || I spend money every year for my children's 

food and clothes. '^'S)-3;!;-S|-|^l-qq-g^rqj'^l-|-i:^-^-nJ^^^-^^-Sfq?f[n,i| 

3'N!"q§^] nourishment || There is much nourishment in a kilogram of 

mutton. '5J!]'.P|'|'^'J!]=^'Sl'3j=;'^'g'N-q|=^-»l=;^W^l 
3'N!"!^g| to digest || Fat meat takes some time to digest. 

5'n!"^^'n1] edibles || Meat and vegetables are edibles. 

^'^''^JIl leftovers || Let's heat the leftovers from yesterday for our 

breakfast. =;'iq'i^5;|!^-g!^-^'p''N=;'S]'g'^'™J!]'^q^'|,^] 
3"=^"^] buzzing noise || The bee made a buzzing noise. 3^'3^'^'^'5!^'^1 
^^'i^l^^ disturbance, unrest, turmoil || What caused the disturbance? 

5^"65] turmoil, confusion || The turmoil lasted a few weeks. 

^^^^ unkempt || Just after he got up his hair was unkempt. 

95] 'already; 'to catch, to get hold of || 'I've already washed the dishes. 
^^•S^'5^-qjT]^i-g3j| "He ran after me but he couldn't catch me. p'^^'J!](5J!]' 

^aj'g] note, record || I can't read this note. ^^■g3j'g''^=^'^J!]'5^'^q] 

^Sj'g'^] draft, note || I know this is just a draft, but it needs a lot more 

work. =^M''^^'^iaj'|'N'^J!]'«S3j'q'^'Ni q3j'^!;'q^q'^=;'".vgq'»i=;^".i ^^^^] 
^d^'^d^ drizzle || The drizzle lasted three hours. 


9"^] might, power || That country has a lot of military power. 


C\ II 1 ■ 1- ^^ ^^ ^ 

gq"5^^^j nectar || This liquor is as sweet as nectar. S!^'<^^'3;'q=;^'.5'^'!^<^3;' 


^i^'^aai suppression, subduing || He resented his parents' suppression 


of his activities. !^'s^'N'p'^'^'|=^''^V5i]^3i-H!^-q^'p^-^!;-n&!]-ql''^-a=^-l 
I^J'q] dew II My shoes are wet with dew. =;q-™»l-|".vq'^-K3j-q^-q^!;-] 
5i^"'P|^'^] impact, might, power || What was the impact of this latest 

regulation? ^■"-l*l'|,'^^'^"-V^<^-:Q5;|!^-|3i-S-(^5-5!^] His voice has a lot of 

power. pq'^=^'".vg'^-:Q5n^'i3;-q-'S3;| 
^^ 'pain; 'to be pierced || 'How bad is the pain in your leg? 

^^'|''fi'^''^^'3j'|^'5''^5'^=^l "Lightning pierced the sky. ^J!]-q=^-3j5^-»ipq-",V|J!] 
§^"^] pain II Over time your pain will lessen. 5'^'cf=;''^^=^'q''^=;'!^S3;'3;!^] ^^ 

^=^] pair, two || Those birds fly in pairs. q=^q-c5J!]'N'^'=^J!]'|=^-5-^^'3j'N''^5^1 
^^''^g"^] in conjunction with, combined || A banquet is usually food in 

conjunction with liquor. J!]»r".V^3j'|,^J!]'y^aj'q^'g!^-c5'^'5;|^!5l-(^^5]!5i-S3^| 
g^'^l] energy, strength || Do you have enough energy to climb the 

mountain? ^=^'"-V^'^^''^3f^'^''5'N-|=;'^W^-=^»ll 
§5^] to get closed, to close || The door was closed so I didn't knock. 

g^] comer, side, angle || How many comers does a square have? 3]'q(^<^' 

^^'^^^j adjunct to, subsidiary || This temple is subsidiary to the big 
one in the valley. ^^3j-q-q^-^-'5=;-q-^q-3j=;-§]-^qf3j-q-i-q-^q-|^-J!]yj!]'N-«S3^^ 

^^■'3] sidelong glance || She gave him a sidelong glance indicating her 
interest. p^^'p^f\V|^'5]qi-S|!^-q'S'^'3^'^'p^^'«S^'^s^'N'|^^'g5n!^-^-qpk-i^^^ 

^^'=\] side, by II A soldier stands at the side of the building. 


§^'^a hint, clue || ITl give you a hint and then see if you can guess 

what it is. '^'N-^=^-'^V|^-q^-^J!]-q^3j-3j'N-^=^-|'N-^-5-'^3j-=^sW]-^q-5^3j-^ 
g^'SSj] supplement || Take some vitamin C everyday as a dietary 

supplement. ^3j-5^-g-5]<^-|=^-l3j-",vq§fq^^-C qJ!]q-^-^=;'^l 
g^'q] former, previous || I wonder who was the former leader of that 

country? =;'^'|,^'pq'^q'q^qf3j'|=^'q'^''^3j'q'3i'^'qY^] 
l^'^^^^l side II Come sit on this side of the room. p^"^'|^'<^^^'3j^'l'^l 
§^"5S1] 'a little, a bit; 'a hint || 'He mentioned a little about his secret 

business. p«5-^!;-S|-Jl]'^=;-qq-p-ik-5]-^^-3j'N-|^-'^»l-"l'^-»l-q.P|^| -We understood 


his hint about what he had done in the past. [^'^■^^■zT|'^3j'c5^'%'^^'".l^'^' 

^^'31 satire, sarcasm 11 His voice was fuU of sarcasm as he criticized his 

son' s behavior. p''^-gq-'|'^-q-f^-'J]3i-'J]3i-5!]y;-^q'N-pq-^=^-|^q-3j=;-'^V|^-g'^ 
^^■g(^"^5]'^qi satire, mockery || His novel is a satire of inteUectuals. 

^^■q]^si] triangle || A triangle has three sides. |^-J!]^»l-»l-^J!]-",V|^-Jl]^»l-Sr=^| 
3J!]^'5^] drops II Many drops of water spattered off the roof 

^^'^^l flower anther || The bee flew near the flower anther. 

^==^1 to call, to address (names) || What do you call 'computer' in 

Tibetan? q^^'^'^'I'N-'^Jlj-^^^'-t^-l-^ci^-l^^l 
^=^'23"-ll a customary saying || I've heard that customary saying many 

times before. =;'s)-|^-^n.v^-g!;'N-»l!;^3;-g'^i-gz;-| 
m] bucket, pail || Put the garbage in this bucket. J!]=^'|j!]'Nl^q'q^q'3j=;'S^=;'Nl 
3^ 'goods, merchandise; 'animal || 'How much did you spend for these 

goods? ^^^■'S'^''^^'^^'"-V^^'^'N'^^'s?5n-s'^-|^] "A cross between a yak 

and a cow is a very important pack animal. 5^^'p".V5^''9'5^'^".V553j'(^^' 

"^^'^^1 price II What is the price for this hat? i^-55^qlJ!]-3Y;-^-J!]-sf=^-"^3j| 
3S^] 'bucket; 'summit, top || 'l got water out of the well with a bucket. 

^'^■^■3«^'^'^'|g5^'i!'".l^'^'q^'^] 'The summit of the mountain was covered 

with snow, ^•gs^'p'q^'pq^] 
3=^'q] sickle II This sickle is used to cut grass. g=^'q''^^'S''^|J!]'i!=^'q'T]"l| 
^"1] hypocrisy || I'm tired of his hypocrisy. ^■p'S'^"^'g".V".l'^=^'c5^] 
3".Vg=^] hypocrisy, pretence || His bragging is all a pretence. 

T".vs^^l candid, frank || I like his frank talk. '^■'pqlKvs^^^-l-p-q^-cw^^^i^q] 
^] lock II I put a new lock on my door yesterday. 


^■^5^] semi-circular || He made a semi-circular drawing in the dust with 

a small stick. '^^■^'^■^3j-^J!]-Sl-^=;-".V|-J!]»l-'^|q!^-53^'§'^'s?^^'|'Nl 
I'^^'Nj friend || He is my best friend. 'p^'=;q^'^Jl]'N'i'N'qg!;^^3j| 


^■'^^I the beginning part of a month || The ritual is always held in the 

beginning part of a month. c5'^'^'g3j''^^'l''^^^'^".l] 
^'i"-!] merger || The merger of the two companies benefited 

both. ^=;'l'^|'N-|if^-^^-q-^-Jl]|'N-'T]^-!<13jl 
^'s^^'^ the end portion of a month || The moon is big in the end portion 

of a month, ^'^l^'"-!'^'^'^] 
^kS] the beginning part of a month || What is the moon's size at the 

beginning part of a month? |'^^'"-l^'^'^'il'^'^'^'^'^3jl 
^■g] calendar || I bought this calendar yesterday. ^'^^■g'^=;'p'^Ra'^| 
^'^^'^l monthly salary || How much is your monthly salary? 

^■^S] half a month, half moon || I was sick for half a month. 

^■q] moon II What time does the moon rise? ^■q'3j5^'ft^'-P|^] 

^■q] companion, friend || I went to a movie with my companion. ^■■^R'^Tl' 

^'5^1 girlfriend || I don't have a girlfriend. R"1^'5^'5^=;] 
^■«^=^1 matchless || Her beauty was matchless. p's^q's^^'N'S^'^-V'^^iaj'^'s^^^] 
^■JS^l month and day || I count every month and day, wanting so much 
to see you again. =;'N-(i=^-'q^-|^-5ra=;-q^=^-5-q'N^-Jg''N-q|'N-3j'N-q§^5!]'s)| 

^'s^cfaj] menstruation || She was ill and her menstruation stopped. 
^■'^^Sj] lunar eclipse || The lunar eclipse lasted three minutes. 
^■'^S] moonlight || Bright moonlight shone through the curtains. 
isi'tj] globular, round || He made a round ball of tsampa. 

^Jjj (q^Jjj q^^^] ^^^D Ho force back, to repel; "to reject || ^ We forced the 
enemy back across the river. ^■af'N'^^^j'q^^'^'^'TfWK'q^J!]'^] 'I rejected his 
invitation to attend his wedding. ^*^'p^'^^3j'^3j'5'J!]=^3j'(5'q^J!]^] 

^'^■^^I drama, play || I thought the play was well-performed. 

^'^■Jll^^'R^'l theatre || The theatre regularly features Tibetan plays. 


^'^•Jj^^'s^pajl actor II The young actor spoke loudly. 

^sj'jjj^s^] repeated speech || I'm tired of his repeated speech on the same 

topic. 'p'^'q1'^'5!]^'5!]55!]'^'^=;'|'^'J!]^5^'?j=^'q^'!;'^3j'|=;'|'^l 

^3aj] feed, food || What feed are you giving your animals? 

^33j'i!] harmful || This chemical is very harmful if you get it on your 

skin. f'N-q^-^=^-|-|-qJ!]'N^J!]-".vq^'^-3j-=9-3=;-J!]g3j^^3jl 
J!]gaj'5'] fodder, grass || He had only a little fodder prepared for his 

livestock when the winter's first snow fell. ^^3j'p'S'p'q'g^^'=^^'q^' 

q^gq] (qgq| qgq^j ct^gq'^]) to be earnest/serious, to be cautious || He is 
cautious when he talks to his students. 

Jjjgq'g'^l grand || What a grand festival it is! 

J!jgq'5^c5^] attire || He was wearing unusual attire. 


^^q'Sjaj] serious || He is very serious about saving money. 

Jj^gq'jj^gq] careful, watchful || He did everything in a careful manner. 


qjgrrqp^] week II My special class lasts only a week. 

Jj^gq'S^^J!] weekend || This weekend I'm going to visit a friend. 

q]gq|-»l] Sunday || I have no classes on Sunday. J!]gq|'»l^'=;'".V^'(|=^'s^^] 
J!]3q3j=;] epilepsy || He had suffered from epilepsy since childhood. 

Jj^gqq'*]^'^] Wenus; "Friday || ^I could see Venus through his powerful 
telescope. =;'N-(^q-^=;-5^gk-'^q'N-53j'"-Vq'^3j'aj'^-J!]gqq-'^=;'N-5rak-l -This Friday 
afternoon let's get together and drink beer, g^^^'q^q'^^q^q'^^^'^^s'^' 



^^T^aj'^!] ^Saturday; "Saturn || ^On Saturday let's go see a movie. ^^T 
^3j'q'l'|3jX-5-^J!]'q^3j'".vq<^'5''^^ -Saturn is far from earth. JJ^gq-^aj-q'^Nq-^ 

sn^T^^'g] 'Thursday; 'Jupiter || 'We wiU have an examination on 

Thursday. ^5'Tg^'gq'|3j'=;'§f".V^J!]M'"i3j'^'^=^l "Jupiter is a distant planet. 

Jljgq-5^J!^'=^5^^] 'Tuesday; "Mars || 'iTl come see you on Tuesday. JJ^^TS^J!]' 
=^si^-|3j'=;'(i=^'".vq<^'q^''q=;'] "Mars is also called the 'Red Planet. ' q]gq-S)q]- 

jj^gq-^-q] 'Monday; 'moon || 'Monday is the day after Sunday. J!]gq'^'5^q'|,' 

a3j'3j'J!]3'^^'q'"^3j] -'Monday' has the same meaning as 'moon' in 

Tibetan. q'=^''^J!]'S]'3j=;'^-'J!]gq-|-q'".v'|'qq'^3j-«j=;w^l 
qjgq-raq^-q| 'Wednesday; "Mercury || 'Where did you go last Wednesday? 

gz:;!^-^3^-5]<^-J!]gq-™j!]-q-|3j-^=^-J!]!;-n,Vsr2;-] "How far is Mercury from the 

^^^^■q] steep II I panted as I walked up the steep mountain. 

^3'^s^] majesty, dignity || He spoke with great dignity. 

i^W^^R] majesty, grandeur, magnificence || The magnificence of the 
Potala Palace impresses everyone. 

^3'^^S'53j] majestic, magnificent || The view of the valley from the 
mountain top is magnificent. 


Jljg'5^2;^'^] radiance, good complexion || She had a beautiful clear 

complexion. fSWn-VJlll-s^^^^M-laj-cBJllM-q-^JllW^l 
^3'^] magnificence || I can not describe the magnificence of the 

mountain scene. ^^q-«J".V^=;'N-|-J!]|-|;3j-^-=;-".vq1=^-gq'N-g".ll 
^3'^=;] brilliance || The brilliance of the sun was such that I put on 

sunglasses. |'s^q'Jl]l''q^'i'q^'=;'^-8^q^-3ia]-3jq^^3j-;^qj's]-^:;-| 

Jlj^Jlj'^Jlj'^] leopard skin || The leopard skin sold for a thousand 

dollars . J!]|j!]'<^J!]M'^'i3M-|'^-'^=;-a?J!]5J!]-n,vq^=;'^l 
^^Jll'^l to look, to see (h) || Please look at those dances. 


£!]gJ!]^'^R] looking after || The government's policy provides for looking 

after poor people. ^=^-J!](^!^-^-|=^-|'N-^-5^-=^gn,1^3;-qj|qj^]-|':;-|;^-q^-qy3j-q-iSj3j| 
J!^gj!^^'(^q] inspection || When will the inspection of our dormitory rooms 

begin? =;'§§q'5^".vp=;'".VJ!]|j!]M'^q'3j5^'§§=^'|,=^'^'^=^l 
qjls^] (qjls^l JljIs^^N] JJlls^'N]) to sleep, to go to bed (h) || He will sleep at 

midnight. 'p^3j»l-^=;-".VJ!]l5^-^-^=^l 
Jjjgs^'p^l bedroom (h) || The Living Buddha's bedroom had only a bed, 

table, and chair. 

^^] to be afflicted, to suffer || I suffer from hepatitis. ^■5^l53j'3j=^'^^'^l=^] 
^I'q] mediator || He was the mediator that settled the quarrel. 

^I'q] ^upright, honest; 'impartial || ^He is an honest man. 

p'3j's^'Jlj|'q'(^J!^'"^3j] -He treats all his students equally, so his students 
think he is an impartial teacher. 

^I^M] form, body, physique || I like his strong physique. 

J!]|J!]'^-53jl 'tall; "visible thing || 'How tall you are! (i^'^'3''^5'S'J!]|J!]'N-33j-^£!]- 

^^■i^VF'] -Air is not a visible thing. »ipiq-^gJl]'^-^-^T'^^Jl]|J!]'^-53j-^5!]-8^3j| 
^^^"^'^^'^^'^1 the lower one || The lower one is my yak. 

^l^^'qSSj] figure, reflection || When I saw my reflection in the mirror I 
was surprised at how thin I had become. ^^■5^'")^''^^'=^^''^=>'5''^5^'=^=;'i!=^' 

^I^M't^] body II My body does not move as quickly as it used to. 

^l^'^^^l physique || We were all attracted by her healthy physique. 

^l^'^'^^q^l shape, form || What is the shape of a rectangle? 

q^l^^M's^!^] invisible, immaterial || Time is invisible. S'^'cf'^'^'^I^M's^'^'^aj] 
Jljijlj^'5^1 drop II Drops of water fell from the ceiling. Jl]3j5^'^3j''^'^'^'gJl]'^' 


Jjjl^l (J!]l^'] J!]l^^]) to be tangled, to be unkempt || His hair is tangled. 

jjji^^'SJi^^l medal || He was given a medal for his bravery. fJ^'^^T^^'^' 

'^^^^^^^K^ praise, compliment || Thank you for your compliment. (iS'^'^' 

^3=^] to pain, to suffer || I suffer from constant back pain. 

J!]g] (J!]g] Jj^gs^] '^^^^) to return kindness, to remember kindness || The filial 

son returned kindness to his parents. g'^'=^q'^'^'^'=^^'J!]'^'s^'".V53j'J!]g^] 
q^^'] good II A good son respects his parents. g'q^^'q^^'s^'s^^'qsSj'qTl^'^S] 
qg^'^aj] good and bad || Human nature is both good and bad. 

qg^-q] good, fine || Today is a fine day. ^■=^^'3j'^aj'5^'qg^'q'(^J!]'^=^] 
qg^'»l| kind woman || She is a kind woman who often helps old ladies in 
our village. pw^'=;'c^'S-qq-^3j's?^s^'N''^V^3j'S^J!]'N'^s^'|,=^'qq'qg!;'s?^J!]''^^^ 
q^'^'cB'^] foodstuffs II His cloth bag was full of foodstuffs. 

qgq'qi^R] food and drink || What food and drink do you want? 

qgq'5^'1 ^husband and wife; "family member || 'The husband and wife 
divorced, although they had been married only a few months. q^Tcf^' 
q^J!]'N'3jM^'qJ!]q'".l'^'q^^'s^=^-^!;-] s]g3;-qgq-5^-^-q^|si-|T5-gk] -I have only one 
living family member. ^■".vqg'TS^'J!]5^'^^'^^'".l'^'s^^] 

qg^^'cf^'] family || Where does your family live now? 

qgq^l couple, husband and wife || Just after they were married, the 
couple traveled to Shanghai. 


q^] to get drunk, to be intoxicated || He got drunk last night and talked a 

lot of nonsense. »l=^=;-=^^=;-p^q|-3j'N-'^=;-J!]^»l-»l=;^".iq-^=;-l 
qg| (qg] q^M] q^M]) to make, to manufacture || Our company can make all 

kinds of shoes. =;-^-^=^i'N-™»l-^-5'^Jl]'N-ql%q| 


^wff^] design || I don't like this design. =;-qS^q'fi=^-q^-".V9)-=^£!]q] 
qg'qj!^!;] designing || Designing buildings is what an architect does. 

q^'Saj] construction || The building construction will begin as soon as 

spring comes. =^^=^''T]A]q'N'»l'gJ!]'p=;'q|£!]M'ql^^3j%".lM'q^»l'^'^=;] 
q3'5]] factory, plant || That factory pollutes the river. 

qg'qs^l alteration, revision || This paper you wrote needs revision. 

^''^] appearance, look || I don't like his appearance. ^■p'7'qg'<^'".V5^'=^J!]'^] 
ql^q] worker || My father is a worker. =;q'i3M-s5'^'q'S^q'^J!]'«)3j] 
q^'^^^q'^] shape, form || The shape of the object was circular. 

q^'g'"-!] technology ||Technology has made work easier. 

q3'§&]^] labor union || The labor union represents the interests of the 
workers. q'S^c&]'N-|'N-ql^qq-p-s53j-|,-cfq'|=^i 

q3'§§k'] industry and commerce || Industry and commerce are important 
in the economy. =^=^".V'^|f^'|,'|3q'f?=;'^'^=^'S'ql^cf';'^'J!]".vil 

qg'(^R] industry and agriculture; 'workers and farmers || ^Industry and 
agriculture are that country's main economic activities. q3'(^^'3j'g"l' 
pq'^q'2^qn,vq^^'aj!^-^OT?)'qj^q^>^3j| 'The numbers of workers and farmers 
m that country are about the same. ^",vpq'=;q'qg'(^RS^'5]^^'=9'",is^'q5's^^si' 

qg'n.1^1 industry || The textile industry is important to our economy. 

qg'n.lM'gf\vpq| industrial country || Britain is an industrial country. 

qg'n.l'^'gaj'^^] industrial product || Nylon is an industrial product. 

ql^q^j-q] engineer || My father is an engineer. =;q'i3M-!^-^-ql^n,i'N'q'^J!]''^3jl 
qg'n.l^'2;qn,vq^^| industrial economy || Germany has an industrial 

economy . q^^'»13j'".vql^".l'N-^q".vq|^^-'^ajl 
q3=;| to be able to bear, to be able to tolerate/withstand || I can tolerate 


extreme heat and cold, ^^'cf 5]^'i3j'i!'qg=^'^q] 
qg=;'g^s^] tolerance, forbearance || He has a high tolerance for other 

people's rudeness. 'p^V5^-J!](^3j-q'S-|^-|=^-".vqi=^-|s^-i3j^|^-^qi 
qT^-q] tolerance || How much tolerance do you have? ji^^'^l'q'i'^'q'^^s^w;] 
q^^'qSjSjl tolerance, forbearance || I don't always have as much tolerance 

as I should. ^:;-S|'^-^M'§3j'^'qT=^'q233j-|=^-q''^-^!;-!;^-^-^!;-§-gq^-g'^| 

^'^] noise, clamor || Where is that noise coming from? 

!3'5J!] we, us II We are Tibetan. '3-5J!]'^^^'q'^3jl 

!3'^^ to be at the end of one's wits, to be desperate || I'm at the end of 
my wits as to how and solve this problem. J!]3j^'=^3j''^^'^'<^=^'gJ!]'J!]5^'|,^' 
^^■5^'3j^'^'!3'^^ After his wife died he was at the end of his wits 
because he didn't know how to cook or take care of his children. 

!3'".l^ corvee labor || Each year every person in our village must do 

corvee labor. "T^^j '^'c^'S-qq's^-^.-S.^j-ij-qJi^-q^n.V^^q]''^] 
SJi^'ill owl II The owl has large eyes. '3J!]'q'".V5^J!]'i3j^5;|^!^-Sr2^1 
!3^'q^^] exaggerated praise || I'm tired of hearing my employees' 

exaggerated praise. =;'^!;-S|-".lJ!]'£!]Sw]-q]'N'!3=^'q^=^'|,^'q'"l'^3j''^=;'] 
!3S'-P|S1 boasting, exaggeration || Your boasting is hard to believe. 

!3^'|3] noise, bluster || The noise of the trucks on the road kept me 

awake. "■Wp'l''^^»l''^5]"-v|,'!3^'|^'N-=;-J!]|^-S-»l-q§'^ 
^ kiss II A kiss should be done in private, not in public. 

^^"1] we, us II We are learning English. 

Tqg"!] 'fatigue, weariness, tiredness; 'disturbance || 'if you avoid 

working hard, you avoid fatigue. ^".iy|i=^'^'N'".l^'^'T]'^'5^'".V^".V^] [i^'f^" 


q^".V".V^".vq'"^3j] ■^My request for your help is a disturbance, ^^'(i^'^' 

T^^] lamentation || She sang one lamentation so sadly that everyone 

present wept. p^^-=9-5'^'|^q'S'=^'^'''l^=^'g=;'5]g^-^^-2r!^-§-5^-cf!;-»l'5'^l 
Taj] well then, in that case || In that case, I don't want to go with you. 

'^%] cream || I like cream in my coffee. ^■p'M3j^'^^|''2^'^==^'=;'J]'^| 
T^] milk powder || I'll make milk tea with milk powder. 

frs^l milk II Yak milk is rich. q|q-fT»l-^-=9-5=;-|»ll 

^'^ below, under, beneath || I put my shoes under my bed. 

qqi'^s^l lower rank || That soldier has a lower rank than the other one. 

f^^'l ('^^'l ^^^\) to come, to arrive || What time will you come? 

'1=^1 light II The light was very dim. ^J!]-q'^-^-^-=9-5=;'»lJ!]'s«]-^=^l 

'^'n'^^'] brilliance, splendor || The brilliance of the sun filled the land. 

^'^^^] to shine, to emit light || The sun emits light, ^'s^q'^'^'q^] 
^S^^] light ray || The light ray shone through the window. 

'lijl to be deaf || He's deaf p^'^'q''^3il 

q3j'^^'| but, however || I like warm weather, however, I don't like hot 

weather. !;'3j»l'|^3j^".v=^J!]q-q-'^!^-3j5^^'cd^".V5^'=^Ji]q| 
'qaj'^l deaf II Are you deaf? ^^^'^'qaj-q-^Saj-ajs^] 

'q'^l again || He visited me again last night. si=^!;'=^3]k-'p^!;-n,vq'^-|,'^-q<^-^-Sr=;-] 
^"^■§§^1 assumption, estimation || My assumption is that we will not have 

class on Saturday. =;q-'fT\V§f^-'^VJ!]gq-^3j-qq-|3j-=^-§f=^-^q-^^-55'^-^^ 
q'^l 'to be worthwhile; 'to be suitable, to be proper || 'it is worthwhile to 

help people. s^'5r|<33;'",V=^J!]^'=^5^'^=;'q^] 'Your clothes seem proper to me. 

qM's^paj] qualified person || He is a qualified person for this job. 


'^'^■'^J!]3j] obligation || What obligation do you have for your parents? 
^^'^] fitting, proper || Is it fitting that I visit my parents now? ^'^'^z^'tri' 

q^]'5^] 'right person; "candidate || 'He is the right person for the job. 

^■q'^^^'f !^'5]pj3;'n,vp'3j''^^'5^'(^J!]'^3j] "He IS a candidate to be the new 

chairman. p^'^!3'^'J!]'N^'q<^'?f'5n3^!^-n,vq''^-5^-^Jl]->S)3j| 
qs^'s^s;] improper, unfitting || It is improper for me to call my parents by 

their names. '^'^•^'^•^■'^•»l'".V5^=;'S]M'q'M'aj''q^'s^=^-5J!]-5,:^| 
q^l'qcfs^'^l proper, fitting || Your clothes are not proper for the party 

tonight. (i=^-|-3f3j-q-^-^-=^3Y;-Si-=^^=;-§&]'N-'^v'q'^-s^cfs^^ 
'^'^■".F'^] uprising, revolt || An uprising suggests that people are not 

happy. f5''^'".l=;M''^'N'9S'=^5^=;M''^'q^'|'^'g'^'q'5^cfajl 


"J'if|3jl upper palate || I have a sore on my upper palate. 

^'^ up there || There are some sheep up there. "^■S]'3j''^J!]''^^'T"5^] 
"^■^I'^'Nl odd number || Three is an odd number. J!]^»l-^-«^-3]=;'N--PjJ!]-«S3j] 
"^■|=^'l Asia II China is in Asia. ^'^'^'^'I'^'^'^'^l 
"^■5^J!]".l] upper jaw || He broke his upper jaw playing basketball. p'^'S^' 

^'^^] frightful, horrible || It is a horrible story. ^•^•^[^^■^^^■^■'^■q-^J!]-^;:^] 
"^■^5^ one of a pair || He is one of a pair of twins. p'3j'«^jf«^'l'"^'^5^'^3j] 
"^■^^ primitive, old time || That story dates back to a primitive time. 

"J'5^^] matchless || His singing ability is matchless. 

"^'S^cfajl surprise, wonder || His sudden visit was a surprise. 


"^"s^cfsj'^] wondrous, surprising || The temple on the high mountain was a 

wondrous sight. ^•sJg3j^q'^=;'^'=^3]3j'q'^'^'5]gc;-55]-^-»lcf3j^^^'^^l 
"^■"^1 shifting from side to side || The pack on the yak is shifting from 

side to side. p".V»iq-^=;-^Y'^'^'^l'il 
"^'^^q'^] righteous, upright, decent || He taught his children to be upright 

citizens. '^'^■^'^■^■|^'=J'^»l'N-".v|-=^»l=;'N-wi-^qM-|jq]-|=^-^-q]=^»l^)] 
"^■"13j] response, answer || I can't understand your answer. 

^^ ^good; "pretty || 'This story is very good. J!]^5^'^=^''^=^'=9'5^'^J!] 'She is 

very pretty. p'5^'aj'=9'S^'"^^ 
^^] good II His written English is very good. p^'=^^3j'^J!]'^'=9'5^'q3^'§^] 
"•l^qs^^l again, once more || Please read that sentence again. 

^ 1 D J II O 

"^^■'^] weight II The weight of this stone is the same as that one. 

"^^■^^ accurate, correct || Your answer is correct. (i^'^'"-13j'3j'"J^'=;Jl]'^3j| 
"^^'Sj] or, either or || You may go with us or stay at home. 

"^R5^'=^J!^ incorrect || Your answer is incorrect. (i^'^'^-lSj'^'^^'s^'^^ 
"^^'5^1 light II This box is light so ITl let my young son carry it. 

^^^] summit, peak, top || It was windy on the mountain top. 

"^^'cf] great-grandson || My great-grandson has just started school. 

"J'>wi=\=;] again and again || I read the text again and again. 

"^^SjSl reincarnation || He doesn't know what his next reincarnation will 

be. 'p«5'^;;-S|'«^!;'|^'^'5'^^'«S3j'i!'5^'-Pi'^l 
"^^'^■'^] spacious, wide, roomy || He has a spacious home. p'^-Vp^'q'^^^'^'i]' 

(^^■^^1 1 like to be on the spacious grassland. Roiz^J^'qf^'^'gz^'^'q J^^'s^' 

"^3j] above || There are several shelves above his head. 


^3^^!^ limb II An arm is a limb. =^g=;'q"^'"^3j'".lJ!]'|j!]'«)aj] A large limb was 
torn off the old tree by the storm last night. 5]!;c;'!;fc5z;'(^q'^!5^'%s;' 

^^] father (h) || Father asked me to turn off the television. 

"^^] up, upward || Let's go up the hill and have lunch. 

^^■^",1] ^inspiration; 'promotion of development || 'The leader's honest 
behavior was an mspiration to his staff '^^■(g=^'^'|=^'^'5^'s^'=^'P'^'".l'^'=^^'^' 
^5^'^'n.VS^cf3j'3j'^=^'^".V^^'^=^] "This office works for promotion of 
development projects in remote, impoverished areas. J!](aRaq'p^''^s^' 

"^=^'5'^1 development, improvement, progress || China has made much 
progress since 1949. 9^<i^^fT3j'^-q|=;-^=;-3f".l-«^^-^'N-i3j^^=;-l 

"^=^■'3] admiration, look with respect || I have much admiration for your 
success. '^'N-^=^-|-^".vp-".l-wi^-<^-i3jif|^l 

"^^■^aj] progress || Have you made any progress in your study of 
English? ^|,Sj-t^J!]-|k-qq^J!]-3j'N-^=^-".l-«^^^3j-^=;-sr=^-=^»ll 

"^=^'53j'53j] advanced, progressive || That is an advanced work unit. 

"^=^"5^=^] up and down || The child jumped up and down in excitement. 

"^^■(^1 making a request, report || We will make a report to the officials 

about this incident. '^■cf^N^aj'^aj-q^-'^'^-'^qa^-^aii^-q-^^-s-l^^-^t^aj] 
^^■^s^^] good will II I trust in your good will to do what is right. 

"^"-1] to disappear, to fade away || Slowly, the evening light faded away. 

W^''^ branch (of tree) || He used a tree branch as a broom. 


"^'^■5^'^] about, around, approximately || I have approximately two 

hundred sheep. !;-n,V'5J!]-|'^-q^-«J'N-»l'N-Sr^l 
"^■^ appetite || When I drink liquor I have a better appetite. 


")-q] ^letter; "writing || ^I'll write a letter to you soon. =;'N-5^-q^=;'N-q^-(i=^-".l-«)- 

q^'(^J!]'qg] "I can t read his writing. ^'^'p'^'^'Jlj'^Jlj'si'^q] 
"^■5]'5^p3j] writer, intellectual, scribe || She is a famous poet and writer. 

"^■^■q] calligrapher || Today, fewer and fewer people can make money as 
acalligrapher. '^■'^■«S-q]-q-^J!]-^^-3j^v|'^-s?q5q-^q-s^p3j-R-a!^-R-a^ 

"J■c5=^] to be disappointed || I was disappointed when my football team 
lost. =;q-if^=;-|=^-|^q-^-pJ!]-!^»i-q-3j-=;-'^-c5^1 

"^■^^■] admiration || I am full of admiration for your success. 

"JJ!]'^=;] written language || The English written language is very close to 

oral English. =^|sj-^^-^-=^|3i-^^-^^-=9'5^-^l 
^J!]'^",!] postal service || Computers are increasingly used by the postal 

service. '^^|'^V^q^-^qf=^-^-^^-^=^-|=^-q%R-§^t-§^-^=^l 
".JJlj'^f^'q] mailman || The mailman comes to our village once every other 

day . "^^'I ".vq'^'!^'§§q'|-q^-|3j-q^|!N-5,-a.vgc,s]-q^5q^-5,^-?$;-| 

"^J!]'5^pi3j] secretary, scribe || The secretary retired and was replaced by a 

young woman. '^J!]-»ip3j-|,<^-".1'^-q(i^-^'^-q-^=;-g^-s^=^-^^-»l-^J!]-Sl'N-cfq'^'^| 
"^^1^1 translation || This Tibetan-English translation was done 

carefully . q=^-^|sj-'^J!]-|^-q^-^»l'N-^".V wq|^W^l 
^'^^] document, record || She filed the document. p'»l'N'^J!]'c5''^'^^] 
"^^■^^ in written form || Will you please put what you just said in 

written form? ^=^-|'N-^=;-^'N-5''^iq'q'^'^J!]'gJ!]''^vq'ff.vIJ!]'J!]»ll 
"^^'Sj^l incorrect character || Other than this incorrect character, your 

paper is perfect. 5Sq^^^-q^-5^-qjy!jsi| ^=^'^'=^^=^'f»l'^'^'^'^'S^'!^'^5r|'^^| 
"^^'^^l a single letter || He can't read a single letter. 

"^^'^^'^l illiterate || He is literate in Chinese but illiterate in Tibetan. 
n't^^'^^'^'S'^^'i'"^^'^^^'^'^'^^'^'^'^'^^! Within the rural population 
too many people are still illiterate. '^".VS^g'T'^pq'^'s^'5]^M'(g=^'3j'5^'5^^'q'3j' 

"^^^l^'^l penmanship, handwriting || I practice my handwriting for a 

half hour each day. |3j-^^-^'N-^-i=^-|=^-'T]-".v5Sq]-q]|q]M-|'!;-^-Sr=^] 
"J^'"13j| answer (by letter) || I hope to have your answer soon. 


^Jj^'-Pjq^l envelope || The post office refused to accept the oversized 

envelope. |J!]'|^'p=^'S^'^t^J!]--P|q'^-i-55!]'^-q-^-»l-q=;'^l 
^^] mind, thought || What did you have in mind? ^^'|'^^'"-l%'^^'53i'"5'^l 
"^^■g] to be sad || I'm sad because I miss my family. 

"^^'55^^] to become attached || She became attached to her students and 
was sorry to see them graduate. 

"^^'55'^] belief, faith || My faith in him has been destroyed. 


"^^■'^^^ attention || I tried to get my students' attention by telling them 
humorous stories. 

"^^'Saj] confidence, reliance || Confidence in yourself is important for 

success. ^^■|'N-^=;-'^l-«S=^^3j-|=^-g-^-^f\Vp-'^13j-q^-»l§?3j-3j-J!]".vil 
^2;'5^3j] agreement || The two sides reached an agreement yesterday. 

W^^l beautiful, pleasant || The view from the mountain top was 

beautiful. ^■»1^3j'N-q<^'N-3j-^".V^=;'N-^-«S=^-Sj5k-l 
"^S'S] pleased, happy || I am pleased that you agree. (3S''^5S''J^'^'S'"^S'S] 
"^=^'=^s^| to be downcast, to be unhappy, to be disappointed || She is 

unhappy because she doesn't have any new clothing. 

"^S"'^^^ to fascinate, to captivate || This novel will captivate you. 


"^=;'5^'^] to admire || I admire people who can read, write, and speak 
several languages. 

"^^■^aj] admiration || My admiration for people who know several 

languages is great. =;'^-^^-^5[^'^-q5!]q^'N-qq-5^-".vq5=;'N-qq-«S=^-^3j-^-=9-s=;-il 
"^^■*5^| ^satisfaction; ^to be satisfied || 'l take great satisfaction in my 

students' success. 3;!;-S|-^q-5^^-5]q-'^gM-g=^-ajM-^-".l-«S=^-a^s^-i3j^|] -My 

teacher is satisfied with my performance in class. S^'|3S'f ^'^■5'^<^' 


«=>'<^'no5'>q| I remember many of my mother's stories. 

ai!>'i^'53;'qi to remember || I remember what the teacher said. 

"Saj] is, am, are, to be || What is his name? p'^'sS^'^'S'^^lj'^aj] 
"^3j'^^'] even though, nevertheless, but || I love my children, 
nevertheless, sometimes I must punish them. 

"^3j'J!]5^'5^3j'^5^ must, have/has to || I must go see my ill sister. 

"^3j'3jl if it is II I'd like to visit you if it is convenient. 

"^aj'ajf^^'] nevertheless, but, even though || Even though I have a lot of 
money, I don't want to waste any of it. !;-",v|'^-s?»l!;^Sr=^] '^aj-3jq!;-!;'s)-;?,K,- 

"jaj'i!''^^] it seems to be || This movie seems to be based on a novel I read 
some years ago. ^J!]-q^3j-q^-"TqJ!]q-|3j-=;'^-q^J!]'N-qq-q§-»l'N-|^=;-^J!]-".V5;]^^- 

"^3j'5^3j] \vhether it is or not; 'right and wrong || ^Whether you did it or 
not is not important. ^3j'^'|5^'^^'".l^'i!'"^3j'5^3j'J!]".VS^'£5] "You are now old 
enough to know the difference between right and wrong. ^'"S'liS's;^' 

"^3j■s^=^| although, but, however || It's cold but I still want to play 
outside. 3j51-|-q(iqi^-5r=^l ^aj-^^-^-^-^^-f l^t-'^^'^l 

■^q] ("^q] t^q-s)] "^q*)]) to hide || You hide and I'll try to find you. 

"^■q] handle || The bucket handle was broken. g'^^^'q'cB^''^^'] 
"^■q] bald II I've been bald since I was thirty. 

"^^■^1 oats II This field was planted to oats last year. 

'^^'^■^1 widower || The widower will remarry tomorrow. 


t^jjjsj's^l widow II The widow had a lot of money and adopted several 

children. t^J!]'S5-55^-f\V^^-5?»l!;^qW^-q'S)-g:;-^q^-qq^q-s5;| 
"^^■^5^1 short time, instant || For an instant I thought the bus would roll 

down the cliff. t^=^-^5^-^J!]-q-=;'N-|-|=^-5.=;'N-qp=^-^-Jl]"^=;-Jl]g^-^-™=;-^-^^-qY^| 
^3^] period, time, duration || How much time will it take to go to 

Beij ing? q-5aj-^-|q!^-q3;-^^t^3j-J!]-sf=^-=^q]'Ml 
"^Sj'^^'l short time || I watched the TV program for only a short time. 

^for a long time; "eternally, forever, permanently || ^I have lived 
here for a long time. ^■'^=;'3j^''^3j'S'qs=;] "A family permanently moved 
from our village to the big city. '^■§§^'^-qq-^2^-cdk-^J!]-^=;-(i^-i-q-^-",l-«j3j-^- 


"^Sj'^^'l long time, prolonged || He suffered from a prolonged illness. 
t^aj'^^^'q] long time, prolonged || We've had bad weather for a long time. 
"^^1 Ho weed; 'to go to sleep || 'iTl go weed the field this morning. 'Srn'^' 

"^==^■8^1 weed II She pulled the weed out of the field. pT'^-^';-".!-'^'^-*!-'^'^] 
"^".I] ^home; "location || ^Where is your home? ^'^'^'^"-V^'^'Sj'^'^l "Your 

home is in a good location. ^'^■^■^^■«J".V^'^".vqg=;^^^'3iW^l 
'^".l■^=^] dialect || Can you understand my local Tibetan dialect? 

«J".V^^1 tour II I went on a tour this summer. =^-'^q-^^^-p^-=;t^".V^=^-")-'Pv-| 
t^f^l'pis^'^] region || I'm from the southwest region of China. 

'^"-V'^li^l exile, wandering around || While in exile, he missed his family. 


'^"-IS^-Pj'^^l local tyrant || The local tyrant heavily taxed the people. 

"^f^'S] country, region || What region are you from? 

t^ni'<^^^| landscape, scenery || The mountain landscape is beautiful. 



'^".V53j] locally produced || This bread comes from locally produced 

wheat. ^^■'^^■^■^".1^3j''^g'^^M'|'N-".l'Nl 
t^fW^Jj^^] district, region || Many Tibetans live in that district. 

"^"-V^"-!] going into exile || Going into exile in Siberia was something the 
Russian writer was forced to do. 

W^'Si] native, local inhabitant 11 1 am a native of this area. 

t^fW^s^] local product || Traditional Tibetan boots are a local product of 

this village. '^".V^3j-|,^=^-™»l-^-S-q-q^q-!^-q|3^!5I-g3^-f "SJ-^qj-i^aj] 

t^f\V5jq| local custom, mores || Tell me about the local custom in your 

home area. ji=^'|'=^'^"-l'|,'^"-V^"-vf^''^'"-V^=^'=^=^'l 
'^"-V'S] guardian deity of a place || What is the guardian deity of your 

home place? ^^'|'=^'^"-l'|,'^"-l'"^'^=^'"^3il 
"^■==^■=^1 shaky || That old jeep will give you a shaky ride. 

^^■-P|q'c5^''^^'^| Christianity || Many Western people believe in 

Christianity. aq-|i!]'^-q-»l=;^^-«J--P|q-l'^-'5J!]'N-".V=^=^-q-|^l 
^] to incline, to be out of perpendicular, lean || The telephone pole 

leaned to one side. p'=^^'|,'^^'^=^'^'|5!l'^-J!]5J!]'".l'i^ 
^W)] equipment, tool, implement || What tool do we need to buy? 

"T^q] Europe || Spain is in Europe. ^-^aj-^-Sr^q-SIW^l 

^^K] entertainment || What shall we do this evening for entertainment? 

"J'qSj^'l rectification || Rectification of the problem will require several 

years. J!]3j=^^3j'2?q23=^'|^'=J^'^'^^'^'^^^'^'^=^l 
"^^■| to come, to gain || Money will come to you if you work hard. 

"^^'fl^^l source, origin || What is the origin of the Tibetan language? 

"^^'Sj income || How do you spend your income? 


tJ.!Rqqq| income || What is your yearly income? 

"^^'^l all, the whole || All the students in my class are Tibetan. 

"^^'^■(i^l widespread, large scale || Prosperity is widespread. 

^^^'^'^^] well known, famous || She is a famous singer. 

^^'^■qsJ!^^] proclamation, declaration || The government proclamation 

was posted everywhere. ^=;'5i^(a^'5|'S5^'s)-qsq^^l-^-q^R^l^-q^s^^l| 
ST^^'s^-qlaji tutor, teacher (h) || He is my teacher. 'p^-=;qw;'N-ql3j-^3jl 
SJ;^)-fj!]^)] all, entire, whole || I read all the book. '^'^■^q-SW^'N-f^!]'^-^^!] 
"^^'^^l thoroughly, completely || Thoroughly learning English requires 

many years of study. =^|sj-«Sq]-q-Sr=;'N-^-^q-|=^-|=^-q^-"T5^=;^=^^^ll 
"^^1 'have/has; 'there is; \here are || ^I have two English books. ^'"-1'^^' 
'^Jl^'q^'^^q'cB'^^'^'Si:^] "There is an English book on my desk. ^i^'S^'^i^'^^' 
S'=^^'"^^'^'^^'c5'(^^'^=^] ^There are two English books on my desk. ^'S' 

"^^^^1 everything, all || I ate everything in my bowl. 

"^^'cf^l everything || I like everything about you. ^■(i^'^'^^'cf'^''^r^^'^l 
"Tajl fare, fee || How much is the bus fare? |'|''^'^'^'^''^p'^'|,'^'"53j'^'^'c?=^'^3jl 
"^3j'^3j'33jl knowledgeable, educated person || He is very knowledgeable 
about modem philosophy. 


"^aj'q^J!] patron, donor || He is a big temple donor. 

"^5^1 to totter, to sway || The wall swayed back and forth when a car 

crashed into it. 5.^'N-qp'^-^^-q-^J!]-S|!^-^^-"l-q^q'^-q-3j-^^-Srs^l 
^s^'^s^l rocking, tottering || Tottering on his feet, the old man slowly 

walked forward. 5^-^3j-q-^-Sr»l-Sr»l-|=^-q^aj-»lS3j-S-=^".Vsr^-q(g=^l 
"^"-1] to pass, to elapse || Ten days must pass before I can leave the 

hospital. =;-^aj-p=;-3j'N-ng=^-^£i]-q^-|3j-qfg»i-q-5'^-5=;-sr".v=^qi''^| 


"J".vq] curtain || My mother pulls the curtain back every morning. •^3;'^<^' 
^"^^ yak II Yaks provide special transport on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. 
q^^jjj'-Pj yak meat || I like mutton better than yak meat. 

^'\] ^prosperity, luck; 'ravine || 'l hope your family has prosperity. 

^^■(i=^'^'(i«^'^=\'"^''3]"^=s''^q^] 'The horse fell down the muddy slope and 

into the ravine. ^■'^3j-|3j-|,-".l^^%-q|,".V3j'N-J!]"^^-".V™^-l 
^"^^■53j] lucky thing || A lucky thing happened to me this morning. ^'^J^' 

^"^^"^!;'] abyss, precipice || The rock rolled down the abyss. 

'^^] rust, tarnish || I could not rub way the tarnish on the silver bowl. 

=V^^] to be rusty || This old spoon is rusty. p»l'g'|!;'q'q^^-Jl]wi'TS5i]'^'"r^| 
^'^] right II I hurt my right arm yesterday. p-'^=;-=;'^-=;q-=^g=;-q-J!]wi'^-»l-|]'s)] 
Jj^^^'^^l going around clockwise || Let's go clockwise around the 

temple. 2;-S'^-=^^3j'i!'"-VJ!]«^'N-^=^-|,=^-q^-q^ 
^"^^'^^'^l right side || You sit on the right side and ITl sit on the left 

side . (i=^'^"^'N-'|J!]'N-aj'N-^=^-=^=;-=;-J!]Sr3j-'|i!]'N-^-qSJ!] 
^"^'^'§^^''^1 rightist II The rightist liked to argue about politics. 

qju^^]-q^u^3j| both sides, right and left || The tree was blown right and left 

in the strong wind. S'^'^3i'|,'^'^'5'F^^'^"^'^'^"5'aj-S-q|=^l 
^"^^^^ turquoise color || This plastic is a turquoise color. 

^"^^ (^^^ ^"3^^) ^to throw, to swing, to brandish; 'to blow, || 'Please 
throw me the ball. ^'".V^^'^-V^'^t^Jlj'^^^^] 'Dust flies when the wind 
blows. ^^'^'^^'N'^'3j''^'5"-i'q^^i 

Jl]«J=;'l mild, gentle || This horse is gentle. ^•q^'^'JJj'^'^'aJ-^ail 

^"^^^^l swastika || The Buddhist swastika was carved on the rock. 

^"^^■^■qj fruitful, abundant || We had an abundant harvest this year. 


^"^"-1] battle, war, fighting || The battle lasted two days. 

^"^"-Vpi threshing floor || The threshing floor is packed earth. 

^'^"-I'^S^l campaign, battle || A famous battle was fought here one 

hundred years ago. 'Tq^q'^3j'".vq^^-5!]t^".vq|,^'5]J!]'N'53j'^J!]'aK,-l 
^"^".V^'l battlefield || The battlefield was covered with dead bodies. 

^'^] i'^'^] ^^'^^] ^^'^^\) to be inattentive, to wander (of the mind) || I 
was inattentive during the long speech. ^ra'q-Pj^^'^^^'q'l'^q^'^'^f^'^s^^' 
^"^^'^l My mind wandered because the lecture was boring, ^^^■=^3j■^c5^■ 

^"^s^l fornication, sexual intercourse || A monk makes a vow not to have 

sexual intercourse. q§3j-q'N-"W]-J!]«J»l-5^-|=^-qq-=^»l-&!]-q(^J!] 
^"j=^^ wise, intelligent || He is a wise man. p^'5^'Jl]"5=^^^^'"^3j] 
'31t^"^| to open (clothes) || Open your shirt and let me see your chest. 

^] (^] ^^^] ^^^]) Ho agitate; "to move; ^deception || ^I was agitated 
by the emotional speech. =;^-'^^-qq-J!]^»l-q.P|^-|'^-pq-^»l'^-q-J!]25'^l "The 
strong wind moved the grass from side to side. ^^■c53j'^'^'S'S^J!]'J!]"^'^] 
^Deception is rarely successful. 5[^"^'f^'^f^'p''^gq'^=^'^'Tjq] 

^"^'1^5^] deception, guile || I understood his deception when he first 
contacted me. ^''^■'^■".vgJ!]'5^^''^|"-VJ!]^J!]'|=^'^'^l pq-J!]S5^(g5^-=;'^--Pi'^-'^=;-l 

qju]-qma.i| movement, vacillation, unsteadiness || Her vacillation on this 
issue makes her appear indecisive. 

^"^■g] guile, deception || He will use guile if it will help him get what he 
wants. JJi^Fisj-p^n-vl-q^^-q^jq-q^-^^-^l p''^'^"?|'|^'|=^l 

^"^■^■53jl deceitful, cunning || His cunning words did not persuade me. 

5r|ai'-53;'g,!>'5]!;] female demon, cunning woman || She is the most cunning 
woman you can imagine. p^'|5!^-^-'^2^'f\vqc5=^''^'T|(^'^^'g=^'s^^'5'^'5n'«'-53i' 


^"^I'^l intrigue || I refuse to become involved with the intrigue. ^^''^S' 

Jjj^'gq'^] trick, deceitful maneuver || Your trick was cruel and 
unnecessary . ^^■^■Jl]"raq'N-^-|=;-|-8^2^-q-2^!;-2^q[^-»ip^«2^-q-^q]-^2^] 
q^u^-q^qj usurping by guile || He is trying to usurp his leader by guile. 

^"^'3] embezzling || He was convicted of embezzling his company's 

money . p'^-^=;-|q-|'^WJ!]i^g-^^-q^-^'N-c5=^'q5^1 
J!]"^'3"1] deception, dishonesty || Criticize dishonesty and praise 

truthfulness. J!]S5in,vn,v^aj-n|;3j-=^=;-q^3j^3j-".vq^=^-q^J!]'N-|,'Ni 
^"^■".13j] taking guile/fraud || By taking guile some people are able to 

become successful officials. 


Jlj^'q,P|=;| verbal deceit/fraud || I understand your verbal deceit and I 
don't trust you. '^'N•^=^•^•^!]"Fq^P|=^•^^I]^^■q^^•(i=^•".l■^=^•i'N•5^•|'^l 

^^^ {^^^ ^^^'^\ ^^^'^\) to cover, to dress || I dressed my children in 
new clothes. =;'^-3;c;-S|-|^)-q-^»i^)-n,vqi3j-q-q]»5^-q-q]Sw]'^l 

^"^JJ^'f^p^^l servant || The servant gave his master a cup of water. 

^"^^■^] waiter, servant || The waiter brought food to the table. 


JI^^JI^'5^1 maid-servant || She worked as a maid-servant for a year before 

getting a better job. 

pWi^v^'q'^''^i'N'qg!;^i^J!]'5^^q'^=;] p^'^-fTq^5J!]'f^vJ!]"^^^ 
^^ left II The boy on the left is my nephew. J!]Sr3j-|-^-i^v^-^-!;q-cd^TSj3j| 
J!]^3j'^=^] going around counterclockwise || The B n devotees were 

going around the temple counterclockwise. 

Jj^^aj'^^l left side || After the stroke his left side was paralyzed. 


^"^Sj't^l left one || My book is not the right one, it's the left one. 

^"^aj'^^^l left side || The chair is on the left side of the room. 



^"^3j'§^'^'=^l leftist II He's not a rightist, he's a leftist. 

J!]"^3j'".lJ!] left hand || His left hand is stronger than his right one. 

^^\ {^^^\ ^^^'^\ ^^^^\) Ho sway, wave; "to have sex || 'The servant 
slowly waved the fan back and forth for her master. ^"^^''^M'^'^^''^'".!' 
^=^'5!]^q'=^".VS^^'J!]"^q^] "When you have sex, use a condom. [iS'^'N'^lj^jq' 

^^] ('Vf^^] iVf^^] ^^\) to borrow, to lend || Please lend me some 

money. =;-".V^^-s?qJ!]q-Jl]Sr^-^=;-l 
^"^t^l to avoid, to shun || I try to avoid unpleasant things. 

^] 'corral, enclosure; 'goat || 'We put the sheep in the enclosure. ^'^''^^^ 
^^'aj^'^-vq^f^l] 'The goat climbed up the mountain. =^'=^'^^'".V'^^'^] 

=^■5^=^'^] trace, tracking || Tracking the enemy through the mountains tired 
us all. ^■'5=;-q^=^-ajM-=^5]-q^".v^-»i^q-^'^-5]g3;-R§fafR5^-gR£5:^l 

==^■=^1 enclosure, corral, yard || We built a simple enclosure with adobe 

bricks. '^•i'^''5^Ji]'§^'N'^'q'gq'^'5J!]'N'5|J!]'".i'Ni 
^'s^ female goat || That female goat gives a lot of milk. 

^■"^51] 'goats and sheep; 'the cross of a goat and sheep || 'Our livestock 
includes horses, yaks, goats, and sheep. ^'S^'^^^W'SJ'^'^'^'S^' 
^"^^ ^'^^^^'^^^1 'Have you ever seen the cross of a goat and a 
sheep? (i=^'^'^'==^''^«!]'»i=^'^=^'=;»ll 
^'•P\ goat meat || I like mutton better than goat meat. ^■=^'.P|'".1'^''^^'.P|'".V=^^'^] 
^^■"1'^] depending on || Depending on how hard I study I may pass the 

^qj-$;^-q| brass || The icon is made of brass, q^-^-^-^qj-^^-q-oj^f-qa?)! 


^^'J]'^] dam, dike, embankment || The dam restrained the lake's water. 

=^J!]^'q^^] summary, brief || I want you to bring a summary of that book 
to me by tomorrow afternoon. 

^^^'^''^l coarse, rough || This is a very rough estimate of the situation. 

=^^^■^5^] ^a little; "in general || ^He only talked a little about his 
background. ^^;"S|"f^^'^•^•|q■^^;^^■^=^•3j'N•p'^•^^!]'N•5S^•".l'^•»^•q^P|=^l "He 
described the situation in general. p^'J!]3j^'qq'=^J!]^'^s^'q.P|=^] 

=^^^■§■^1 rough estimate || This rough estimate gives us an idea of the 

situation. ^J!]'N'|'^'q^'S)-:^-^a,vqj3jS]-qq-|-q|3^!SI-^aj-3;q|!5I-^S]-S!51-"r3j'S'q§JI] 

^Jj^s^'^s^l rough, simple || My uncle gave me a rough account of the 

accident. =;q■^3M■f^_'N■=;■".l■c5^!]■|^■^^!]'N■^5^■^^!]■q^P|=^l 
=^^'] one, oneself || One should learn as much as one can. 

^^S'^^^^ll independent || One should be independent at the age of 

eighteen. 5^-^J!]-'Tq5^q^=^-".vg^-^!^-^=;-^-'^^-^3]''^l Unlike her brother, she 

is an independent person, p's^^'f s'^^^'s^'^^^'q^^] p's^'aj'^z^'^'^^^^'q^'s^'i^^' 

=^^"g^"] autonomy || Haixi Mongolian and Tibetan Autonomous 

Prefecture in Qinghai has autonomy. 

^^i^fl"^l autonomous prefecture || Mtshonub Tibetan Autonomous 

Prefecture is in Qinghai. »l§f5q-q=^-^J!]'N-^=;-|k-f^",V^-»l§^3j-3j-Sr=^l 
=^^^^"^^^1 autonomous region || Inner Mongolia, Tibet, and Xinjiang 

are three autonomous regions in China. 

=^R^3j] one's own mistake || It is important to admit one's own mistake. 

^^fi] self-sufficiency || Students should be taught self-sufficiency. 

=^Rp'=^^'J!]^] self-sufficiency, self-reliance || Through years of poverty 

and hard work he had learned self-reliance. 


=^R^J!]=^] presumptuousness || His presumptuousness upset many of his 
friends. pq-^!;-=^J!]^-|'^-f5q-^J!]'^^»l=;^5^-^5!]q-q==^-q3?)| Her 
presumptuousness in visiting us unannounced is unbearable. 


^^•s^jji'gajl to be self-sufficient, to stand on one's own feet || After 
graduating from school one must stand on one's own feet. 

^^^■'^^".VSSj] automatic || That washing machine is automatic. 

=^^"5"-11 our country || Our country has a long history. 

=^=N^] subjective || That is a subjective opinion, ^'^'^^^'^"'^■^■^^■^^l 
==^^'5^ we, us II We will go to the picnic together. =^^'5^'S'J!j^R",V5^^5^'=;'q5]] 
^^■^^] oneself, one's own || Taking care of oneself is important. 

^^W^] one's own crimes || One should look at one's own crimes 
honestly, ^'^■^'^■".l^'^iaj-^'^wl^-'^^'^l 

=^^'q^=;] self-praise, self-glorification || Wealth can lead to self- 
glorification. '^q'N-q|^^-|,^-^=;-q^=^-^=;-|^l 

^^'SSjl individual benefit, individual issues || This idea won't help us, 
instead, it's for his individual benefit. 

^^■'^=^=^l one's desire || One should acknowledge what one's desire is and 
then carefully decide if it should be pursued. =^^''^^=^'5'(^J!]'^3j'i!'".V^^'g3j' 

^^'a^] own ability/capacity || He became successful entirely through his 
own ability. 'p'^'^=;'S!^-JTaj-q53^-3^!^-5]-gq-(^g!^-^3^-(^q|-^-g3;] 

=^^'J!]3j'^] own address || This is my own address. '^=^'3j'^^'=^^'J!]3j^'^3j] 

^^1^1 subjective view, one's own perception, subjectivity || Subjective 
views may not be realistic. =^^'^^'3j'^^^'"^=^'5^3j'".l'^'£5] 

^^'^^^1 our group/side, one's own side || If you are too intimate with 
our group, you may be criticized by others. 


^^^^1 natural, nature || Love and hate are both natural impulses. 

^^^^P^"^! nature || Nature should be protected, not polluted. 

==;^'^q^'] freedom, liberty || Everyone loves freedom. »l'cf^'s^'=^^'=;q^'"l'(^aj] 
^^qqq'^l running water || The sound of the running water kept me from 

sleeping last night. ^=;-qqq-^q-|^-^'N-»l^=;-=^3]k-=;-J!]|=^-S-»l-q§Jl] 
^RgR] independent study || Through independent study he has learned a 

lot about Tibetan folklore. 

=^^■5^] own people || He wanted to help other people more than his own 

people . 'p'^'^=;'5^'".V^^'q'".l'N'J!](^3j'".vTj!]'^'^»l'|,^'q^'Sr^l 

^RS^sj] free || You are free to do whatever you like. 

^RS^'^'^R'^q^'^] liberalism || 'Liberalism' is the opposite of 

'conservatism. ' '^=;-sr'^-^=;-'5J!]'^'-^-'|=;-(^aj-^=;-'5J!]'N'-|-'^J!]-|-«S3jl 
=^^'q^3j] independence || When did Kazakhstan get its independence? 

==^^'q^3j'g"1'pq] independent country || Great Britain is an independent 

country . ^|;Sj-|-^-^=;-q^3j-^".vpq-5J!]''^3Jl 
^^^'^^'^'^'^'q] self -controlled || Although he has a bad temper, he is 

usually self -controlled. Pq'^S'^^'^^'l P^'^^'^^^'^^1 When they grow 

older, children want to be free of their parents. ^'^''J *3;^■^3;■q■=^^■q^3j■ 


=^^'^(^3j] oneself and others || You should consider the feelings of 

yourself and others. (i=^-|'N-^^-J!](^3j-|-q'N5^-^".V".vq=^^-§J!]-'q»51 
=^^'q(^3j] nature, character || How would you describe your own nature? 


^^^■qi^aj'^'N] naturally, spontaneously || This precious stone formed 

naturally . '^^3j^i''^^'^'^=^'q^3j-|,^-5]qi 
^^^"^1 own home place || My own home place is Ngawa. 

==;'>aJI1'^| our race, our nationality || Let's work together to better the 


education of our nationality. 

=^R-P|J!]'^'^'^] naturally || The sun, naturally, rises in the morning and sets 
in the evening. |'si'^!;'-P|'^'N'^'N'i^5i|!5l-q^-.P|^'^=;'^=^-^!^-^'5qi 

=^^■^=^■cd^ stubborn, obstinate || He's stubborn and won't change his 

=^RJ!].P|^] personality, character || The personality of that man is very 
different from that of his wife. 

^^'Sj^'l self -protection || He carries a knife for self-protection and as an 

ornament. ^'^'23'^'|=^'i^'=^'^'§3j'c5'i^^'yp'^'^'^^''^'^^'^l 
^^"23^ one's own life || One's own life should mean something. 

=^3j] to be fitting, to be appropriate, to come to the time || We have now 
come to the time when the children must go to bed. 

=^3j''J] fitting II A suit of clothes is a fitting wedding gift. 

==^^1 the best || It is the best to have children form independent ideas. 

=^^'1^1 very, thoroughly || He was very pleased by the compliment. 


=^q'=;^'=^s^'i!] a series of, many || I have many stories to tell you about my 

time in France. 

=^q'J!]3j^] consecration || The consecration of the new temple took place in 

the afternoon. '^•|^!;-J!]'N^-q-".v|^^-^q-J!]ajM-^^l 
^q'q'^q'q] dim, vague || My memory is dim about what happened so 

many years ago. 


^5^'q=;j!^'^| help, supplementary || Do you need any help during your 
son's wedding? ^=^'|'g'S'^^3j'^3j'|,'^^'^'^l ^'^■"•V^5^''^^^'^-|=^-^q]''^-»)»l] 
^s^'q2;j!jM'q| helper, assistant || I am his helper when he cooks. 


=^".1] to get torn || My jacket was torn when I rode through the forest. 

=^".V^] sword II He wears a sword in his belt. 

'v'^'q] long braid || His long braid hung down his back. 

^'N] cloth II That cloth is silk. ^'N'^-^-^^-'SSajl 

=^'^■^=^] thread || Please put this thread through the eye of this needle. 

^'^'^■'^g^'qg'g] textile mill || That textile mill exports most of its products. 


^'^•^5^1 canvas shoes || These canvas shoes are perfect for summer. 

^] mountain || The mountain was covered with trees. =^'q'3j^'^'#^V^'N'pq^] 
^ra^l rivers and mountains || We crossed rivers and mountains to reach 

your home. '^■§?^'^'^'^^=^'5ig^'ji=^'^'^".V".v'^3Jl 
^'I^Nl wild II Wild animals should not be hunted. ^■|'N-^J!]-c5J!]'N^3i'5^'5=^'l 
=^'[^^ gorge, valley || A river was at the bottom of the gorge. 

=^■[^".1] mountainous area || Qinghai is a mountainous area. 

^'^S^] hermit || When he grew old he became a hermit. 

=^'s^^] mountain top || A single tree grew on the mountain top. 

=^'^^] bare mountain || Sand covered the bare mountain, ^'s^'^'^'^^'pq^] 
^■g^l mountain range || The mountain range seemed endless. 

=^'§^^'] peak, summit || An eagle flew above the mountain peak. 

A'^l mountains and rivers || Mountains and rivers separated us from our 

destination. ^■^'^■=;-S?^5^J!]'N-'N-".vq|^^-S-»l-q§J!] 
^^'^^'^I animal || What animal is that on the mountain? 


^■'^=;q'^] mountain foot || A small house was built at the mountain foot. 

^^ mountain || What is the name of that mountain? ^^^'S^^'^-V^'l^^] 

^■q^'] rabbit || A rabbit hopped across the grassland. 

^'3^] non-irrigated land || The fields on the mountain side were all non- 
irrigated land. ^^'^■^■|^^=^%^'»l'^3jl 

=^'5^] painting || I like that painting on your wall. 

=^'5^'q] painter, artist || He's a famous painter, although he never studied 
painting in school. p''^-^q-5]-^^W'^v|=;-q-»l-^'^-^=;-p^-^wq-5]J!]'N-53j-^J!]-«S3jl 

^■§] base of a mountain || The base of the mountain was covered with 
flowers. ^■§'s^y!]-Sl'N-pq'Nl 

^'^] mountain top || The mountain top was too high for anyone to climb. 


^•Jljg^l towering mountain || The towering mountain was, the local 

people believed, a powerful deity. 

=^^ to catch sight of || At night from the mountain top, we can catch 

sight of the city's many lights. 


=^^'53j] intelligent || He's not intelligent, he's stupid. 

^Jjj'^q'^] intellectual power || I was impressed by the professor's 
intellectual power. =^5i-q^'N-i3j-srq-S,q^-^q^)-|^)-!;-n,vqq]-c5J!]'N-gq-5fq(^J!] 

=^J!]'J!]3j^'i!] scholar, intellect || He is acknowledged as a great Buddhist 
scholar. p^'aj=;'q^3j'I'M''5^M'|'5lfq!^-i3j-^J!]-".vq|l 

^J!]'q'53jl intelligent || How intelligent are you? ^^■^■^J!]'q'53j-|-q5-^J!]t^3jl 

=^^■§■"-1] art, literature and art || Did you study art in college? 

=^J!]'§'"1'q] artist || Is he an artist or an actor? 

^5!j-qj(a^-| academic study || What academic study was your major in 

university? ^q'^'i3i-5?^ii=^-|-i^-|=;-^Jl]-Jl](g=;-^-5'^Jl]'^3j| 


^^»5] ^race, breed; 'category || 'What breed is that cow? q's^'^^i^'^JJ^^'^'^' 
(^^■"^aj] 'Yaks and cows belong to the same animal category. J!]"^^!]'^^' 

^J!]^'^2^] lineage, race || Tell me about your lineage. ^■"•l'|5^'^'=^J!]^'^^'S^' 

^Jj^^'g^N'q^M's^] mixed ancestry || His lineage is one of mixed ancestry. 

^^^^^'^aj] low birth || Although he was of low birth he became a wealthy 

businessman. [^■^J!]'N-^3j-^J!]-5S3j-^!^-i %^^-p1?k-q-^J!]^^J!]-y5,^l 
^q^s]-qq-q^(a^-ajq^s]| theory || What theory explains why the sky is blue? 

^^'^''^^S] to classify || What system is used to classify plants? 

A=;'] 'long; 'during the time of || 'Because I could not sleep, the night 
seemed very long. =;-".VJ!]|^-»l-gq'N-qq-^3j-|,^-»lcf3j's5^'=9'5=^'^=^'q''^51 'During 
the time of my grandfather there were no cars. ^'^■|^'q'S'=^^'".l'^^^''^R=^' 

^^^^1 length, distance || What is the distance from here to Lhasa? 

^^^ 'long; 'tall || 'l haven't seen you in a long time. ^^■^=^''^3j'^^^^^'".V 
si-m!^] 'My brother is tall but I am short. =;q-^3j-".VJ!]|J!]'^-^=;^^J!]-Sr=^-5?'^- 

=^^■cf'^] length, distance || The length of this rope is three meters. 

^^"^^^l doctrine, -ism || We are studying various doctrines in our 
philosophy class. 

^S'^^l thin, emaciated || After his illness he was emaciated. 

^3j] price, fee || What fee must we pay in order to enter the museum? 


^3j'^=^'l price II What is the price of that coat? ^^■3]'^'^^'^3j'^=;'J!]'^^''S^3j] 
=^3j'5^'l value, worth || What is the value of this earring? 


^3j'g^'53j] precious, valuable || He put the precious Buddhist icon into a 

black bag. 'pM'3j=;'qq'q5'^'S:3j-g!;-33j-^-f^_q]-s^-3j^?f^^-^-3j!;-^-q(^qj 
=^3j'g^'s^=;'i!] priceless || This is a priceless work of art. 

^^Sj'tJ'l] 'precious; 'jewel || 'The most precious thing I have is my 

daughter. '^■"-IW^'q^'^aj^i'f i'^^'^'^^^'^'sTT^ajl "This jewel is a diamond. 

'^^'%'^] gradually || He gradually became accustomed to getting up very 

early . ]T(asn!^-q-^-5r^-5^".V".l'^''^!;'q^'^5^'|,'^'"rq'^l 
^»1'5]«^] class, stratum || What class of society do you belong to? 

^Si'^'^ rank, level || His rank was that of general. 

^^^^1 successive occurrence || A successive occurrence of disasters 

struck the family. J!i^=^''^Jg''^»l'^=;'^'^-^»l-cf=^-^-".VJ!]%'''^l 
^s^'^1 coming in succession || The Tibetan kings coming in succession 

for centuries is the content of many history books. 

^»l'q^3j] gradually || I gradually was able to speak more and more 

English. =;'^-S:si-q^3j-2^|;3j-'^J!]-^-".i'N-»i=;^?i=^-^q-q^-^^l 
^s^'sj-qqjq^ epidemic prevention || That clinic is responsible for epidemic 

prevention. |]3j-q5'^-p=;-^'N-^»l'^-q^J!]-".vqJ!]3j-":i3j-|^l 
^s^s^'ajt;] epidemic || There was an epidemic of several diseases after the 

flood. ^■"W]-^=;-'|M-^»i'N-aj=^-q£!]q-g,=;-i 
^"^■gi 'pill; "round || 'This is a medicine pill. q^-^-^3j-^"l-g-^Jl]-«S3i| "A ball 

is round. ^=;-"1-^-^".vg-«S3jl 
Rt^-Rt^] round || The earth is round. '^q-^".V^-S:n,vS,n,iT^3j| 
^"^l form, shape || The statue's shape is graceful. '^qJ!]'^^'^'5^J!]'".l'^J!] 
^'^'s^^l impartial, unprejudiced || Teachers should treat their students in 

an impartial manner. ^q]-^3j-|,M-^q-5^-^s^M-"-V^'N-s^=^-|-<^-^!^^)-qt3j-2^qi'Ml 
^■^^1 group of herding families || That group of herding families camps 

here every summer. ^•^^•^'N''5-$<^-^^^'fq^'q^5;-»iagk-'^'ql3jl 
^■p^ team, unit || The basketball team got on a bus. 


^■qSqjs)] to line up in a row || The students were lined up in a row and 

then given a vaccination. ^■»l'SS^^'^'qiJ!]^'^M'p'§f "-vq^Jjj'^aj'qsq] 
5'^=^] team flag || Our team flag was colored red and gold. 

^'S^Sjl head of a team || He is the head of a team of construction 

workers. p^-'^J!]'N-^3j-ql^qq-5-=^q3j-5S3ji 
^■5&]'^] team, group || The group of women played football well. 

5^'l even though, although || Even though you are very clever, you need 

to learn a sense of modesty. 

^'^•^•^J!]'"^Ji]'»i^^'q^^J!]'^3j'^=^l ji'^'^'N'p!;'^'^ =;'N'^'q'N»i'q'q|=^'=^^^l 
^q| to gather, to get || The clouds gathered in the western part of the 

sky. 3i*l'*ip'S'5q'|?!l'N-^-|3j-5qi 
^5^] 'arm; 'to cover; ho hatch || 'l held my child in my arms. ^'^"^^■zi|' 

|*)-q-^si] -Cover the child with a blanket. |'^'=J'^"-ll"-v|,^'5»l'^^ ^The 

hen hatched several eggs last month. ^■^3j'5^=^'^'5^^'§^^'^''^J!]'T^«^] 
^".1] to rot, to spoil II Let's cook the meat before it rots. -P|'^'5^'^".V^^'§§k] 
5"-l'5] rotten smelling || We should throw away this food because it is 

rotten smelling. g-»l-^-".V^".V5-1^q'N-=;-§f'N-qs5=;-3j-q'^l 
^"^'qj rotten, decayed || The old decayed wood would not bum. -P|^'c5'5!;,' 


^".V^^'^l corrupted, rotten smelling || The mutton was rotten smelling so 

we fed it to the dogs. '5J!]'.P|'".v^".V5-g-q!^'=;'§f'N'^'".v|j3jl 
^'N] 'lineage; 'bone || 'What lineage are you descended from? (iS'3j'^'^'^^' 

aj'N'aii^^-qt^aj] -There was no meat on the bone. ^^N'^'^'aj'-PI's^^] 
^''^S^l lineage, descent group || His descent group and mine are the 

same. =^'=^=^'P^'5'^'^=^'^5J!]'«S3jl 
^'N'^S^'^I kinsmen || Those people are my kinsmen. 

^'N'i!] bone || What is the biggest bone in your body? 

^'^■^".11 turtle II The turtle fed on fish. 5'^'^"-l'|,'^'^'"-V'^3j-|=^| 
^'N's^^'] family name || My family name is Sngo tshang ba. 



^s]'SJ!]s]| joint II She injured her elbow joint when she fell off the horse. 

^] Ho depend; "to yearn, to desire, to hope || H depend on my mother for 
my food and clothes. ^'l'p'gq'cf^'s^'^'l'i?>V5^''^V^] 'I yearn to go to school 
and get a good job. !;-^q-^-f\v?5k'3j'N'^'q'qg=;^^J!]''^q'q^'^l 
^■'^^^l some, a few || I have only a few friends. R",V5]J!]'^'q'qJ!]q'^'",l'^'s^^] 
=^'q5".l] entrusting, commissioning || Your entrusting me with the care of 
your children and livestock is not something I can agree to. (iS'^'N'ig';' 

=^■'3^] expectation || I did not fulfill my father's expectation. ^'^■^z^'qi'iJM's^q' 

^'^^] delusion, fantasy || Your belief that you can have instant 
happiness is delusion. 

^■'^Sjl hope, desire, wish || My desire is that all my children will be 
responsible adults. 

^■'^'^=^1 hope, wish || What is your wish? ^^^'^'^''^'^^'^'S'^^'^ail 
^■q] ^hope, wish; "requirement || ^My hope was to marry a good man and 
live happily. =;q-^-q-^-|'N-q-qg=;^^J!]-=^=;-J!]^3j-^J!]-^^-3j'^-qs?q-|=^^".r^-^-«S3j] 
Your wish is my command. (SS'^'^'^'^^'^'^^'^^^Sil It is my wish that 
you can be rich and famous. (i^'".V^q'^'q|f^'=^:;-»lcf3j'^3j'^^'^'^'=;^'^'q'«S3jl 
'He mentioned a new requirement after we had finished our work. 

^'S^^l hopeless || After failing the examination I felt hopeless. 

^'5^^] desire, wish || My desire is to be rich and famous. 

^■^^ moment, short time || He thought for a moment about what he 
should do. p''^'5;c;-S|!^-%-^J!]-f\i's)-2^q['^-q<^-g:^-n.vq=^!;-5,-^q^-q^q| 

^'^] each, every, everyone || He gave each of us the same amount of 
money, which satisfied everyone. p^'^'c?5^'^'^'".V^=^'5?s^^'a^'s^^'i!'^3j'3;'^' 
Ssj'q^'gjs^] Each of us wants you to get well quickly. ^*5]'$'$!5^'|g=;'^^' 
»l==v'W3j''^=;=;| Each and every one of us wants you to be a good student 


and have an opportunity for a very successful life. =;w5]"$"^!5i"&"^c;" 

=^'=^'qi^3j] one by one || He called the students' names one by one. 

^■'^l patron || His patron died and left him a lot of money. 

^^] baby goat || The baby goat had long white hair. 

^f^'S^Jj] chart, diagram || The chart showed population in the province. 

^^ to touch; 'to gain || Don't touch this because it's very hot. '^s'^^'S^' 
cf55^3j''^^''^Jn'q5^'S^'^J!] "How much money did you gain in that 
transaction? '^§§k'^^'^=^'3j'N-^=^-|'N-|'^WJ!]-sf^-^J!] 

^^^1 sense of touch || That blind man has a very keen sense of touch. 

^^'^■^1 rigid, obstinate || He has rigid views about the subject. 


^^1 verb 'be' II He is a student. p^-^q-»l-^J!]-5;=^] 

=^5^] to hurry, to be quick || Please hurry, or you will be late. 

=^^] turn, by each || Let's do the cooking in turn. 

'^^f^^] turn, shift || It's your turn to clean the classroom. 


^\ 'taste; 'corpse || 'This soup has a salty taste. [^■q''^^'^'=^'qs] "The corpse 

was put in a wooden coffin. ^■•fj^'S]''^§^5^'3j^'^'q(^5!^ 
=^■§^5^] coffin II The coffin was made of wood. =^'§^s^'=;'.P|^'",l'^'c]3!5i] 
^■q^^] nutriment || What nutriment prevents colds? 

=^'5^1 remnant, sediment || There is some sediment in the bottom of the 

kettle. ^»i-|,-(^q'N-^-'^»l-'5'^-sr=^] 
^s^^l tasteless || This food is tasteless. q^-^-g-»l-'^s^=^%q]-5,:^| 
==^■^1 carnal desire || He learned as he got older to control his carnal 


desire. f^3j'i=^'^'^'q'^=^'q^3j'3j'N'p'q-'^^".vi=^-qlaj-^^ll 
Xi^Xi^ black II I had only one black yak. =;-"l'5l]"^5l]-K5!]-Tq]-J!]5J!]'»l'J!]yJ!]'N-s^2^] 
^^'^l 'companion; 'help || 'My dearest companion is my husband. ^^'S^' 
1 1^^^^^'^ (5^"^^1 '^ '^^^ never repay the help that my teacher gave 
me. ^^•^3j'|,^'=;'".vTj!]'^'^'^'q'".V=^'N'53j'".13i'3jSl'«^=;'q^".V=^'T]qi 
=^5[j^-gq| 'rescuing; 'assistance || 'He drowned while rescuing the child 
that had fallen into the water, f 3j=;-S-™=;-qq-|^-q-|q-S^l p^^-3j=;-".V'^»l'^l 
'The physical needs of the local people were met by international 
assistance. 'N'J!]3j^r5^'=^5^=;'N'f\V=^T'^'f'N'^Tj!]'N'|'^'s^p^q'^'^v|q'Tj!]'N'|^^^ 

=^J!]^'g=^] help, aid, assistance || How much assistance did your county 
receive last year from the government? 

^^^^5""'l relief money, subsidy || The relief money was to buy food for 

the herdsmen. '^^'^■^5".V^-q|i!]-q-^»l'N-".vg-^yi=^-S-5S3j] 
^'J]'^'^] helper, assistant || My helper took notes as I talked. ^^■a'>'S' 

^Jlj'^-:^5^| assistance, help || That poor family needs any sort of help that 
you can give. ^»l'cf=^''^g,'^'q'^'".V|f=^'§'^J!]'^'^»l'5'^J!]'N'=^^^l 

=^^'^■"-1'^] co-operation || Co-operation between various people made the 
book a good one. 5^-|-S&]'N-|'^-Kq]'^-"l'S)-^^]-3j^]-:^q-56-^-qqj'S)^^OTyq^!;-] 

^^] ravine, deep valley || There is no farming in that deep valley. 


==;^'q] agriculturist, farmer || My father is a farmer. ^'S'l^M's^'aj'^^^'q'i^Jlj'^aj] 
^RS^'qgjjj agro-pastoral || This is an agro-pastoral area. 

=^q'5S^] brief, roughly || Let me tell you roughly what happened. 

=^5^'=^] thick, deep (sound) || He sings in a deep voice. 


^"i\ to enjoy || I enjoy recreation. ^■|'=;''^^'".V=^".l] 

=^".Vc5] musical instrument || Do you play a musical instrument? 

^"^^S^'^l music II My favorite kind of music is Tibetan music. 


Kn,V55j music II What kind of music do you like? ^^■Tf\V5?S,qj!si-:!j:;-n,v:^:!jq| 
^f\vs^'q] musician || He is a nationally -recognized musician. 

=^".l■§■=^l amusement, entertainment || What do you do for entertainment? 

^"■^S^^P^l recreation club || We had a recreation club but it closed last 
year. =;-i?".vTn.v|=^-p!;-^J!]-Sr^-5r=^] %^=^'^'3i'^'^''?^'^q^=^l 

5^ (^^^ ^S^'^l S^'^l) to destroy, to ruin || The heavy rain has ruined my 
crops. c5^-^=^-|'N-=;q-"iy!]-q5.J!]'Ni 

^^'^■'^p=^] vehicle, automobile || The vehicle raced down the road. 

J.'^'^'^l distilled water || I only drink distilled water. '^'^'5j'^'^l'P^3j''^=^'l 
^^"^■^1 steam, vapor || Steam came from the boiling water. 

^3j] moisture, humidity || The humidity was sixty percent. 

5.3j'«^=^l dry II A desert is dry. |'i3'^'"^^aj-s^=^l 

^3j■J!]^P|=^] humidity, dampness || The humidity in southern China is high. 

^q'^] wave, surge || He felt a surge of sadness when he recalled his dead 

mother. p''^w»i-=^»i-q-53j-q-3j-(^".v|^J!]s=;-^-5.q'^-q^^l 
^q^'c53j] great, outstanding || Who is the most outstanding writer you 

^q^j'^^l wave || The wave of water lifted the boat and moved it closer to 

the shore. 5.q'N-|=^-S]'N-5]-^=^'q^J!]'^-3j'N-5^S?q5]»l-S-^!^] 
^^■sj] testis, testicle || The little boy had an operation because one of his 

testicles had not descended. 

^^■] wind II The wind is cold. S^'^li^'^'^^l 

^Rp5^*]'c53j'i!] the atmosphere || The atmosphere surrounds the earth. 

5^'g3jl air current || I feel an air current — please close the window. 


5^'3j^ dust storm || I am able to see nothing in the dust storm. 


^Rf^^Sj] radio || The radio station has Tibetan programs. 

^^■2;5^^] storm || The storm had a lot of thunder and lightning. 

5^'n#l] storm, hurricane || The storm will hit our area tomorrow. 

5=^''J]"^qi fan II I use a fan when it's hot. 3j»l^-f ^q'^-=;'^-^=;-J!]«^q-q'fiKl| 
5'>"^^1 sail (of a ship) || The ship's sail was made of strong 

cloth. »ic?5]q3=^'"r^'^'^'^'^'23'wql'^l 
^3j] (q^3j] q^3j] ^3j]) to wet, to drench || The rain drenched me. c5^'^^'^<^' 

^S^^] wet, damp, moist || After the rain the air was moist. 

^s^l Ho trust; 'to be conceited || ^I trust you to do the right thing. (iS'^'^'^' 
q-q^q^ifa,is)-SJj^-q:^-^-^5^| "Don't be so conceited that you won't listen to 
what others have to say. ^^•'^V^=;^«^'i'5J!]'N'aj'N'J!](^3j'|,'N'?i=^'^3]'^'q<^-S!^-5-".V 

^s^'^s^^l presumption, conceit || He has so much conceit that he won't 
listen to criticism. jS^»l-5^»i'5^-i-q's)-qj(^3j-|^-|3j-q1'=^-n,V^3j-s^-2^q] 

q^l thigh II He broke the bone in his left thigh. 

q^'-P| flesh of the thigh || The bullet passed through the flesh of his 


q^^'q] violent, cruel || He was a violent man who often fought with 

others. [^■9S'^(^3j'=^=^'£=^'^'N-|,=^-qq-9S-q5.=;^^J!]-5;2^] 

c]^3;'^-P|=^] dampness, wetness || The dampness of the weather made me 

uncomfortable . 3j»i^q-q5,3j-J!]^^-|,'^-=^-q^-^-8^-q5Ji] 
^^■q| unmoved, impassive || His impassive expression suggested that 

he had no sympathy for the grieving family. 




^] mountain || Did you recently climb a mountain? 

"^■|^] mountain top || The mountain top is not easy to reach. 

"l'o5] sealing wax || I put sealing wax on the envelope. 

"^■^1 ability, capacity || He lacks ability and could not outwit his 
opponent. p^".V".iy«^^'q'S)-;^!:;-m-(^5]3^-ai-n.ii!^-^:;-^a.v5^-^q| 

"-I'gJ!] radish || This radish is red. n,vgJl]-q^-^»l^^^::^| 

")■")] some II Some students went to school and some played truant. 

"-V'^J!]'^] etc., and so forth || I've visited Lhasa, Xining, Chengdu, etc. 

"'''1 f^^ handbag || My handbag is made of leather. 

qjj^'s^p'^] skilled, adept || He is skilled at writing Tibetan. 

"-l^'^fi^l certificate || This is a wedding certificate. 

"-l^'^^"-!] cash, money on hand || How much cash do you have in your 

pocket? ^=^-|-^sil-5]^-3^!;-^-^-<^-",iq]-=^5",vq]-§gi^-sr=^-=^5^1 
"-l^'cB] implement, weapon || This thing can be used as a weapon. 

rnqj-q|| 'handle; 'hand in hand || ^My bag doesn't have a handle. ^q'[^J!]'s^' 
".V".l^''^'s^^] 'The two lovers walked hand in hand across the 
grassland. ^J!]'T^J!]'^-J!]|'N-|'N-".lJ!]-q|-^^-3j'N-Fg=;-^=;-q^^| 

"-l^'^'^l handprint || The pane of glass had a handprint. 

"'%T'^^1 to get, to obtain || How did you get the letter? 


".l^'S^!]^] gift II What gift will you give him on his birthday? 

"-IJlj'^R] empty-handed || I was so poor, I had to visit him empty-handed 
when I asked for a favor. 

"-l^'^^ on hand || What goods do you have on hand? 

f\lJ!j'2;5^'q| stingy, tight || He is so tight, he won't spend anything unless he 

has to. p^'^iJ!]'=^s^'q^3j'q'N'p'^'q'fiKv=^qi^)-3j-5^-q]^^ 
"■'^^^1 pocketbook || My mother made my pocketbook. 

".l^'^=;q] bracelet || Where did you buy your silver bracelet? 

"-l^'SS^l armless || The armless man begged for money. 

"-l^'qs] hand gesture || I didn't understand your hand gesture. 

'^^^] hand || One hand has five fingers. ".lJ!]-q-J!]^J!]-".V»l^q-^-'^''Sr=^l 
"-l^'^'^l handkerchief || I put my handkerchief in my pocket, ^^'^z^'sri' 


"-l^'^'^l hand-written || The old manuscript was hand-written. 
qJlj'qqs^l hand grenade || The hand grenade exploded near the soldiers. 


",1JI]'S",1] hand in hand || They walked hand in hand down the street. 

qjj^'s^s^^] murderer || The murderer was arrested. ".lJ!]'^5^=^''^^3j'q|^'^^] 
",1J!]'§'",1] ^craft, skill, "technology || What craft does he know? p''^'".lJ!]'§'".V5' 

(^J!]'-^!'^] 'Technology is an important part of a modem society. qg'^^J!]'^!' 

",lJlj'§'",VS^p3j] technician || He is an electrical technician. 

"lJll'g'"l'q| technician, craftsman || He is a highly paid technician. 


qjjj'q^^l hand to hand combat || When the two groups of soldiers met, 

hand to hand combat ensued. =^5^J!]-=^^'^-J!]|'N-J!i^=;-q^^-q-3j-".lJ!]-qtk-^^l 
'^^■'^^3j] receipt || Do you have a receipt for this expense? 

qjlj-qg^l handmade || These shoes are handmade. ™s^''^^'^J!]'3j'".lJ!]'qg'^'^aj] 
"l^'^"^^ assistant, helper || My assistant does all my typing. 

"1JI^'==;JI^'^] helper, assistant || My helper takes care of my children in the 

afternoon. |^^''^^'"-l^''^^^v|'N-=;q-|'^-q-J!i^=^-|k-|,=^] 
".1^'"1^] manual labor || Did you ever do manual labor? 

".l^'"i3j] practice || Practice makes perfect. ".lJ!]'"i3j'".l^'^5^'=^J!]''^^^'] 
n,iq^-^qs]| glove II This is a fur glove. q^-^-^J!]-qq-".lJ!]--P|q'N--PjJ!]-^3jl 
^^■-Pj'^] handicraft || The only handicraft done in our village is boot- 
making. !;'c^'S-qq-3j!;-n,iq]-^^)-^q]-|=^-q-^-ra»l-ql^fij3j| 

".l^'J!]'^^^] rookie || The rookie worker made some mistakes. 


".1^'] ("-F'l "l^'^l '^'>'^|) 'to get up, to stand up, to rise; 'to cause || 'it's nine 
o'clock and time for you to get up. ^•§§=^•=^^•^=^1 ^•^^•»l".V".l'^'".l!;'N'^3j'$!^l 
'What will cause you to become angry? ^3j'5'(^^'^^'|i=^'".vp^'|g'!^3!^'q' 

".l^'*53j] youthful, young || She is so youthful even though she's in her 

sixties . fW^T^qj-f ".vg=^-^'^-^-5^-5^-".l^-§?53j-^J!]-^=^l 
"-l^'"-!^'] hubbub II The hubbub of the huge crowd made him nervous. 

".l^■^P|=^] spoiled, pampered || He is an only child and very spoiled. 

"-F^'^^^l standpoint, view || I don't agree with your view of this 

problem. J!]3j=^^3j-q^q-^'^-^-ji^-|-".l^'N-|?!]'N-".V9S-qg^l 
f^^'s^] imitating || My children like imitating me. 

"iS^^l imitating || He is very funny when he is imitating our teacher. 



"^Sjl answer || Your answer is wrong. (i^'^'"-13j'^'5^''^^^ 

".13j'c5^'^] retribution || My present suffering is retribution for my past 

misdeeds. =;q-^-'^q-^J!]-q^".V^-1aj-c5^'|'5]-'^^-'^'^-§-^5]-|3^-5!^l 
"-lajAjJl] to act in response to || We will have to act in response to his 

aggressive language. p^'J!]ii»l'q^'.f 2;,'5'^'".V^'§f'N'".iaj'^3j'=;3]^'fl'^^| 
"1=^1 to say, to tell, to speak || She will say anything to please her 

teachers. p^'^'^^'^3j'=^J!]q'^'q|J!]'i=^'S!^-5-S-^5;|!^-^'^-S,!^| He speaks a lot 

when he is drunk. p^ql'ST'^-S'^-'p'^-^^^-cB'sl'^^ajq] 
"-W^^'l talk, discussion || The discussion went on all night. 

".1»11 road, path, way || Where does this road lead? ".1»l-q^-Ji]!;-f\iT^3jW^l 
"-1^'^^ curving road || The curving road up the mountain is dangerous 

when it is raining. o6=^-q-qqq-qq-S^-^-^-S!;-^-qg3j-qq-n,i»l-^q]-^-^3j-p-il 
".15^'p] ^on the way; ^road || ^We are now on the way to my friend's 

home. =;-§f=^-<^-=;q-^J!]'N^q-^»l-S-q^qq-".l»l-p-3j-Sr=^] -That road was covered 

with tar last year. 3j-^=;-".W^=;-".v'^^J!]-=^'T]^-|-»l-q^=;'^l 
n,15^'5]J!j»j| traveling companion || I and my traveling companion visited 

Shanghai last month. |-^3j-»l^-=;-=^=;-=;q-".l»l-^J!]'N-5=;-^-".v'^=;-l 
".is^'5]3j] travel expenses || My travel expenses were less than I expected. 


f\15^'q5]n,vqi traveler || The traveler carried a large bag. 


"15^'fl^^] provision for a journey || Provision for our journey consisted of 

meat, butter, and cheese. ^■c^-".ls^-^J!]'N-".V.P|-=^^-5^^1 ^^-q-qs^NW^] 
"-is^'^'^l surface of a road || The surface of that road is concrete. 

f\ls^'c5M] preparation for traveling || Our preparation for traveling required 

two days. !;-^'^-"l»l-S'^-^J!]'q^'|3j'J!]^'N-=^^^-^=;-l 
f\15^'5J!^^]] road sign || The road sign had faded and we couldn't read what 

it said. '^l5^'^J!]'N'^'S^Y']'^"l'3i'^'=^'i''^'^^'^'^'5'^^'q'f[=^W^'^^ 
",is^'^3j'i!] guide II Our travel guide explained the temple paintings to us. 

"^5^'^] guide II I'm learning English so that I can be a tourist guide. 


"-15^"^^] halfway, midway || Halfway to our destination, our bus broke 

down. =;'§fq'=^5^J!]'NAiq-nj5^-|2^-nj-q|^^-q-3j-:;-§gq-|-^:^-^:;s]-qpk-aj-c5J!]'|^ 

"'^'§^'^1 principle; "road; ''policy || 'What is the school's study 

principle? ^q-5!q-^q-'|=;-^-".l»l-|5!]'N-^-5-^J!]t^3jl "Where does this road go? 
'^W^J!]^'^'J!]^'".V'^g3j'^=^] ^A policy to improve people's lives is 
something every country shares. 5^'^5^'^'^''^^q'"i^^'q5^'|,=^'^^'".w!|5!]^' 

f\15^'(^^| on the way || On the way to your home we saw a wolf 

"Is^T^q^ travel document || I forgot my travel document at home. 

"-l^'^^^l way, system || Planning a market system requires much time. 

".is^'".!^!] wrong way, aberrant behavior || I punish my children when they 

behave in the wrong way. !;q'|,'^'q'§f'^l5^'"W]'".V^3;-g-:;si-s5:^-q-qJ5':^| 
"15^''^^'] at once, right away || Come to my home at once! 

qs^'jjn,!] custom II Everybody must abide by this custom. 

"-I'^l Ho do; 'to work; ^to build; ''luck, karma || 'What do you want to do 
tomorrow? 'N=;'|3j'^=^'^'N'%^J!]'".l'N'q^=^] "After I work all day I'm tired. 
=;'^-|3j-J!]=;^=^-".l'N-3j'^-g=;-S^l ^We will build a new school here. =;-§f'N-q^-3j'^- 
^q-5]-^q]-n.i^)-^tS|3j| ^His luck seemed suddenly to turn bad. p'^'"-1'^'S'^g^' 
s;'^'^J!j'",V^R] He must have good karma because everything he does is 
successful. |^^-g-q-g5]!^-^!^-«gq-(^^-q?l-|^-aj-aj!5<-q^!^-aiq|-q-^q|-(^^q|-q-gq|- 

"^'^1 from II This bread is made from wheat flour. J!]'^''^=^'5]'^'".l'^'q5'^l 
'^^'^ work, job, business || My father's job is a teacher. ^^W^'S'"^!^''!]'^' 
^^■^3j'^^'^3j] What sort of business do you do? ^=^'^»)''q'5r'T|'§'^Jl]'5n'^^' 

"''^S^l than even || I'm older than even the oldest person in your 

village . =;-^=^-iq-S-qq-5^-i^)-SJ^3j-".l'N-^=;-"r3j-sjg] 
"I'^'ifj^'l work position || He got a work position at the new factory. 



",1«^'^",1] Mestiny; 'one's share of work || ^It must be my destiny to be 
optimistic. W|=;-|=^-q-^-=;q-".l'^-^".v5S3j-q-p^gq]-5;2^| -pil do my share of 
work if you do your share. (i^'|'N-3;c-S|TH5^-sjq-qi5^-^-c,5^-;^K,-§j-a,is]-^n,vq|^q| 

"-I'^'p^'l workshop || The workshop was busy twenty -four hours every 

"!^'[^=^1 duty, job II My job is to guard the building. ^^'"-l^'l^^^'aj'gJlj'p^'Si:;' 
^1^'51 workshop || Which workshop do you work in? 


".I'^'g]^!]^] assistant, helper || My assistant is sick today. 

q'^'qq^'s^l division of labor || The division of labor between men and 
women should be equal. 

"-l^'f^^aj] task, duty, mission || What task do you want me to do? 

".l'^''^^"1] movement, campaign || The anti-smoking campaign has had 
some success. g'S^J!]'q'T]J!]''^J!]J!]'J!]'".l'^''^^".V".V^".vp'^^'g=^'gq] 

"-I'N-IJ work, job II What work do you do? ^'^'^'N-n.l'N-^-^qi-J!]^^! 

f^'^'^aj] bad luck, misfortune, unfortunate || It's bad luck that you lost 
your job. ^^'^'N'^^^'tn'^'q^^^'q'^'^l'^'^aj'^y^'^^] It is a great misfortune I 
did not learn English when I was young. !;'5i'^R^^'^'=^^'"^J!]'".V|^'q's^' 

^I'^'SSj] lucky, fortunate || You are lucky to get such a good job! 

"-I'^'cB^] work efficiency, work output || The new machinery has 

increased our work efficiency. '^^".Vc5^'^^=^'q'^^'^'§§^'".l^'l=^'t's^g'^'q^^'] 
",l«^'J!ja^] 'management; 'to manage || 'When management improved the 

factory made a profit. ".l'N-J!]^^-t-'^lJ!]'^-^-q^=;-Sl ql^5]'N-5^'^J!]-g-^qi 'He 

manages a factory as the general director. p'^'q3'5]'(^^'J!]'g'|5q'q'T]=^' 

".I'^'Jl^a^'q] manager || He is the manager of that shop. 

"l^'5^ present || The present prime minister of the UK will soon visit 


China. =^|,3j-|r^-f\i'N^J!]-=^g-q(g'^'N-^3j-i3j-|,^-9)-q^=;'N-q^-!T]!;-qi=^-qc^^ 

"^'^■=^3j] ^cause; 'undertaking || 'I'm sorry that I can't contribute any 

money to your cause. ^J!]'N-q^".V»l-q(^=;'^l =;'^-(i=^-|-".l'N-'^3j-".v|'=^-5rq-(^".vq^q'N- 
^'^'^■^^■^I'^l "Your undertaking is admirable. ^^■^■"-I'^^Sj'^'"^^'! 3^'^^' 

q's^'q^Sj'^] position, rank || He worked hard to get a better position. 

"-IM'^ajl processing || Iron ore processing requires a lot of fuel. 

"^'^■=^^3j] supervisor of laborers || He had been a supervisor of 

construction laborers for twenty years before he retired. 

"I'^'n^l unfinished work || When can you complete the unfinished work? 

"l'^'=;q^'] fate, destiny || It must be my fate to have a long life. 


"-I^N-f"-!] labor, work || Farm work is tiring. »?3j»l-|,-".l'N-f".V^-=^'T]q-Jgi!]'N-il 
"l'^"g'"l'q| laborer || How long have you worked as a laborer? 

"I'^'^'^l amount of work || What amount of work is required everyday in 

your job? |3i'^^'^=^'|'^'q^'"-l'^-^=^-^-5''^5'^3Jl 
"-I'^'f^^aj'^!] manager || Please tell the manager I'm ill and can't work 

today. =^•'^l•aj•cfg,'^•aj'N•^•^=;•'^l'N•'T]•'^l'N•5^•^q•3'N•'^l'N•qW3j•q•'^l•q^p|=^•T^!]^ 
qs^'q^n,!] mistake (in work) || This mistake will cost the company a lot of 

money . '^I'N-qf '^vq^'N-^=;i-'^v|'^-5rq-|k-^3j-i3j^qg-^-5,^| 
q^j'f^^l 'spare time; 'amateur || 'in my spare time I read scripture. ^M'"1M' 

(^=^'".Vc5'^''^=^3j] "He is an amateur dancer. p'3j'".l^'(^=^'^'J!]=^'5^p3j'(^J!]'^=^] 
"-l'^''^".!] working area || The working area is not very safe. 

t^^'^^Jlj'^] kind of occupation || What kind of occupation would you like 

to have? ^=^'|'^-".1'N-^J!]'N-5'^J!]'J!]^^''^'^=^1 
"I'^'^^'^l work shift || The work shift lasts eight hours. 


"-I'^'^^J!]'^] help, assistance || Your help was very important to my success. 

".IM'^^J!]'^'^!] assistant, helper || The assistant did not speak English. 

"-I'^'-Pj^ 'work hostel; 'house || 'The rooms in the work hostel had dirt 
floors. ".l'^■^P|J!]■3j^■J!]■p^■5^J!]■J!]■g^■3j■'^■"^aj] "The house was made of wood. 

'^'^'^'^'^1 easily, without problem || I can run that distance easily. 

^■^1 calendar || The Tibetan calendar is different from the Gregorian 

calendar. q=^'|'i^'g^''5J!]'N-J!]'N^-§-"1-g^=^=;-5^-q51 
"31 ("31 '^'^1 '^'^D to cough II I coughed all night. =;-»lcf3j'J!]=;^^''3's)| 
f^'^ lamb II The lamb followed its mother all day. ^3j'^^'q=^'!^'^'^!;'5n' 

'^'l] sheep II How many sheep do you have? (i=^'".V'5^'^'^5]'^2^] 
"3^ C^^S^^D to flow II Mucus flowed from the child's nose. 

'5^'|S] flock of sheep || A flock of sheep grazed on the mountainside. 

f^^'i!^^] sheepskin || He sold the sheepskin to a trader. 

'^^■q".!] sheep wool || This sweater is made from sheep wool. 

'5^'^] shepherd || The shepherd took the sheep out to graze every day. 

'^^•f] mutton II I don't like mutton overcooked. ^■'^^'-Pj'cf'N'^Jl^'^'q^'s^'^^J!]'^] 
'^^'^1 to coin, to mould || The Qing Dynasty coined a lot of money. 

'5^'^] custom II Being hospitable to visitors is a Tibetan custom. 


'^^'^'l^'l old custom II Dancing during the lunar New Year is an old 

custom. '5J!]'^-|=;-^-'^J!]'N^-".v|^q(gq-q-^-'5J!]'^-|=;-^J!]-5S3j] 
'^^'^'s^aj] proper, lawful || Obtaining a marriage certificate is a proper 

thing. ^^3ii^'5]'"lJI]'|i^''^3j-q-^-'5£I]'N-S^3j-|,-^-q-^JI]-«J3j| 


njjjjsj'jjn,!] custom || What is an important custom in your home area? 

'^^'l order, document || The Living Buddha gave me a rehgious 

document. S"-V^'^-=;-".V'5=;-^J!]-J!]3j=;-l 
<^^'q^3j] prophecy, prediction || What is your prediction about rainfaU 

this summer? ^■^^■=^^^f ^'cB^-f '^qq-q'l-^^-aj'N-(i=^-f\V'5^-q^aj-5-^J!]W^l 
'^^■'^^aj] to quote, to cite || He likes to quote famous sayings when he 

speaks. 'p'^'J!]^»i'q.p|=^'^q'N-J!]^»i-=^q-5]J!]'N-53j-|,-'5=;-q53j-q==;-=^Ji]q] 
"^^n'^I valley || The valley was covered with trees and grass. 

'5=^] fertilizer, muck || Without fertilizer, crop yields are lower. "^S'^^S'^' 
qg'^Jlj^'^^'cf=^'2^5^q] We collected the muck from the pigsty, dried it, 
and then used it to fertilize our fields. ;;-S'^-5iq|-fqs;-'^!^-^!^-gz:;!^-3^!^-^-5]^- 

'^S''^] phlegm II His phlegm contained small dots of blood. 

'^=;'^'^] chemical fertilizer || Chemical fertilizer is sold in bags. 

'^'^l to be left behind, to be left with || I want to study hard and not be 
left behind the other students. 

'^'^1 body II You have a strong body. ^^■f^-'5'^-qT]3j-s?^J!]W^l 
(^^■ps^^l the body || The body has countless cells. 

'^'^■(g^ blood II Blood flowed from his wound. p'^'^'p'"-l^'(^^'q'^^l 
'5'^'S3jl body, physique || Daily exercise has given him a healthy body. 

nj^'^q'^l vitality, physical strength || Good food and lots of exercise will 

give you vitality. ^■»l-qg=;^^=;-g-".V|=;-»l=^^^^-^-^=^-".V'5'^-^q'N-^'N-|^l 
^'^'^] body II Where does your body hurt? (i^'|''3'N^^=;-3j'^-3jl 
'^'^^^1 body II Without exercise his body became fat. 

<^'^'§'".l] sport, physical exercise || Volleyball is my favorite sport. 


'^'^■g'^-Vp^'] gymnasium || The basketball game was held in the 

gymnasium. '3'N'§'".vp=;'R''^2;'f'^'^^q'q5]3j'q^^'Sn,i] 
<^'^'g'"1'g^'] sport field || The long distance race was held at the sport 

field. -^^-g^-vg^-^-l^^-l^-q^iaj-qi^-^^l 

'^'^■§■".1'^] athlete || He was an athlete when he was young. 

'^'^l^'^l vitality || I would like to have more vitality because I often feel 

tired. '^■^3j'^'g=^'c5=^'i!'N-'5'^-|=;'N-^-q'N-i3j^2(ji^-3j-q^=^l 
'^'N'-Pj';] physical strength || Lifting weights can increase your physical 

strength. |^''^^^'N-f:;-q?=^-g!^-^-(i=^-|-'5'N-'^q'N-^^-^qi 
njsi'^]5^»j| body and mind, physical and mental || Good physical and 

mental health are important to a feeling of well-being. 

nj^'jjjjj life II Someone should save that drowning man's life. 

"I'q^] kilometer || It is about a kilometer from here to the train station. 

"-Vcfsj] section, chapter || I wrote one chapter of that book. 

'^l'"-!] laziness || Laziness will not lead to success. "i''^V".l'^'g'^vp's^''^^'] 
"^VfTSajl lazy II Lazy people rarely get rich. 5^'"i''T53j'^J!]^^''^^^'q'g=;'l 
"i!3] chapter || I didn't understand this chapter. ^'^■'^l!3''^=^''^VJl]'q'«^'".13j] 
"-l^^l good II This situation is very good for me. 

'^'^^^'^] gift, award || The gift was small but she appreciated it. 

".lJ!]^'^5]q] accomplishment, fulfillment || The accomplishment of what 
he had set out to do made him famous. 

r\lJ!^^'sqj co-ordination || Co-ordination between different offices is 

important for the work unit to be efficient. ".l'^'[^^»^''^^3j'g^''33j'i!=^'J!]^^' 

^l^lj^'qs^l improvement || Improvement is needed to make the factory 

more efficient. ql^^q-'^'N-I'=^-i:^^-^-Jl]y;-q^-"iJl]'N-q5'^--^Jl]-|=^-=^^^| 


"-l^'^'cB] advantage || What is the advantage of doing it this way? 

".l^j'^'R'^] good and bad, right and wrong || He has qualities that are good 
and bad— like everybody else. 8^-J!](^3j-q-^=;-q5-q^-p^".V":iJ!]'^-^'^-J!]|'^-'T]-'^3jl 

"-l^'^'^^l good, well II The relationship between my mother and 

grandmother is very good. =;'l-i3M-5^-=^'^-'^J!]|'N-|-q|".vq-^-=9-5'^-":iJ!]'N^T^3il 

".IJlj'^'i!^^] successfully || He successfully learned English through 
independent study. p''^-^=;-|^=;-".vq'^aj-ajM-=^|aj-«SJ!]-":iJ!]'^-q^-|^=;'^l 

".IJjj^'g^l Sanskrit || Sanskrit is an Indian language. 

".1^^'q.P|=;] maxim || 'Hard work brings success,' is a maxim, '"^'^'qg'aj'"-!'^' 

"-13J] (q^'l q^^] '^^^'\) to accept, to receive, to take || Please accept my gift. 

(^q] flat II The table top is flat. 5J!]-5q-§!;-X!^-^-"iq-5j-^3^1 
f^iq-fJiq] flat II A plateau is a large flat area. »i^§^=;-^-'N-J!]^-":iq-5j-i3j^^J!]-«S3jl 
"-1] ^ear; 'age || 'One year later ITl graduate and have a job. "-V^!]©^'^'^^' 
^■'^■«i3==^'|;3j'q^q'=^=;'gq'^J!]'^=;w^'q^ -At the age of seven I began 
attending primary school. 'TqS3j'^!;'=;!^'^q'§=;'q^»l'q^q§'»l'Nl 
t^'qp^] 'anniversary; 'annual || 'We invited several monks to our home 
to chant on the tenth anniversary of my mother's death. ^^I'l^M's^'q^;^' 
3j!srnrqpk-q§-q3j-q=;] =;-S''N-q§3j-q-q5!]q-^=^-cf=^-s-l'^-q^aj-^-J!]=^3j-5=;'Nl -Our 
village has several annual festivals. ^■§f^'S'q'".V"r'^p^'^'S^'i3j''^J!]'T"K] 
^S]^] history || China has a long history. ^=;-3yn,VfTg^)-S,RSf^qj-'^3j| 
f^Vg^'^] historian || He is a historian specializing in Tibetan history. 

"-V^'^l bad harvest || Little rain means a bad harvest. c5=^'5^'qq'^'^'".V^^''^^'>'| 

"-V^^ crop II Barley is a crop. 3j^'3j'".V^J!]'5^'"^3j] 

"-V^S] the first half of the year || I'll go to Xi'an during the first half of 

the year. ^^■"-V'^'^'i^l3j'^''^^^'^3jl 
n,v=;^'5^] young II When I was young I never saw a car. 

f^3jl age II What is your age? (i^'fT5i|-S'^-'^3jl 

"I'aj'^'l young, youthful || My students are all young. ^'SA]q'5^'^^'5^'"l'3j'^| 


"^■3^1 leaf II He drew a picture of a leaf p«5'",vs^(^"^'5^'<35n-^^] 

"^'^ translation || The translation of this book is not as good as I 

expected. =^^'S''^^^W^'^'=^<^'q'5I5]-I:^-aj^-^q|-q-(^^q| 
'^■•^^1 translator || He works as a Tibetan-Chinese -English 

translator. p''^^=^'^'=^|;aj'|,'"f^'qq'".l'N''T]'|,=^l 
"-V^l Hime; ^ear and month || 'Now that the hard time has passed, our 

lives are better. =^''^'=^'T]q'JgJ!]'N'i'qq'"r^'q(g=^''^=;'q'Nl =;'§§q'q§f q'1''^lJ!]'N'^'»r=;'] 

'Please tell me the year and month in which you were bom. ^'"-I'lSS' 



"-V'^Sj] period || The period after Liberation has seen many Tibetans 

educated. q5=^'N'q^f\v|!^-§''Tt^3j'3j=^^=^'5^'s^=^^|^V^q'J!]»5Tqi 
^^»11 grade || I'm in Grade Three. =;-^-"T^»l-J!]^»l-q-'^3jl 
".V"1J!]^] bumper harvest || Good weather meant a bumper harvest. 


".V"13jl Ho age; 'aged, senior || 'Every human being ages. 5^'cf^'5^'".V"13j''^5!] 

'The senior members of our village met for a party yesterday. ^'S^'S' 

"-1'^'^=^] new year || I will stay at home during the Lunar New Year 

holiday period. '3'^'N-|=;-'^J!]'N^-|,-J!]3j=;-qq-^q'N-^-=;-^:;-|5]-^-^!^-^->SS3j| 
fW^fWq] whole year || I went to school for only nine months, not the 

whole year. =;'^q'5]^1'^^'".v'^=;'q'^»l'".1's)-fT5".1^=^'»l'»r=;'l 
"-1^ 'to return, to come/go back; 'to fall down || 'Please come back and 

visit us again. |^-"W]-3j'N-=;-§f".l-wi!;-q^^-si^n,vq^-|^^l] 'That old house will 

fall down soon. p'^-qi^-q-^-5^-'^5,^'N-q^-f^J!]-^-^=^l 
"^^■'3] heretical view || I don't agree with your heretical view. 

"-l^'g^] reactionary, perverted action || Your views are reactionary and 
few people will accept them. ^=^'|''^'q'^''^^'|=^'^3i'=^'N-=^=;-'^l3j-|,=^-5^p3j-=^'fi3jl 

""'^l^'^l reactionary || He called anyone who didn't agree with him a 
reactionary . 'p'^-fS^=^=^-8^-q5l=^-q-^=^-s^-"W]-|=^-q^-q|'Nl 

"-l^'ft^'l black market || He sold gold on the black market. 


".1^'J!]"^5^] sexual perversion, adultery || She divorced her husband on the 
grounds of adultery, jf Jl]'N-f^Jl]-Jl]«J»l-|=^-q-".r^3i-^^-3j'N-pif^£l]-=^=;^=^| 


"-l^'^l near, on the side of || My family lives near here, on the side of a 
river. ^=^'cf=^'q^'J!]q'§^q'q5]»l'RW^l 

"-1^'] ("-1^'] ".1^^]) Ho be enough; 'to reach (certain number) || ^This product 
quality is high enough to satisfy the standard. g3j'^^''^^'l'^^''T]'cf'^'J!](^''^V 
"l^'^^l 'Our production has reached one thousand units a month. ^'S^' 

"^^v'q] ^blind; 'blind person || Hf you are blind you can't see. ^".vy|i=^'".F'q' 
^J!]t^3j-^-^=^-|'N-5ra=;-5^-^qi 'The blind person walked with a stick, f^^^-q-^' 

"-l^'g] bail II The bucket's rope bail broke. g'q^'f^l^'g'cB^] 

"-l^'"-!^'] seething, churning || The seething river water was as cold as ice. 


n,i^«^'^'g=;] to consume || Last year my family consumed a lot of flour and 

oil. aj'^!;'^=^'cf';'S]'^'|,'^=;'|si'»i!;^"r=;'^'^'|^l 
".13J] to get, to reach, to acquire, to obtain || How much money can you 

get by working for that company? 

"iq] ("-iq] '^^^\) to get used to, to get accustomed to || I can't get used to 

the sound of the cars on the road. =;-^-".l»l-^=;-^-5.=;'^-qp'^-|,-|^-".V"rq-5^-^qi 


-P| meat, flesh || I like meat better than vegetables. ^■^c?=;'".l'^'-P|'".V^^'^] 
-Pj'^s^] dried meat || Dried meat is my favorite food. 

-Pj'p^'l meat shop || The meat shop had no beef today. 

-P|'(^^ flesh and blood || My daughter is my flesh and blood. 

^P|■^| kinsman, blood relative || I accidentally met my kinsman in Xining 

on the street. |-"1=;-^-^-23=;-3j'N-^M-=^q=;-^'N-=^-=^q-.P|y"l-n^^| 
-Pl'^^ 'complete; 'certain || 'He is a completely good man. 


p^-|s]-q-qg:;^^-«q^-|q^T;^3jl "I certainly need that. =;-".V^-»ip^q-.P|-^J!]-«)3jl 
^P|■«^^^ skin color || The sun darkens my skin. ^■5^'^'^'S'.P|'s^^^'^3jJ!]'yJ!]^^'] 
^P|■^^ meat without fat, lean meat || I like meat without fat better than fat 

meat. =;-.P|-sf3j^".l'N-.P|-|J!]-".V™J!]-y^J!]qi 
-P|'5^] mushroom || He cooked the big mushroom in butter and garlic. 

-Pl'cfj love, concern, affinity || Love is a strong emotion. 

^P|■(^3j] love, fondness || Parents have much love for their children. 

-P|'^33j] carnivorous || A lion is a carnivorous animal. '^^■5i'3j'.P|'J!]g3j'(^J!]''^3j] 
-PI'^Sj'^^l fresh meat || Fresh meat tastes better than old meat. 

-P|'".13j] revenge || A common proverb says 'Revenge is sweet.' 

^P|■^PI^| fatness of livestock || With a single glance the buyer could guess 

the fatness of the livestock. '^»ip3j-^'N-q<^'N-»l-gJ!]-y^J!]'NlJ!]-^-.P|--Pi=^-§?k-^qi 
-f^'q] deer || A deer ran across the road. -f^-q-^J!]-".l»l-^=;-3j'N-q|^-S-q^J!]'^l 
-Pj^'sj] intimate friend || My intimate friend and I went to a movie 

together. =;q-.P|J!]^^=;-^^-J!]^'N-»1^5^-S-^J!]-q^3j-".vq'^-q^-'^=;-l 
-Pj^'cf^'l dwelling || Their dwelling is a tent. p^^'-P|^'cf^'^'a'^=^'^^'^3j] 
-Pj^'^l wordplay || He likes to tease people through wordplay. 

-P|^] 'comb; 'to comb || 'Where did I put my comb? ^^'^z;,' 

sn'^'.P|=^'J!jR",vq(^Jlj'g",l| "I comb my hair every morning, •^a'^f^'ia^nj^'q^- 

<P|3j| 'patch; ^difference; ''influence || 'The blacksmith made a metal 
patch for the saddle. »lJ!]^-q'^-§^-".V'|J!]'N-.P|3j-^J!]-q^qi "Can you tell the 
difference between good and bad? ^^■^^■q5^'^3j'|,'.P|3j''^|,=^'^q'qsi] ^Oral 
Tibetan has a strong influence on spoken Chinese in Qinghai. ^^'^^' 

-P|3j''^^^] to distinguish, to differentiate || I can't distinguish one brother 
from the other. =;'^-^3j-«^-J!]|M-'T]-.P|3j-n|,=^-5^-^qi 

-PI3j'g^| comparison || A comparison of English and Tibetan shows that 


they are very different languages. 

,P|si',P|s^| drooping, hanging down || His robe was hanging down. 

•P\^\ ^east; 'to rise, to arise; ho appear || ^ Your lost yak is over there in 
the east. ^'^■^^^■'^'^■q'l'J!]«^J!]'^'«^'Sl^'.P|^'1?!]'^-3j-Sr=^l "The sun will rise in 
the east tomorrow morning. 'N=;'|3j'S5n!^-q3;y»i-,p|^-gm!^-^-,p|^-^-5,2^| ^A 
beautiful landscape appeared when I woke up in the car. ^'\^^^^^^^ 

-Pj^^'qg^] going straight ahead || After going straight ahead for an hour, 

turn left. «^S3i'S'^'§f=^'^5J!]''^V.P|^'q|=^'^^r|^VJ!]«r3j-^-|j!]'Nl 
-P|=^'^'^(5^'5^ east longitude || What is the east longitude of your home? 

-Pl^^'Jlj^^'] to send straight || Please send the message straight to his office. 

-Pj^'^^^l the east, the eastern direction || The sun rises in the east. 

-P|=^'"21 southeast || The wind came from the southeast. 

-Pj'^] a few, several || Only a few people in my village have visited 

Lhasa. !;'§§q'|-qq-5^-p-,P|'S)-^»l-a,iS]-ra-^]^-q^Sl-^:;-| 

-Pj'^'cB] maybe || Maybe I can visit you soon. 

■?|'^] death || Death comes to every human. 5^'cf^'5^'".V-Pj'^'§q'^'^=^] 
-Pj'p] the moment of death || He stopped breathing at the moment of 

death. •^'P^'p'^'^g^'N-|-^-q-c5^1 
-P|■cf=^l mortality rate, death rate || What is the infant mortality rate in this 

-P|'".15^] dangerous road || Only a dangerous road went up the mountain. 

■^^ House, lice; 'a, an || 'A louse crawled down his sleeve. -Pj^'S^'p'l'g' 
^^■3j^'3j^'s^=^'"1''^^J!] "A boy sold a yak yesterday to an old businessman. 

■fl=\| wood II Wood is a material. -PI^'3i'f]'S''^^'"^3j| 


^^S] wooden statue || He put the wooden Buddha statue near the 

window. p''^''^!;'N'^M'^'5|=;'^'^'5'»iq'"W]'N'^'q(^J!] 
-Pj^'p^'l wooden house || The wooden house caught fire and burned. 

-Pj^'cB] timber, lumber || The new temple required a lot of timber. 

^'^y^ fruit II Is this fruit a strawberry? ^=;y!]-q^-^-q|-y'N-qW3j-5S3j-aj»l| 

■^'^'5| cart II The cart was made of wood. -Pj^y^'-Pj^'^-l^'^iq] 

$\'^^'^] tree || The tree blew over in the high wind. lj!;-'^=;-^-5J!]^^=;-n,vq|'^] 

•^'^■'^g^N] fruit II An apple is a fruit. ^■-P|-^-^=;-qg'N-.f|Jl]-"S)3i| 

■^^■q^] carpentry || After he learned carpentry he got a lot of small jobs 

making things for various families. 

-Pj^q^'q] carpenter || The carpenter made a new wooden chest for our 

family . 5|!;-ql^q-^'^'^=^'cf'^'".v5|'^'1=^'J!]'^^'q'^J!]'".l'Nl 
■^'>''^q] board, plank || This plank is made of pine. ■?|^''^q''^^'^'Jl]»W'-P|^'".l^' 

^P|R^lq•'^q| spongy wood || This spongy wood is not good quality. 


^3j'^l very || He is very tall. pq-J!]|J!]'N--Pj3j-i2'»i5j 

■ffi] to be lucky, to be auspicious || I want to be lucky all my life. 

-Pj^'q^S] congratulation word || Congratulations on the birth of your son! 

-Pj^'cf^ word of congratulation || Congratulations on your marriage! 

^P|'31■=J| juniper || Juniper trees grow on mountains. =^'S^J!]'3j'^'-P|J!]'i!'S'S^'q'^] 
W\'^] strength, power || His voice has a lot of strength. p'l'^^'^.V-Pj^^'iaj'^' 

'23J] The wind blew with great power. 5^':fl^'^'5^''^'^'^'^^'^l His poetry 

has power. p'^'^3j-=;J!]'".V-P|^'N'52T|-T'^3j] 
f[Jr|5^'53;'Sj] strong, powerful || The powerful wind blew away our tent. 

^!;-5q|-W=;'§§q'|'^^'^^l That monk has a powerful voice. q^3j'q'^'".V^=^' 

-P|Jl]^'S3i| influence, effect || Buddhism has much influence on Tibetans. 


-Pjjj^M'q^aj] implication || Have you thought about the implication of your 

actions? ^=^-|<^-^=^-|-g|=^-|--p|^<^-q^3j-"-vq=^^-q§q-q5^1 
~Pi5[^'^l'g3j] strengthening, reinforcing || Teachers are strengthening their 

students' knowledge. =^^'^3j'|,^V^q's^q'^'N'^'".V-P|J!]'^''|3j'|,=^'q^3;'"f!>l 
^PI^] to slip II I slipped on the ice and broke my hip. ^■^=^'g^'3j'^'-P|^'^'^!;,'sr|' 

-P|3j'i!J!]'Nl peel, skin || I never eat apple peel. =;'^-^--P|q--P|3j-qJ!]'^-3j»l-«J=;-5^-^] 
-P|q] (q-P|q] q-Pjq^] -flq^l) to whisper || Don't whisper, speak loudly. 


-Piq'-Piqi whispering || I can't hear what you are whispering. 

'Piq'^] sheath, case || I put my knife into a leather sheath. 

fl^l ravine || Junipers grow in that ravine. -P|J!l'g^''^^'-PI=^'=;'a'^'ai 
-P|=^'S^] ^striped; 'corduroy || 'l bought a pair of striped trousers. ^'^'ifj^'SW 
<PI==;'8^'65'^5^'^^] "I wear corduroy trousers in winter, ^^'^^aj'p^^'ifj^'gs^' 

-P|"1] remain, track, trace, anything left behind || What will remain after 

we die? =;-§f •f|-|'N-1'N--P|".l%-^J!]-Sr^l 
<P|"1'53jl heritage, inheritance, legacy || Every culture has a heritage that 

needs to be preserved. ^5!]-5!]3j'^-'wi^-S3=;-qt3j-|^-^^^-qq--P|".V^3j-^-Sr=^l 
-P|"1''^^3j] inheritance || After your parents die, what will be your 

inheritance? (i=^'|'«^qt^«^''^=^'N-1'Nl ^=^'|'N-5--PjJ!]--P|".V'^%|=^-^-^3jl 
<PI".V'^^3j'«^p3j] successor, heir || The king's son will be his successor. 

-Pj^l fat II The sheep gained a lot of fat after the grass grew well. 

-Pj^'^PI^'^l strength, power, force || The wrestler's strength is sufficient to 
overpower all his opponents. 

-P|".l] crystal, glass || The glass in the windows was broken by boys 

throwing rocks. |^-q-§f'N^(^5i!;!^-3jM-|!3-f^^-Sl-^".V^5^M-q3£!]'Nl 
-P|"1'§3 glass II I bought a new piece of glass for the broken window. 


^".V^»ll bottle II Do you want a bottle of beer? 

.P|".V5^J!] eyeglasses || Wearing eyeglasses is troublesome. 

•ffi] to know, to understand || I understand what you are saying. 

-Pj'^'g] knowledge || The lama has a profound knowledge of 

Buddhism. q'»l'^'".V3j=^'q^3j'|,'^'N-*-gq-5rw^l He has much knowledge of 
Tibetan traditions. '^=^'|'^"-l'^3j'|,'^^'3j'N'P^"-V-R'^'|'i3j^^=^l What 
knowledge do you have about this local area? '^"-V^^'^''^^^'^^'3i'^'(i^'"-V 

•P\^^^'^^] understanding, comprehension || What is your students' English 
comprehension level? ^=^'^'^q'5^^'=^|i3j'^^'^^'^'^'^'cf'^'5''^5''^3jl I am 
beginning to have a greater understanding of life. ^'^■n^q<^'^3;'S^' 

.P|^'™3j] learned, intelligent || The learned teacher had many famous 

students. ^^■^3j-^'N-'^3j-^-".V^q-»l-5]J!]'^-53j-»l=;^W^l 
•P\^^] consciousness, knowledge || How long does it take to obtain much 

knowledge? ^'^■q-i3j^qgq-q^-s^t^3j-J!]-sf=^-^^^l 
-Pj'^'^l knowledge || How much knowledge do you have of American 

history? i3M-s^-S,-pq-q^^^]-|-|'^-3j^)-^=^-n,v^^)-^-5-q5W^l What is your 

knowledge of English? ^=^'^'^|)3j'^^'S]--a!^-g(^-5:^-5-q5tSS3j] 
-Pj^^'^^siaj] ignorant, lowbrow || That book only appeals to lowbrow 

tastes. ^^■c5'^'-Pi'N-=^5^aj-=^J!]-Sl-p5^'N-p^3j-".V5^3jl 
^P|^•^3j•5aj] intellectual || He is an intellectual, although he has received 

little formal schooling. 

-Pj'^'^^q] wisdom II I question your wisdom in making this decision. qj=^'.P|' 

'^^•J!]5=^'i!'S^J!]'3j'^'!;'".VJi^'^'^'^'^q'»ipj 'Wisdom' is the opposite of 

'ignorance. ' '■Pi'N-5;q '■^■'^=^'^-qq'-'^J!]^-5S3j] 
.P|'^'=^q'53j] genius || The genius math professor was often impatient with 

his students. t'N-^J!]'5l|^!^-^3^-5i-^aj-i3j-5f^-pq-^q-5^-^5^^v|^J!]-'^V^^-^^-^J!]-'^ 
-PI] gambling || I quit gambling when I was seventeen years old. "1'q§' 


-Pj'"-!'''] four lines of poetry (as a style) || Writing poetry in the style of 
four lines was more popular in the past than today. 

-Pj'g'^l gambling, the game of dice || Do you like gambling? 

-P|^ come! || Come here and hear what I have to say! '^=^=^■^P|JIl■3j^■^^■a'^■5■ 

-P|^'^ paper || I put a piece of paper over the broken window. 

.P|^'5]^^] number of pages || What is the number of pages in this book? 

-Pjij^'as^] cardboard box || I put everything valuable that I owned in one 

cardboard box. !;'N'5;c-S|-^-53^-!^?!^-q-cdk-»l-?iJ!]-§^»l-^J!]-§]-3j!;-^-q(^J!] 
-Pj^'^'^] page II Turn to page twenty. .P|J!]'^^'^'-P|'q'".V<^^] 
^J!]'gi paper || What is paper made of? ?iJ!]-g-^-5-^J!]-S]'N-ql'^-q-«S3jl 
^^■^1 kite II The kite sailed in the sky. ^^'^'*ip'^'^|=^'N-^-'^^l 
-PjJJj'^Jl] firecracker || The firecracker popped loudly. 

-P|^'"2] sheet of paper || I wrote a letter on a sheet of paper. 

-P|^'] to fit, to have room || Is there room for me to ride in your car? 


-Pj^'cf'^l capacity || What is the capacity of this vat? 

-Pjs^l splendid attire, rich dress || He wears splendid attire during 

festivals. ^^■i3j-|-^q'N-^-p'^-?i5^-^^l 
^»1] (q,P|»l] q.P|»l'^l ^si'^l) to exhibit, to display || The paintings will be 

exhibited next week. |»^■§f3j■^■5|^■^!]gq■qp'^■'|'N■»^^■q^P|»^■^■^=^l 
^•f^^ (^-P|^ ^.Pj^'s^i qj,p|qj) to cut through, to cleave || The sharp knife 

quickly cut through the cloth. ^■l3j^'^-^'^-^-^^-sr^-J!].P|J!]'Nl 
jjj-PjJlj'^'qs^] operation || When will your father's heart operation take 

place? (i=^'|'i3M-s5'l'|^'".VJ!]-P|J!]'N-q5'^-3jS^-sf=^-|=^W^=^l 
^-P|5^'=;| below II You must remember the three points mentioned below. 


J!j,P|s^'J!jsjn,i| listed below, cited below || The references for my article are 

cited below. =;^-fs^-"^^-5l-|^-'^'S-=^^=^-J!]^-'^-J!].P|«^-J!]'N".V^-q'f[=^W^l 
J!].P|=^'gR] exercise || Did you do this English exercise? 

^-P|".l] C^-Pj"-!] q-Pj"-!] ^-Pj"-!]) to rinse || After I rinsed my mouth I went to 

bed. !;'^'^:;-S|-p'q.P|f\v|'N-^n,v^'^2;-] 
^-P|3j'^l Lord of the Dead || This book has several stories about the Lord 

of the Dead. =^q-c5-'^^^-3j'^-^-J!l-Pj3j-|q-J!]^5^-^=^-qJ!]q-Sr^l 
^^3^] ^fertile; "dead, deceased || 'This is a fertile field. q^-^-'N'^'^-Jll-fjaj^ 

^q^'^2;] "The dead man was buried yesterday. J!]-Pj3j^'p'^^'S^'".V^^] 
5!]-^q] (q-^q] q-Pjq^] J!]-Pjq'^]) to parallel, to be in close contact || I would like 

to be in close contact with you for the next few months. 

^-P|^] nature, character || The nature of man is evil and good. 

^.P|'^''T] character, personality || Please tell me about your personality. 

J!].P|'^'g=;] personality || Personality is formed in childhood. 

^.Pj'^'^aj] bad character || As soon as people learned of his bad character, 
they did not want to be friends with him. 

^-Pj'^'^^'l upright, honest || He's not honest, he's dishonest. 

^•Pj'^'g^] behavior || I don't approve of your rude behavior. 

Jj^^^l'qg^l good character || My friend has a good character. 

^•^M''^^^] character || I don't like his character. ^■p^'^-P|^''^^'^'".V9S'=^J!]'^] 
Jji-Pj] (q-P|] q-Pj'^i -Pj'^]) to peel, to pare || Help me peel these apples. 


Jlj-Pi^] (q-Pj^l q-Pi^] Jlj-Pi^]) to whittle || When I have nothing to do, I like to 
whittle little wooden figures. 


^-P|'^-P| scolding II Her scolding started the minute he came home from 

work. pWf\l'N'fKvq^)-|^-||s^-^-nW]'S^'gJ!]'Wi^VJ!]^'J!]^'J!^^^ 

=^^=^^] Ho go; -to die || The leader went home.'^J!]'!^'^'^^^".!'".!'^!]-^!^!]'^] "She 

died earlier this year. p'»l'=;'",l^'",V^=;'",VJ!]^J!]^] 
J!]^^'f^l liquid II Water is a liquid, f ^-Jlj-Pj^-f^-^Saj] 
q]^^-qj|q]^)] liquid, fluid || Milk is a liquid. '?T»l-^-J!]^^-J!]|J!]'N-5Sajl 
J!j.P| (J!].P| ^-Pj^l) to form an erosion ditch || The heavy rain is forming an 

erosion ditch down the hill. cB^'f 5J!]-W'N-J!]?i'^-3j'N-^-".V^J!]W§'^-l 
^-Pj^'''] township II What township are you from? (i=^'3j'^-P|^''']'^^'3j^'"J^'] 
^-P|^'^] wing II One of the bird's wings hit the electrical line. 

«l]^=^'l i^-ff:] ^•ff<^] 'Yl^'^]) to take out || I took the knife out of its sheath. 

JI].P|^'^] low-lying place || That low-lying place is very wet. 

q-Pj^'t^] remorse || He felt much remorse for his mistake. 

q.P|^'J!]53j] urine || His urine had turned very yellow because of his illness. 

q^P|=^l to say, to tell || I will tell you again. =;'^'(i=^'".vn'^'|,'^'^'^-^'«S3il 
q.P|^'g3j] legend, tale || There is a legend about that mountain. 


q-P|^''^^'^l the way of talking || I don't like his way of talking. 

q-P|^'#^l] 'hearsay; 'the way of saying || 'l don't know if it is true or not, 
it's only hearsay. ^%q.P|=^'#^V5»l''^3j'i!'".l'^-=;'^-^-q^3j-9S3j-9S-^Ml "Her way of 
saying things is very convincing. p's^^'q.P|=^'#>.V^'3j'^=^'i^''^^'i!'(^J!]'^^] 

q^P|»l^■^3j] exhibit, display || The museum's latest exhibit is of Tibetan 
paintings. q.P|5^'N-^3j-p=;-S]-i'N-»i|J!]-»ig5-q.P|»i'N-'^3j-^^^-|-g=;-J!]q-^^-^3jl 

q,p|sis)-«3j-p^-| museum || The museum is now closed. 

q-Pj^l (q-Pjqi q-Pj^N] '^^]) to kill, to slaughter II I will kill this sheep 
tomorrow. ^«)'«5^'ft3j''^Jl]''^=;'q.P|'^'^'^3j| We will kill a yak tomorrow. 


q.P|".V3j^] diarrhea || I've had diarrhea for two days and I feel very weak. 

^^-Pj'^'^^] slaughter house || This slaughter house is operated by people 

from the city. q.P|'^'^'".v^=;'(|^'3j'N'Sr=;-qq-5^'^^2^5^-|,=^l 
=^-P|^'^^^] destruction, demolition || The destruction of the old buildings 

required six weeks. p=;'qt^'N-|=;-q-q-PjJ!]-J!]y^-|^-q-'^VJ!]gq-q'p^-5J!]-^3]''^-^=;-| 
q-P|'J!j(^J!j exploitation || The exploitation of the workers was criticized. 


q-P|=^] decking, dressing up || Dressing up for the party required a lot of 

q.P|"^| (q^".1] q^f^l] qi^l]) Ho postpone, to delay; lo retreat || 'l will have to 
postpone tomorrow's meeting. ^^■^^■^3j'^'^^'§&]^'^=^'q^V=^^] "We 
are defeated and must retreat. =;-sf-s5»l-q'^-^'^-q^-S-|^-q?i'".V2^qj'»)| 


'^l soil, land, earth || This soil is infertile. '^■'^^■^■J!]-Pj3j^5^3j] 

'^•ps^'^l geography || The geography of Qinghai is characterized by high 

mountains. »lsf^3j-|,-'N-p»l'N-".V^-»i3j^q-^J!]'N-»lcf3j-il 
'^■ps^'^'^Jj^'q] geography (science of) || I studied geography last semester. 

'^■[^"-1] region, zone || Hawaii is in a sub-tropical zone. (^q■=^^■3j■S■|^'^■c]■^■ 

^fi^^] territory || The territory of Qinghai is very large. 

'^■(53jl land area || The land area of Yulshul is 267,000 square kilometers. 


'^■(^l map II We have a map of China on our classroom wall. 

^^W^] earthquake || The earthquake killed eighteen people. 



'^■^S] uncultivated land || South of the village there is much uncultivated 

land. |'qq'3iq'1i!]'^)'^''N'^^'i3j^^J!]'2r=^l 
'^'51 land area || Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in China has a 

very large land area. !T]Rq[q-3jR?«]-^=;-|k-^!;'^-".V'^-^-i3j^^5t]W^l 
"^■^5^1 chapter, section || Have you finished reading Chapter Six? 

'^■q^^l fertility of the soil || The fertility of the soil here is very low. 

'^'S] place, land || What place are you from? |i=^'3j'^'c5'^^'aj'^'"^^'] 

'^■^l water and earth, the natural environment || Mankind should respect 

the natural environment. 5^^-^J!]'^-|'^-'^-^-".vq|-5ra=;-|,^-q''^l 
^^^] mineral || Gold is a valuable mineral. 5!^5j:^-^-q^^:^-p-^^3j-^qj-i!^3j| 
^■^^^1 landmark || There was no landmark to tell us where we were. 

'^■^^'1 uninhabited area || We saw no people or animals in the vast 

uninhabited area. =;-§f'N-'N-'^=;-^-^5^-^=;-^-^J!]'N-J!]5J!]'^=;'»l'^J!] 
M'»igq] remote area || He comes from a remote area. p'3j'^'5^g'^'(^J!]'3j^'"^^'] 
^■^S3jl floor carpet || I bought a red floor carpet yesterday. 

'^■q=^^ landowner || He rents land, he's not a landowner. 

«)-?n,ll dust II Dust covered the books. =^q'c5''N-5".v|,^-qi2»l'Nl 

"^'3 earth and rock || Earth and rock tumbled down the mountain. 

^■^3j^l locality, region || That locality is famous for its fruit. 


^ a*'! petroleum, oil || Oil was found on his land and he became rich. 

"^'^^^l Mirection; "local affinity || ^In what direction should I go? ^■'^' 
^s]-q^^-a,vq^rq^| "He has a strong sense of local affinity. p'".lAr^J!^M' 

'^■qq] topography || It was difficult to map the topography of this area. 

^•q'^q'qi vague || I have a vague sense of unhappiness. 


M^3jl seed II Did you buy wheat seed today? ^■^=;-^=^-|M-^5jAi^3jy^-'5^»l| 
^l^^^'^l topography || TeU me about the topography of northern China. 


'^'S^'^] station || We stopped at the police station to report the theft of 
our money. =^1^3jy!]''N'i^J!]^r3j^rqf =^'^'^^wq^'^'q<^-5;|3^!^-^'^-wi^'W§!^l 

^•s^cfsi^l boundary line, border || The border between the two counties 
passes right here. ^".vpq'J!]^'^%'N'»lcf5^'N'^J!]'^J!]'5;|3i!5l-q^'^!:iS=^-2r=^] 

'^'^^'l ^farm; 'field || ^How long have you owned this farm? (iS'^'N'^'i^^' 
'^^•^^■«J3j'5'^»l'".vq^^'^'^l "I've always planted barley in this field, ^'^'pr 

^'^^] earth || Fertile earth grows good crops. ^■J!]^'J!]-fj3j^".V"F'^l^^'|] 
'^■'^^ underground || An underground river runs through this cave. 

'^■"^1 million || He earned a million yMaw in one year. 

'^'^qj to become night, to become dark || It has become night now. 

'^■-P|3jl earth's crust || The drill penetrated the earth's crust. 

'^"^^P|^1 geology II The geology of this area is complicated. 

'^■J!].P|'^'=^J!]'i]] geology (science of) || When I was in university I studied 

geology. '^•^q'5!'iaj'5f3jw^'^'^''^'N''^'J!]^'^'^J!]'q'|=;'sj| 

^'Sj^'l border defense || He has been engaged in border defense for many 

years. p''^'"fe-»l=;-".V'^-23=;-^-gq-J!]^^l 
'^'Sj^'qi border policeman || He works as a border policeman between 

China and Mongolia. p'^'^'^'3f=^'^'|^J!]'J!]|'N%q^-3j-'N-23=;-q-|^l 
^'Sj'^l dusk, nightfall || He was tired and went to sleep at dusk. 

^^■^3j] tomorrow || I will see you tomorrow. '^^■^3j'^'(i^'"-Vq'^'5''^^'l 
"^^■§3] clear sound || The bell's clear sound was heard by all. 

'^=\'^] next year || I hope you have a good harvest next year. 


'^^'^1 to be clear, to be enlightened || After he woke up his mind was 

clear. p^J!]|=^'".l'N''^=^'|'Nl p^'^^'q'^N'^'^l 
^^^■g^] Buddha || The Buddha achieved nirvana. 

'^^l ^frost; "to awaken, to wake up || ^Frost had turned the grass white. 
^^^^T^^^'l^^^^^^l 'I wake up in the morning at six o'clock. ^' 

^qAiq] vague, obscure || I could only see a vague outline of the building 

in the distance. |,!^-R!;-^-=;'N-p=;-q|J!]'N-|-=^|,q'N-'Nq-^q-5J!]'»fe'l 
Wt'^"^] earth, globe || The earth is round. 'Nq-3f".V^-|'^-|'=^-«S3jl 
^J!]'^J!] trembling, shaking || I was trembling from the cold. 

^"1] fruit II Do you want some fruit for lunch? 

'^".vg] fragment, piece || The rock was broken into many 

pieces. f^^".vg-»l!^^^-'^^] 
^"^'f^cf^'l retail sale || These products are only for retail sale. 

^1 Who? II Who are you? ^'^■^■^■"Saj] 

^^■^] limb (animal) || The sheep broke all its limbs when it fell down 

the mountain. '5J!]-S:-»iqy3j'N-™=;-$-^J!]ycf=^-»l'q5J!]'^l 
^3j] to get tired of, to get sick of || I am becoming so tired of his endless 

talk. '^•'p'^'cf^'^'s^=^'i!^'p'qF".v^3j''^qfqg'5^'Nl 

^Sj'f^^] exposure || Exposure of what you did will result in your losing 

your job. ^^i'^-5-'^l^-^-^3j-'^|^-^'^-^-^^-ii=^t'S''''^^'^''^^l'i^ 
^a'tn^^l harm, disturbance || The disturbance from many visitors meant 

he couldn't get any work done. 

^a'tn^^'q^'q] to harm, to disturb || Don't disturb other people when they 

are reading. 5^'J!](^3j'|,'^'^^'c5'^J!]'^q'N'^3i'5i]^^"5]-qi' 
^q] (^^q] q*jq^l ^q^D to erase, to rub out || I accidentally erased what 

you had recorded on this cassette tape. 


^sij (qsjsi] q^5^s]| g5^s]|) to close || Close your books. =^q-c5'S-p-^5^'Nl 
^si'qg] three hundred || My family has three hundred sheep. 

^5^'§1 thirty || There are thirty students in my class. 

sjs^'^R] three thousand || I earned three thousand ywaw in the last three 

months. |'^3j'»l'J!]^»l'|,'3j=^'=;'N-|'=^-s?^»l-^=;-q!;'Nl 
^«^'5^^] T-intersection || The accident occurred at the T-intersection. 

^s^'qg'J!]^] three stories/layers || The building is three stories high. 

'^'Jl to tingle II The sound of chalk on the blackboard made my teeth 

tingle. 'N'|J!]'S]'^'|^'^si'S!;-|^)-qq-|^-^^)-c;q-'^5^qj 
'^^'l to become bald; 'to shrink and have spaces (wooden bucket) || As 

I get older, I become more and more bald. ^''^V^'^'il'^^'q^aj'aj^'S^Jlj'S'^' 

^J^.'SiSl'^'^^'^!;] "As the wooden bucket dried, it shrank and had spaces 

between the pieces of wood. g'q'^s^'3j^'^^'] 
^=n'^ lion II The lion roared. ^^'Si^'^'^'qa^!]'^] 

'^^■^'^1 gauze II I put gauze around my wound. ^'^'^'S'^'p'^-V'^^'^^'^'';^'^] 
'^5^*5] 'the mind, heart; 'to think || 'He always thought about it in his 

mind. ^^•3^5]-S3i-'^»l'^'^^3j'^<^-S3;-aj-qs]»i-qj^qj!S)-^!S)| -J think you will soon 

be well. '^'^•^^^•s^-S^i^-q^-q^-gi^-sr^^-q^-S^si^)] 
Sjsi^)] (q^)»l] q^)5^^)] ^m^■\) to think, to consider || I hope you think carefully 

about it before you make a decision. 

^»l^'^",l] encouragement || What words of encouragement can you give 

s^s^'^'^l sadness, to feel sad || Please be happy, don't feel sad! 

^si'^'pi mood, morale || I was in a bad mood yesterday. 

5^»l'N-p»l'Nl mood II I am in a happy mood today. ^■^=;-=;^-^»l'sj-psi5)-c:;s]-S5'=^| 
'^s^^'ps^^'^q^'q] psychology || I studied psychology for one year. 


s]s^s]'|gn,l| concern, worry, anxiety || What is your biggest worry? 

^s^sj'f^^] concern, worry || I can feel my parents' concern for me. 

^»l^'q|g£!j^] Ho be upset, 'to be agitated || ^I'm upset about what you 
said. (i=^'|M'q.P|=^'q'"-V=;'l''^5^'N-q(gJ!]'N| -I was agitated all last night, s^^'^ 

^s^^'^^q] tough, hard-hearted || That teacher is hard-hearted. 

'sjs^isj-qmqj to attract, to charm || She will charm you with her 

beauty . p^q'si?'N'^J!]'S]'^'(i=^'^'^»l'^'q^J!]'^'^=^l 
'^s^'^'^aj] malicious thought || She is so sweet that I don't think she ever 

had a malicious thought in her life. 

'^s^^'53j] sentient being, living being || A human being is a sentient being. 

^»1^'^^'] carefulness || Carefulness and erudite knowledge are required 
for writing a book. =^q'c5'^J!]''^|'q'".V'^»l'N'^=;'=^=;'^'N'^'5;|^!^-'T|-(^^s]!^-2^q]'^] 

^5^^)-qj^:^] to trust II Do you trust me? ^=^-|'N-=;-".V^»l'^-J!iy^-^»l] 

^s^^'gj!^ decision, resolution || I have made a decision that I will not 
change. =;'N-=;-^=;-5^-q^^-qq-5S»l'^-g5!]-q5=^i3jl Each New Year I make a 
resolution to correct one of my bad habits. '5J'$(^'".VJ!]^=^'".V^^'=^^'J!]'J!]«^'^' 

^^si^'^^q] honest, upright || He is an honest official. 

^»l^'^5i^ sadness, depression || His feeling of sadness lasted several 

weeks. p''^-J!]gq-q'p'^-qJi]q-q-'^»i'N'^J!]'^^] 
M»lM'3jJ!] meanness, malice, ill will || I feel such malice toward her when 

she talks to me. pr'^-=;-".vp-q^-|^-S^-=;-p^-$!;-'^-^»l'^-3jJ!]-i3j^|'Nl 
^WM'3j=^] heart disease || His heart disease worsened. pq''^8^'^'3j^%SJ!]W^R] 
M»1^'S5»1] to be dejected || I was dejected after I failed the examination. 

5j»lM'J!^S] idealistic || Don't be idealistic, be realistic. 


sjsisj'qcfq] worried || I'm worried about my examination score. 

'^si'^'q^^^'] to be inattentive, to be absentminded || I absentmindedly left 

my glasses at home. =;'N-5^5^'N-J!]«5=;-3j'N-5^J!]--Pi".V(|»l-^-q^^l 
'^5^^•^P|^| to be fond of, to fall in love || I am fond of my students. 

^»l^'J!j^| consolation, comfort || If it is any consolation, you almost 
passed the examination. 

'^^^■^ crack, fissure || A long crack ran through the large rock. 

^^■^1^ yellow II An egg yolk is yellow. ^^^■=;^'3i=^'|=;-^''^^'q'«S3Jl 
'^^ 5I stinginess || I can't stand his stinginess. 

Si^"^"-53;| stingy || He is stingy with his money and with everything that 
he owns. ^z^'Sj-f ^•s?2^!;-s-^3;-q|(^3^-!^q|-^!;-s]<^-gi!]-3j'^'p^^-$^-f 'ij 

^'v'q] yellow II The monk wore a yellow hat. q§3j'i!'^'^W^=^'(^J!]'5^3jq^] 

^^■q] hail II The hail beat against the window, '^^■q'^-^-siq-^';-".!-^!]^^!]'^! 

^"-1] (q^".l] q^".l] '^"-1]) to clear, to sift, to solve || Please help me solve this 
mathematical problem. =^-t^-|'^-^5!j-q]-q^3j:^^3j-q^-^a,vKj!]'si-|si-2^!;-] 

^ teeth II I brush my teeth twice a day. =;'N'|3j'J!]5J!]''^V»ra=^'N'J!]|'^'q!!]| 

^q^q] to bite II The dog bit my calf ^^'^■=;qy".v'^q^qi 

'^SR] dental disease || A dentist treats dental disease. 

^3j=^-||3j-qi dentist || A dentist pulls teeth. '^3j=^-|]aj-q'N-'^qq".ll 

^'ajs^l farming || My parents are engaged in farming. ^q'^'s^'^'^'ajs^'^'^J?^' 

'^S^s^'R] farmer, peasant || My brother is a farmer. =;q'^3j'«^'^''f3j»l'q'^J!]'5)3j] 
^■3j5^'=^J!]'i!] agronomy || Agronomy is the study of crops. 

"^■q] sentry, sentinel || The sentry stood at attention. 


'^'^^ brick II This is a red brick. q^^'ajAi's^Jjj'^sS^^'q'^;^! You will need to buy 
bricks in Lanzhou to build this school. §]q'^''^S'"-l^'iS'|iS'^'N'"-13j'^Jl]'K^' 


^■5^^'] comb II The comb was made of plastic. M'5^^'^=^'^M''^^J!]'J!]'^'".l'^] 
M'S3j] toothpaste || I put some toothpaste on the toothbrush. ^'^''^V'^^^'^' 

^■^^1 hnen || We washed all the linen this morning. 

^■^] every, each one, separate || Every person needs food and clothing. 

'^■'^^^l separately || I talked to each of my students separately. ^'^'^z^'Jil' 

^'Sj^^l gap between the teeth || A piece of meat got caught in the gap 

between my teeth. .P|-fviq-5?^qj-!;q-??23q's)-n,vqaf:;!S]| 
^^■^^1 Mongolian language || He speaks Mongolian and Tibetan. 

'^^■^l shoulder blade || We had a boiled sheep's shoulder blade for 

supper. =;-i''N-=^^=;-&!]'N-^-'5J!]-Sl-»«]-q-q^'^-»l-^J!]l'^l 
^'^^] Mongols, Mongolians || About fifteen percent of Inner Mongolia's 

population is Mongolian. 3j=;''^J!]'S]'5^'5]=;'N%q^'c5'l'q3^™'^''^J!]^3jl 
^^'s^] straw, hay || The sheep are eating hay. '^J!]'J!]'^''^J!]'s^'g'q(^3j'"^=^] 
*5^''^1] saw II A saw cuts wood, ^^''^l^'f^'q'qs^] 
^^'^l etcetera, such as || I like many colors such as red, blue, and green. 

"^31] 'to reach; 'seed || 'When he reached the age of seventy he quit 
working in the fields. P^^^3j'l^'|'=3'^'^'3il ^'^'^'"-''^'l'i'l'^^^1 'How 
much barley seed did you buy? ^=^'^'N'aj^'»5aj'J!]'§f=;''ft^| 

Maj'q^^'] good seed || I only want to buy good seed. 

^^^] spongy, soft || After the rain the earth was spongy. 

^s^'^l doubt, suspicion || I doubt what he said was true. p'^'S'^'S' 

"^^'s^l the width of one finger || The book was about as thick as the width 

of one finger. =^^'c5'^'l's^'^'cf=^'".V»r^WJ!]=;-Sr=^l 
^^^\f 1 finger ring || Her finger ring is made of gold. 


'^",VJ!]^=^] coal mine || The coal mine was closed last year. 
'^"-V^l charcoal || We roasted mutton over charcoal. 

^".I'J.'^'^l gas II I cook with gas. =;'S5-55'a,l-^:;!S]-|s]-q^S5^a,v^S]| 

^^] to recover, to survive || How long will it be before she can recover 

from her illness? pW3j=^-"l's)-i5'^-q^-c^]T^3j-q^-§gi^-:^q^^]| 
^^■'T] spring II In spring plants begin to grow. '^^■'T]^'SM'^'g'.P|^'|''^J!]'§'5^] 
^^■^"-l] leisure || What do you do in your leisure time? 

231 solid, hard || Ice is solid. S^'Sj'SJl 

23'q^3jl stability, firmness || Social stability is important for economic 

prosperity. |-6&]'N-23-q^3j-sr=;-q-^-^q".vq|^^-?[;;-(^5aj-",v»isf3j-3j-J!]".vii 
.g'5]| strong, tough || The plastic bag was not very strong. 

Sj'cfS] hardness || The hardness of the wood made carving difficult. 

23^'".1«^] side-street || The taxi went down the side-street. 

Sjaj'si] bean || He put one bean in a tea cup. '^'^•^^•|,'3j!;'S'233j'si'J!]5J!]'qs5!;'^l 
Sjq] ^bridle; 'shallow, thin || 'Please put the bridle on the horse. 5'"l'2jq'^aj' 

q^'1,'^1 "This ice is too thin to walk on. ^^'S^q'^J'^-^J^-gJlj-^-q^s^-^qi 
Sjq's^^ thickness || The thickness of the snow is about half a meter on 

the plain. q^-g=;^J!]-^-p-qq-23q-s^J!]-n.v=9-n.w|j'N-J!]5J!]-2r=^l 
5jq'5^2;q| rein || Pull the horse's right rein if you want the horse to go 

right. ^=^'|'N-^-p-J!]wi'N-|?!]'N-^-J!]§-aj-23q-»i^q-J!]wi'^-»i-qg3jl 
Sjq's^l thin, shallow || There was a thin layer of snow over everything 

this morning. <^5;|!5l-q^'^'^^g»l'^'5^'^'^=;'^'P'q'23q'«?^J!]'c5J!]'^l 
^1 (^^1 ^Sj'^l Sj'^l) to scrimp, to save || He saved enough money to buy a 

car. p'^'5.!;'^'qpk-^!;-^!;-^J!]yq^-|'^-s?q=^!;^q|'N] 
^'^l ('^^'^1 '^I'^'^l I'^'^l) ^to send; "to mail; ho stretch; \o prolong || 

'Please send this box of food to my mother. g-»i-§^»i-q^-=;q-i3M-5^-n,v|!;'s)| 

-When will you mail your letters? ^^■|'N-«S-q|-3j»l-ii^-q|!;-^->S]3i| ^He 


stretched out his arms to embrace his daughter. p'^"".lJ!]'i!'5i^'q^^!5i'3j'\V 
^^'^ 3^ '^^l I want to stretch out my hand and take that dehcious- 
looking red apple. =^'N'f\lJ!]'q'qS!;!^-aj'N'^s^'sj^J!]'i'qq'^'-fl'=^5^^^''^3^-n^^l 
''How can I prolong my life? ';'N'^:;"S|'S^^'%<^^'q|'^'^qi 

^=^■^"-11 cotton II This shirt is made of cotton. 6^-fil3j-q^-^=;-q".v|,<^-qS'^| 

^^■s5] sister || I have one sister. ^'"I'^^'sf^SJJj'^J^] 

^S] Hhe universe, the world; 'politics; ^length; ''possible || 'The universe 
has many planets. Sj^'f^^N'aj'g'^^^'s^^q'^^] 'He grew tired of politics and 
retired. p^|=^'"-V^3j'|'^'|'^'3j'^'"-l'^''^(i^'^'^l ^What is the length of this 
wall? ^^■'^^^'Sj'^'^.V^'^s^'^^] ''is it possible for you to help me move to 
my new apartment tomorrow? ^^■^3j'i5^'^'s)-^-|ii!:;,-q-5i^5):^-qq-3j^-E:-^-^-q^- 

SjS'g^'l to govern, to rule || He will rule the country beginning next 

month. |'|'^-»l^'p'^'§"-vpq'^^'|=^'|'=^'^'^=^l 
SjS'SJ'^f'^'l parliament, congress || Congress is now in session. 

SjS'^'N] policy, strategy || What is the best policy to solve this problem? 

SjS'SSJl politics II He was involved in politics for all his adult life. 

^^■=;3j'i!] politician || He has been a politician for twenty years. 


^S'^] the universe, possibility || The universe has no limits. 

SjS'Sq^'l political power, political authority || Political power in that 
country is shared by several groups. 


^^'cfq] regent || After the death of the king he was named regent. 

^=;''^^3j] administration || Who is in charge of your company's 
administration? ^=^'§f'^'^=;'l'S'|=^''^%f^'^'N-qJl]3j-f^^-|^l 

Sj^'f^^aj's^'g] administrative personnel || Several administrative personnel 
retired from my company last year. 


^^"'^^3j''^'[^".l] administrative district || A 'county' is an administrative 

district. 'g5;>'-^-|2^-qW3j''N'f^".V^J!]'5S3j| 
^2;'q](a^'] government || The government issues new regulations. 

^^'^^'^l system of government || What system of government does your 

country have? ^=^-c^-^".vpq-|'N-|=^-'5J!]'N-5-^J!]-ql3jl 
^3j'^=^l silk yam || The silk yam felt soft. |3j'^=^'|'^^'g'^^*ll 
^3^^] monster || The folktale had a monster with nine heads. 

^3j'ng] silkworm || The silkworm eats mulberry leaves. 

23^1 shady side || The shady side is cooler than the sunny side. 

Sj's^l sister-in-law || My sister-in-law is from Sichuan. 

SJ^^'l (^23^1 ^Sj^'^l Sj^^D to protect, to keep, to defend, to safeguard || I 

protect my family from harm. ^^■^!;'5n'|g5^'cfRJ!]3j2^'qaS''".i^'2jR] 
2j^'^^] satellite || The satellite is now orbiting the earth. 

jjR^q] protection || The Buddha's protection has kept me in good 
health. '^=;'^'^'^-|'N-23=;-|q-^^-5]g3;-:;q-nj^l^q^-q^-q^3j^l| Protecting a 
country is an army's duty. ^".vpq'23^'Jq'g'^'g'3j'=^s^J!]'s^'S'".l^''^J!]3j'"^3j] 

jj^gq's^paj] protector || My father is my protector. 

^'>si] guardian deity || What is your family's guardian deity? 

5jR=;s^J!^ guard, defending troop || The palace guard drove off the attack. 


Sj^'f^^aj] preservation || The preservation of traditional culture is 

important. ^".Vg3j'|,'^J!]'J!13j'N-23^-q%|=;-S-J!]".vil 
SjSj's^l mild, gentle || A gentle horse ran across the grassland. 

Sjq'^l fissure, crack || A long crack ran across the ice. 


231 (^231 ^Sj'^l Sj'^l) to blend together, to combine, mix together || Please 
blend this butter with the milk tea. si^-q^-'ir^J^'a^!;'^'^] Water 
combined with dirt makes mud. S'^^''^'5n'^'^'!^^'^'S'<^'^5^'^3j] 

^^ (n^^ ^^^'^l ^^'^D ^to bum; 'roast || ^I burned the last of our coal 
yesterday. pAi!;-2;^)-!;-a^^n,vq^»iw;^)-^-q^qj^)] -I will roast some 
mutton for supper. ^'N-=^qf;-&!]M-".V'5J!]-.P|-^-q^J!]-^-^3jl 

^^] Ho love; "to have desire for || 'l loved my expensive ring and I'm 
sad that I had to sell it. ^^'^z^'Sj'sl^q'^^'^-g'iaj-n.V^-^z^-^'^-q'^l ^■q^=^'=^^'^'^=;' 
qs]-^q-fi]c-^»is]-^ "I desired her, but she did not desire me. ^p's^'",!'^^' 

SjS'^l desire, love || The love that I have for my children could not be 

greater. =;'N'^=;'S]'|,'^'q'".vq5=;'N'qq'^^'q'^'f^'^'i'^".VS^=^l 
23",l] (qsj"-!] ^Sj"-!] Sj"-!]) to save, to keep || I am going to save my money in 

the bank. =;'^-3;K,-S|-|'^-5f2^5n,vp!;-^-q^n.v|^)-Sr=^] 
231 (^231 ^Sj'^l 23^1) to warm up || Let's warm up the mutton for supper. 

23'p^'l house with a beatable sleeping platform || That house with a 

beatable sleeping platform belongs to my father. 23■p^■'^■^^W^■".l■=^q^;■] 
Sj^'^^l saving life || Saving the little girl's life made him a hero. 


23J!]'|gs^^] death sentence, capital punishment || What crimes deserve 

capital punishment? ^'^■q-5'^J!]'".V^J!]'^»l'N-5!]5'^-'q^l 
23^'^5=^] killing || Killing creatures should be avoided. §''^5!'^'23^'^5^'S' 

23^'c5^'^] animal, creature || That animal also has a life. 

23^■c5=^] capital punishment, death sentence || The judge gave him the 

death sentence tor his crimes. (^".V'^'q'^'p'^'^»5'i!'".V23^'c5=^'q5=^] 
Sj^'^SJl danger to life || This old bridge is a danger to life. 


jjJlj'J!]^^] to sacrifice life || The soldier sacrificed his life for his country. 


Sj^'S^S] inanimate, not living, lifeless || A rock is inanimate. 


Sj^'-Pj^] to die, to lose one's life || He died in battle. 

^'^'l ('^Sj'^'l '^Sj'^'^l ^^'^D Ho straighten out; "to explain || 'Straighten out 
this crooked wire. '3^^'^^''^(5^'^'^'23^^1 'He explained the gist of the 
document. p'Mt^J!]'c5'^q'J!](g=;'q23=;'^l 

Sjaj] (^Sjajl ^Sjajl SJSJl) to tolerate, to stand, to bear || I can't tolerate this 
pain, '^'^■aj-iqi-q^-qsjaj-s^-^qi 

23"-V55jl tradition, custom || That particular custom is very important. 

23"-VS^'l old custom || The old custom of visiting everyone during the 
Lunar New Year is gradually dying. '^J!]^'5^'".VJ!]^=^'^'^q^'^'5^'^'^'".V 

2jf^'q^^2;'5^p3j] originator, creator, founder || Sakyamuni is the founder of 
Buddhism. -P|^'^'^'^'3j=^'q^3i'I'^''5^'^-|-^".VJ!]y^-»ip3j-5S3jl 

Sj^-l'^S] founding of custom\tradition || The founding of custom is 
related to social reality. '3^'^-^".vq|=^-q-^-|-§&]'N-|^3j-=^T'^-=^=;-q|"11 

Sj^-V^^^Sj] preservation of custom, to maintain tradition || The old people 
try to maintain tradition in our village. s^'^aj'^'^s^^'^'N'^'c^'S'q^'^VS!;' 

5jf\lw]J!^ regulation note || I misplaced the regulation note. 

23"-l''5^^1 custom, folkway || The annual horserace is a folkway. 

Jjl easy || Learning English is not easy. ^^'^^■J]q'^'3j'J[5^'s^3jl 

^[5^] easy || It's easy to lie down but it is not always easy to get up. 

^K'S] for the purpose of, for, in order to || Put some salt in your food in 
order to make it taste better. 

ai^Si^l l^ter, afterward, since now, in the future || Afterward I'll never 

smoke again. §]^'|sjl =;'N-g-»15[^-"^=;-qg^-J!]^3j-3j'N-5^-'^3jl 
^^1 again, once more || Don't do that again. ^'q'S'^j^'S'^^'"-!'^'-^^ 
^I'N-s^l anything knitted || This sweater was knitted. q".V"sjq^-^A]'^-»l-'^ajl 
^1^91 lesson II He learned no lesson from his failure. 


ral (^ral ^ra'^lra^'l) ^^° deceive; "to entice, to lure || 'He tried to deceive 

\s \s \s \s 

me. p^'^'q^v^q'^'g'^l 'I enticed the dog to come to me with a piece of 

raw meat. =;'^-.P|-|3j-q-^q]-^'N-^-=;q-5!](^q]'N-".i-sr=;-q^-q§]'Nl 
111 (q|]l qlj'Nl Ij^N]) Ho weave, to knit; "to braid, to plait || 'My mother will 

knit a sweater for me. ^q'i3M'5^^'R",vq",V"sj(^J!]'q^v^'^=^] "My sister will 

braid her hair tonight. ^'=^^=^''^'^'|=^'«5''^'^=^'^'^'^|]'^'^^1 
Jj'^l plaited basket with a strap || This plaited basket with a strap was 

made by my grandmother. |]^'=^^'^'^'q|'^'q'5S3jl 
^jq] (=^|]^1 ^^j^^l ^]^^1) to come, to arrive || What time will you come to 

the meeting? ^=^'c&]'N-qs-".V3j»l-§?=^-q|]q-^-«S3jl 
^^ (q^ ^^^] ^'^D Ho dig; "to turn over; \o return || 'Let's dig the 

potatoes tomorrow. '^^■ft3j'(^^'p^A]J!]^'=^J!]'^] "He turned over everything 

on the floor to find the book. p''^-g=;-^-=^'^^^g»l'N-5=^-q^J!]'^-3j'N-=^q-c5'^-q^".ll 
Please return the things you borrowed from me. |i^'^'^'^^'".l^'3j'^'^"^=^' 

^^'1 (^§]^'l ^Jl^^l ai^^D ^° ^^8' ^° appeal, to solicit || The old woman 
begged money from everyone. ^3j'5^'=^^'5^'cf^'5^'S'".l^'3j^'§^=^'5^'q*j^^] 
Jj^'5^] solicitation, begging || Begging is not allowed here. 

^]R5]'q] beggar || The beggar wore tattered clothing. 

Jj^l (^J]^l ^Jj^l Jj^D to be adulterated || The gold has been adulterated 

with copper. ^^^■'^■3^'N-|'N-q^]=^l 
^]3jl (^J]3jl ^J]3jl J]3jl) 'to revenge; 'to patch || 'l will take revenge for the 

wrong that you did to me. ^=^'|'^-=;-".V(^-J!]3jJ!]-^'^-q-^=^'=;'s)TH3j-q-q^j3j-^-u|3j| -i 

asked a tailor to patch the hole in my trousers. ^'^■J§s^'g'q'".V^'S'if|^'^s^' 

^q] (q^iq] ^Ji^'^l^^'^l) to leam, to study || I want to learn Tibetan, 
Chinese, and English. '^'^■q'^-^«!]-^'^-|;"^^ '^|3j'^^'^^5]-|q-q^=^l 

Jiq'p^'] classroom || This classroom has twenty desks. 

S^'HSl teaching, lecturing || Teaching all day makes me tired. 


^'^1 school II Our village has a new school, ^'sf^f ■q'^-V^'^'^^^^'q'^^'^J'^] 
§]q'^'c53j'5^] university, college || Central Nationalities University is in 

Beij ing. ^'^■^^^■5^-^J!]'N-|q-^-i3i-s5^-q-%3j-^-Sr^l 
^]q'5j'q] student || Are you a student or teacher? 

^]q'5]J!]M] classmate || After graduation I married my classmate. 

^]q'^^'] primary school || Which primary school do your children attend? 

^iq'Jj^a^] study, practice of learning || Why do your children have the 
study of English in middle school? 

Jjq'Sq] textbook II Please put the textbook on my desk. 

^iq'Sjl school age || How many school age children are there in your 

village? (i=^'|'^-q-3j-^q-aj-^aj-qq-|,^-q-5;]-s=^-3r=^l 

^]q'^'^3j] teacher || Although my teacher had never been to a public 
school, he knew written Tibetan very well. ^'^A]q'^i!3j''>5]c;!5^'q:^!T|!5^' 

^q'=>q3;'S3;'5]| professor || He became a professor of Tibetan language 
and literature about ten years ago. ".vq§^'^3j'".vp'q=^'5'^^''«^' 
=^R§'s^'^J!]'J!]'^q'!^q3;'i3;'5j"<35n'Kg^| He is a professor of Tibetan history 
at Tibet University in Lhasa. p^-™-'N-^J!]^-c5J!]'^-qq^=^-^=;'N-^q-^-i3j-srq-q'^- 

^]q'^'^3j'c53j'5]'!>K,!5^] full professor || He became a full professor last year. 

^iq'^^ student, pupil || Where does that student live? ^jq'^Jlj'^'J!]^^'^^] 
^iq'qg^] middle school || She graduated from primary school but did not 

go to middle school. p5^q-^=^'3j'N-»ig^-|;Sj-^=;-^q-q|=^-".v»i-»r=;-l 
^iq'gR] study, learning || I want my children to study hard and learn a 

lot. '^'N-=;q-|,'^-q-^»i'N-|'^-^q-|^=;-".v^ ^'^f ^j'^'^'y^'^'^'*''^^!'^''^'^'^! 

^]q'5^] student || I had to punish a naughty student this morning. S'^^'^'5' 
^]q'^3j| lesson II Did you prepare your lesson before class? 


^iq'Jjj^] teaching material || What kind of teaching material are you using 
to teach English? ji=^-|^V=^|3j-5Sqj-||2^-q^-^q-qji^-Rqj^-qj!;-^qj-q5f[q-q^3j-Sr^| 

^]q'"^3j] tuition, school fee || How much is primary school tuition this 
year? ^^-Hf^-^'q-s^-qi-^q-sraj-qi-^^^-^^^i 

^]q'".l] school age || Several school age children in my village don't go to 

school. =;-§fq-S-qq-^q-af^3j-qq-|^)-q-qq^q-^q-5j-n,vq|^|3j-S^=^] 

Jiq'^^l education || I want all my children to have an education, ^'^'^z^.'sri' 

^]q'J!^^'^J!^'q| pedagogy, education || Pedagogy is concerned with teaching 

methodology. ^q'J!]^^J!]'q%^q'^=^'|,=^'|5!]'N-".vq|".ll 
jj^sjRgjsj] secret talk || I overheard their secret talk. 

^"^^■^^5^1 confidential talk, secret || I need to have a confidential talk 

with you. =;'N-^=^-".VJ!]'^=;-J!]^»l-^J!]-q.P|=^-=^^'^l 
Jl]^^'=;3j] secret matter || It's a secret matter that I can't discuss. 

J!]^^'q5] secret signal || What secret signal did you give? 


J!]MRg=;] adulterous sexual relationship || Did you ever have an 

adulterous sexual relationship? (i^'^^"^'^^"g^"^'^"^^"^5^1 
J!]'N=;-|=^-fq!;-l toilet II Where is the toilet? J!]'N=;-|'^-fq;;-J!]=;-3j-Sr^l 
qjs]^-q^3j| secret message || I received your secret message. 

^^^■q] secret, clandestine || Please tell me just one secret that you have. 

ji=^-".vSr=^-qq-J!]'N=^-q-J!]|jl]-=;-".V?i=^-=^=;-l They held a clandestine meeting last 

night. 5]s^!;-s^fc|^-S!^-sn!^c;-q(^-^!^-s5n'^'-S5n'q^'^| 
jj^^RS^^I pseudonym, pen name || I wrote this novel using a pen name. 

q^'^^'s^n.l] secret discussion || The secret discussion was held at night. 

qi'^^'^qi ^spy; 'detective || ^The spy was caught and executed. Jn'^^'^",V 
q^^'3j^'2j^'q^'^] "The detective worked in secret on a criminal case. 



q^is^^Tus^l secret road || There is a secret road that leads over the 

mountain. J!]'N=;'".W^J!]'^'^'".vqg3j'Sr=^l 
J!]^q] (q^q] q^q^] Mq^]) to add, to insert, to supplement || Can you insert 

this sentence in your essay? 

^'^q■(g=^l make-up class || The make-up class was held in the evening. 

^^^^"^1 indemnity || She was paid a large indemnity. 

J!]«^q'^3j] ^addendum, supplement; 'subsidy || ^ITl add the additional 
information as an addendum. ^^■'^^■^^■^■^5''^^3j'^^q'^3j'^=^'^'^3j] 'He 
gets a salary subsidy because he lives in a high altitude area, p'^'^^'s^^!]' 

Jlj'^q'gR] supplemental study || I suggest that you read this book as 

supplemental study . =^'N-^=^-'^V=^q-c5''^^'J!]'Nq-|k-S]-#>l-^-^Jl]-q==^-5^^5^'s)-|^^-|:^^ 
^^=^] new II I bought a new house. ^^■p^'J!]^=^'(^J!]'^^] 
Jlj'^^^'^^] new-bom || The new-bom baby cried loudly. 

J!]'^=^'^3j] building, establishing || The building of the new village school 

took six months. i'^'S'^^'^'^'^^'^'^'^^'^3j'|=^'=^^1'^'5^''^^'^l 
qj'sj:^-qqjc-q| reporter || He is a newspaper reporter. 

^'^^''^^^1 news II Did you watch the television news last night? 

^^^''^^^'P^'l news agency, press service || The newspaper publishes 
reports from only one news agency. 

^'^^''^^^''^^S'^pSj] reporter, newsman || She is a newspaper translator 
and reporter. p^-JJ^^N^-q^^-nrf q-=^=;-J!]'N^-q^^-q3]=^-»ip3j-|^J!]-5S3jl 

J!]^=^'q5'^| innovation, transformation || The automobile is an important 
innovation in transportation. 


Jjj'^^'q^l revolution || The revolution began in 1832. 



cnis^^^-q^-qi revolutionary || He became a revolutionary when he was a 

teenager. 'p^3j'^=;'^J!]t^3j'SM'3jM'J!]M^'q|'q'^J!]'y^^l 
J!]^F'J!]^=;] creation, founding || The creation of the television has brought 

enjoyment to many people. q^3j-q|3j-J!]'^^-J!]y=^-^'^-q-^'^-5^-»l=;^".lWq-qg".11 
^^^'S] newly, anew || This chair is newly painted. 

^^^■q] 'new; "fresh || 'Be careful, the blackboard has wet new paint on 

it. ^s^'N-^'^'l,'^! |^'N5^-^=;-S-§?3j-J!]'^^-q-q^'NW^l -I only like fresh butter in 

my tea. '^•^'l'3j=;'^'»l^'J!]'^^'q'p^3j'q^3j'q^'^J!]qi 
^"^=^'3] adult young man || The adult young man doesn't have much of a 

beard. J!]'^^'g'^'".V|5'^'»l=^^«^^l 
q^'^^'^",!] plowing up new land || Plowing up new land is difficult but 

important. |^^=;'Jl]'N^-|'".v|=^-^-^-=^'Tjq-gi[j^-i-^!^-:;qj'^-q^q-i] 
^^^'^^^l newly established || That magazine is newly established. 

Jlj^^'qg] creating, inventing || Inventing takes a creative mind. 


'J]'^"!] clear, bright || The moon is very bright tonight. ^■=^J!]^^'q'=9'5^'^^".l] 
q^'s^q'qsqjs^i statement, proclamation || I thought his statement didn't 

make much sense. =;'N-q<^'N-3j-'pq-J!]'^".vq|^J!]'N-^-".VJ!]3j'N-'5J!]'^-5'"^=;-5^=^] 
^'^"I'S] familiarity || I'm impressed with his familiarity with Tibetan folk 

customs. p^=^'^'^si=;'N'^f^'g=^'5!]'Nf^'sw^'i!'^'N'=;'".vqji]'c5^'N'gq's?qi^Ji] 
^^"l'c5'53jl familiar || He is familiar with that situation so ask him, not 

me. J!]3jM'qq'^^'^'^'aj'N'p^'J!]'N".Vc5'53j'^J!]'5S3j'q'Ni p^^-v^'N'^'^'i =;'".r»i'q5] 
q^is^q'qtNq^l reminding || Thank you for reminding me to lock the 

door. (i^'|'^-=;-".v|^J!]^3j-^-J!]'^".vq^q'^-^^-q^-^'^'N-|-ii 
^'^"-Vq] clear || The sky was clear and the air was fresh. 

^^"^^^1 consonant || How many consonants does English have? 

J!]'^".V'^^=;] classification || How much do you know about the 

classification of literature into various genres? §'5^'^^'S5^'5]^'^''>§'^<^' 

Jn'^q-q^cj explanation, clarification || His explanation of the problem 


was helpful. p'^-£!]aj=^-=^3j-"1-5!]'5^rn-q.P|2^-^s]-q-^-=9-5!;-s53j] 
^^^ (q^^ q^l^M] ^1^!]^]) to shake || I want to shake your hand. 

^^^'1 meadow, lawn || The yaks grazed in the meadow. 

qjSjn,i| (q^n,i| q^n,i| q^?^a,i|) to split, to divide || I Can't divide this mutton 

equally . =;'^-'5J!]-.P|-q5-5^^5^-^-J!]?^",V5^-^qi 
^^^■^".1] money bribe || The leader was punished for taking money 

bribes. '^^^=^'^'N'^^^'=^5"-l'^^'N'^^'c5=^'^'q5^1 
''l^'^'l (^^'^l ^^^'^l ^^'^'^D to speak, to talk, to tell, to say || What did she 

tell you? JT8r^-ji=^-".V5'^J!]'J!]^=^'^l 
^^^"S^l religious sermon || The religious sermon lasted for one hour. 

^^^^i^^l ^quotation; 'excerpt; '' anthology || ^I'm now memorizing one 
famous quotation every day. ^«5'^'<^'^3j'5]^'^'".VJ!]^^'qi2'^'5]J!]^'33j'(^J!]'q'".V 
§^'5,^'"^^1 'In our literature class we are reading one excerpt from 
famous Western writers each day. ^■cf^'fs^'^^'^=!'p^'|'S^=!'*^'^l ^'cf^'Isj-^^-sq- 
|5]s)-f«-^'^^g]=il»)-33i-|-5ti^^-=!i2^-5tl35tl-g'qi-=!^3i-^^l ^Yesterday I bought an 
anthology of Tibetan scholars' articles, f^'^'^] !;'^^^'»ip'N'qq'f»l'^J!]'J!]^!;' 

^^^'^^^l letter, message || Did you send her a message? 

^^^^^3^1 complete literary work || These three volumes make a 
complete literary work of his writings. 

^^^■§■3^] writing, work || We won't publish your work because it isn't 
written very well. (|=^'|'^^'^'f5^'|'N-q-'^-q5-5^-qg^-q'N-^-i''N-=^q-^3j-5^-|=^l 

^^^^^1 religious text, religious classic, scripture || The young monks 
first studied a religious text. q|3j-q-'^J!](^3j-^'^^J!]-»l^-J!]^=;-^q-".V^q-|k-^^] 

^^^'^■Pj'^l talk, speech || The audience warmly applauded his speech. 

J!]^»ll three || I have three brothers. '^'"-I'^aj'^^*!'^'^! 

^^s^'c5] a third || I want about a third of that large piece of bread. 


^^^^1 third II The third paragraph from the bottom has an error. 
^^s^'^l all three || All three of my yaks died yesterday. 

^^^51 smell of something burning || The smell of something burning 

filled the kitchen. ^P'^'Sj'^'^'^^^'^'^l'li^l 
Jll^'N'q] stomach, belly || My stomach aches. =;q'J!1^'^'q'3j] 
^»S] (^^] ^^^] ^^^]) to split, to divide || He splits the firewood with an 

axe. '[^'^■^■^■^J!]'^'^-(i-»l-J!]5S'^l 
q^Sjq^ (q^^q^ qi^q^^lj :^l^^■\) to be tilted, to slant, to incline || The old 

building slowly began to slant and finally fell over. 

^^^■] break, intermission || We took a five minute break after meeting 

for two hours. '^'S^'N-f §f=^-J!]|'N-'^V§&]'N-qs-n§&]'N-|'N-^^-s^-<^-'^vq^-J!]5^=^^^ 
^^^1 (^^^1 ^^^1 ^^^1) to card (wool, cotton, etc.) || ITl card wool for an 

hour tomorrow morning. ^^■^3j'S5n!^'q^'^^'^'§f=^'J!j5^'".vq".V^^=^'^'"^3j] 
^^S'^^^!"-!] explanation, interpretation || His explanation was clear and I 

agree with him. p''^-J!]'^=^-q^".V^^-q-J!]'^".V^=;-=;-^-".vqg^l 
^^q] stallion || When the stallion neighed the other horses stopped 

grazing and looked up. 


^^^1 gold II Gold is expensive. J!]^=^'aj'J!]^'i] 

^^^■(^1 golden throne || The Living Buddha sat on a golden throne. 

Jlj^^'S^Jlj^l goldsmith || The goldsmith makes gold rings. 

^^^■^5"~ll gold and silver || Her jewelry is made of gold and silver. 

q^^l^'a] goldfish || The goldfish swam in the clean water. 

'^^^^^^^ writing in gold || These Tibetan characters are written in gold. 


J!j^=^'.P|J!] gold leaf II The Buddha image was covered with gold leaf 


^^1 (^^1 ^^^1 ^^^1]) ^to heal; 'to feed, to nourish, to raise || ^I hope the 
doctor can heal me. S3j'i!'^'^'S'3j=;'J!]M'^q'i!=^'^M'^'q'^=;] "I want to raise my 
child so she will be strong and healthy. '^'N-^^-Sl-l^-q-J!]^^^^! ^''^^'^'^■Sjl 

^'^■g^'l rearing, bringing up || Rearing their grandchildren is something 
my parents enjoy. cd^cf5fj!l»?|=^-|=^-^-^-=;'Sws^'N-|=^-q^=^-q-^J!]-^3jl 

Jlj^'gq^l 'remedy; 'method of rearing || 'Traditional Tibetan Medicine 
has a good remedy for liver disease. 23".V^3j'^'q=^'|]3j'"-V5^c53j'3j=^'J!]^'gq^' 
qg^q'f^jjjwi!;] "Methods of rearing children differ from one culture to 
another. ^J!]'J!]3j'^'5^'q5'q'".v|,^'q'J!]^gq'N'^!;'5^'q5'qw^l 

^'^■^"-1] breeding, raising || Sheep raising is what he does for a living. 

^'^■q'^^^'i!] science of medicine || He studied the science of medicine in 
college and then he became a doctor. P'^'J]^'^^'^'^^'^'^^'^'"-VJ]^'|^'^'^' 

Jll^'=^Jl]'i!] physician || I am a physician and I work in a hospital. 


^'sjqj (qsjqj q^i^j^ij J!]^J!]^]) to save up, to accumulate || How long did it 
take you to save up one thousand ywaw? 

Jjjsjjjj'q^jjj saving, accumulating, stockpiling || Saving money has always 
been hard for him. p^'^V«^i3j'3j-^=^W^^-J!]»«]-|^-g-^3j-q==^-^'Tjq-5?5,:^| 

Jlj»5R] (^^^'1 ^^^'1 J!]^^^]) to keep secret, to conceal || Don't try to keep 
secret what you feel about me. 


^M3j] (^^3jl ^^3jl ^'^SjD to listen || I want to listen to your song. 

^'^Sj] to be alive, to live, to survive || I'm happy to be alive. 

^^aj'^s^^vaaj'^l] vivid, lively || He tells vivid stories. 

=^3^] alive II I'm so sick that I'm barely alive. !;'".V3j'cf|'s?^J!]'^';'3j'^''^-'3- 

^^aj'^'^l survival rate || What was the survival rate of livestock after the 


c\ -vc\ 

snow disaster? p'^'^'laj'^^^'I'^l §J!]'Nli!]-5|-J!]'r3j-cf=^-^%-^»l-5)3j| 
^^3j'-P|J!]^] vigor, vitality || He walks with great vigor. 

Jlj^^s^'-Pj^'] pine tree || That pine tree is short but very old. J!]'^5^'^^'^''^''^5](^' 

^^] drill, awl || The drill bit into the wood. J!]%-|,^--Pj=;-^J!]'N1 
:n%^-(^qqi!5^-q| II He chiseled a hole in a boulder to hide his treasures in. 

^'^"-1] Ho have; "to tell; ho eat; \o drink || ^He wants to have some tea. 

pi^-^q^^q-q^t^l -I will tell you about it tomorrow. 'N=;-|3j-=;'N-^=^-'q-^q-^^- 

^3j'S'J!]»5".l] ""please eat some bread. J!]'^''^^'^'^'s)a,i| "'please drink some 

tea. ^^'W] 
Jj^s^n-V^aj] banquet, feast (h) || ITl be happy to attend the banquet at your 

home tomorrow night. 'N=;-|3j-=^^=;-sr^-=;-(|=^-cf=^-^'J!]w'^3j-'^V(g'^'N-q^-|l 
J!j^n.vq=;q^] prayer || He said a very long prayer. 

J!]^"1'q] prayer, plea || His plea was that he would be allowed to live. 

J!]^"1'cf^^] meal (h) || Did you have a meal this morning? 

q'^^■5^S=^] religious ceremony of burning incense || Tomorrow evening 
there will be a big religious ceremony of burning incense at the 
monastery . 'N=;-|3j-^^=;-sr^-=^^3j-q-^q'^=;-»ll'=^-i3j^|=^-^-^^l 

q'^si'^'N'sl'igq] unthinkable, incomprehensible || His knowledge is 
incomprehensible . p^'^^'^'aj'q^s^'^'N's^'liq] 

qsjs^'^aj] evil thought || I don't think she ever had an evil thought in her 
life. '^'N'pW".vJf£!]!;^^'^'=;3j'^J!]'|'^'Sr=^'q5;-9j-q^=^] 

qM»l'qc5^] opinion, idea || In your opinion what do you think I should do? 

q^»l'q^^3j] meditation || His meditation in a cave lasted two years. 

q«55^'=;3j] desire, goal, wish || What is your strongest desire? 

q^»l'q=;3j| hope, expectation || It is my hope that you will study well. 


(f '^■^■§'q<^'5]^5:|-(^g!^-g:^-)q?)5]-5]^-^q-^-q|^c;-q| to think over || Please think 
over your decision before you do anything more. 

q'^si'i!] 'thought, idea; "mind || 'My thought was that it would be nice to 
go for a picnic today. '^'^■q'^»l-q^-^-S:!;-Wq]i^!;-n,V»r=;-3j-=9-3=;-qg=;-q5;-^5]] -That 
mathematician has a fine analytical mind, |■^■^^■5^p^■^■^■".l■=^^■^q■^■ 

q^»l'qq'^'f\l] mental labor || After an hour of mental labor he took a 

short nap. ^•§f^'J!]5J!]'".vq'^»l'qq'=;".vf".V^^'1'N'p^»l".V".V^".ll 
qs^5^•qq•^K•^P|^] ideology || Different societies have different ideologies. 

^^*l'^^^l inclination, attitude || My inclination is to agree with you. 


q'^s^'q] thought, idea || Years ago I had the thought that we might 

eventually marry. 'TqJ!]q-|3j-=;-".V=;-§f»igq-»l^-J!]^3j-^J!]-|,=^-^^-qq-q'N»l-q^|'Nl 
q^NSl-q^q] thinker || He is a deep thinker. 'p^-q'^»l-q^q-§^»l^^J!]-5S3jl 
q's^ai'^is^'gqi'q] thoughtful, oversensitive || He is a thoughtful writer, f^'ai' 

q55»i-|k] scheme, intention || Your intention is evil. (i^'^'q'^»l'1'^'^'=;3j'q'^3jl 
q^5^'#i.l| opinion, impression, feelings || I have a good opinion about her. 
p^q^qj-a,v:;-a,i-qs]5^-^a,vqg:;^^q^-Sr^| I have several different feelings 
about this book. ^q-c5''^^'l^Jl]'3j'N-=;-".vqc5^'#^V5^''^5'q''^J!]'^W^l What is your 
feeling about what she said? p«'^-^'^-S-q.P|^'q<^-g=^'^^'".vq'^5]-^*q-5-^5[^- 

q^s^'&l estimation, speculation || My estimation is that it will take one 
day to finish this job. ^'l-q'N5^-§?=^w^-q-q^-q5]q-q^-|3j-J!]5J!T'^^=^-^-^=^l 

qs]»l'J!^(^J!^^] thinking, consideration || Consideration of this problem for 
two weeks has not brought a solution. 


q^s^'q(^3j'=;] on purpose, deliberately || He deliberately pushed my book 
off my desk. p''^-q'NS^-q^3j-S-=;q-^q-c5'5'j!]%''i^'^=;'3j'N-g=;-".V^=^l He very 
deliberately caused her much trouble. p'^'pW"1'q?)5]-q(a3^-^'^J!j'q^f\vi3j' 



qs^s^•^P|s^] understanding, conscious || She is an understanding person. 

qS)a,i| cool II The weather today is cool. ^'^'^-S^-ajsl^-^-q^".!! 
q^".VJ!]SJ!]'^] parasol, umbrella || The sun was so hot that she used a 

parasol while herding. |'»l'=9'3=;'cf qM] p^^'§J!]'N'n§§'^q'^'q^".VJ!]S'^'N'|=^l 
q'^fws^l cool II The cool breeze made me feel better. 


q^n.VJ!j^q| fan || I had to use a fan to make myself feel comfortable. 

qsjn.l'^R] cool air, breeze || A breeze blew through my bedroom window. 


^^1 (^^1 ^^''^l ^'^l) to receive, to welcome || I'd be happy to receive you 
and your friend tomorrow afternoon. 

q^'q] welcome, receiving || His warm welcome made us all feel 

comfortable . pqWS^s^'^-qpKvqq-q^-q-^^j-i^-a^-ii^-q-q^-sr^-q^!;-! 
q^^'g] breeze || It's so hot, I wish there was a breeze now. 


q^^'53jl lucky II You are a lucky man to have a warm, loving family. 

qM=;'3js^M] good fortune || I hope you always have good fortune. 

qSJ'^^'^l thrift II She knows how to practice thrift and that's why her 
family has a lot of money today. 

531 (^531 ^■SJ'^l) to get mixed || The feed was mixed with salt. J!]33j''><^'3;!;'^' 

q^K'^aj] contamination, impurity || Contamination of drinking water is a 
serious problem. qi2^'^'S'q^]=^'^3j'3j'J!]3j=^'=^3j'cfq'^'i3j'(^J!]'^3j] 

qjiq'^l 'instruction; "experience || 'Two hours of instruction tired us all. 
^^■§§=^'J!]|'N-^=^'^'q^]q'^'^'N-=;-§fcf=;-»l'g=^'c5=^'^'q§J!] -What was your 
experience living abroad for a year? (i=^'^'^"-V3j'^'".V^5^'".vqf =^'3j'^'q^]q'^' 




=9'^ to know, to understand || I understand what you mean. 

=9'5^'] very || She speaks Enghsh very well. p^'^^'^^''9'5^'^5^^^'']'a' 

=9'3j'=9aj'3j] muddleheaded || After an hour of class I feel tired and 
rnuddleheaded. ^■cf'^'J!]5J!]'^!;'S]'^q'(|=^'^'|'N'^l!;'g=;'c5=^'3^'^'=9'^'^3j'^'^J!]'^^ 

y-^'y-^l careless, sloppy || It was careless of me to have left my keys in 
the lock 01 my apartment door. !^'3;'5]"y^'y^'(asr|'a)3:-q?r.^c;-|55]"g,"S"g(^" 
az^'^'i^'ajsri'qf^'Rs;"! The manager's criticism of her sloppy work is 
justified. q=^J!]'J!]^^'q'N'p^q'y^y5<^-'^!5I-'T|-'^'|3j'q|=^'^'^'q5;-m3:!^-<i|m^ 

'^''^s^^ more or less, roughly, approximately || I have approximately one 
hundred yaks. =;-".V=9-".l»l-J!]wiJ!]-'^=;-J!]5J!]W^l 

=9'"1^] to be amazed, to be surprised || He was surprised when we said 
that we did not agree with him. =;'cf'N'!;'§^".V9S''^g^'i!'".iq'i!'3jl f-^-"-]^] 

'^'"i^'^] surprising, amazing || She has an amazing singing voice. 

"^Sj to be astonished, to be dazed || I was dazed by the frightening 

sound. |^''^^^'^^'^''^'=9=^'S'^§^ 
=9=^'^^] quickly || Come here quickly! '^^'^''^^'^'^'-Pj^ 
=9q'c5] laughter || Her laughter sounded like small bells ringing. 

=95^''^|3=^] rapacity, taking away by avarice || His rapacity was such that 
he robbed even old men and women. 

"^s^'^l ambition, greed, avarice || His ambition was to become rich and 

famous. p'^''9»l'^'^q'^''^|f=^'5^=;'g]^'^'^'N-^'^-^3jl 
=95^''^".l] invasion || The enemy's invasion was unsuccessful. 


s^si'^'^] embezzlement, misappropriation || He was found guilty of 
embezzlement and sent to prison. 

'^s^'Sjs^'^l ^ambition; 'scheming || 'He has more ambition than ability. 

p^n,V^=;-^-a'^--P|J!]'N-".l'N-q^".vqq-=9»l-^5^'N--PjJ!]W^l "His scheming did not bring 

him success. p'^-=95^AW'N-^M-p^".V^".vp-f^3j-^-s^-q§J!] 
=9^] to widen, to flare || The yak flared its nostrils and bellowed. 

^^'^^ diligence || Diligence brings reward. p^'^^'"l''^^'^'3'^|5jl 
=9^'gqj-^!S)| diligently || You must study English diligently in order to 

make progress. ^^Isj-^JJl-qy^-f^^-VS-q^q^l (i^'|'^'^^'g^'S^'^''|=^'^5]''^l 
^^'^] energetic, diligent || She is an energetic child. 

=9=^'q§'3j] diligence || 'Diligence' is the opposite of 'laziness.' 

=9'q^ difference || The difference between 9.9 and 10.0 is very small. 9.9 

=^=^■10.0 q^-|,-^-qJ!]-^-=9-5=;-^=;-] 
=9^^! lunar month || How many days does a lunar month have? 

5^'|3^ selecting the best || Selecting the best soldiers to fight in the front 
lines is important to winning the battle. =^«^J!]''^|gJ!]'".l^'^".vp'<^gq'i!=^'s^cf3j' 

5^^'=^] rough II He uses rough language when he speaks. 

5"-V5"-ll tattered || I wear tattered clothes when I do field work. 

5"-Vq] whole, entire || Did you eat that whole piece of mutton? (iS'^''^''^^' 

^P|•5^,l^l'^^•^^»^] I can't eat a whole sheep. !;'N''5J!]'.P|'f?5;|-|nj^^J!]'g'5^'^qi 
5"-V'^l tattered || He owned only one tattered shirt. 

l^^^ rigid II He has rigid ideas. [^"-V'^-q-l'^^SJi^l 

5'5<^'g^'g^'^3;i person with a master's degree || He has a master's degree 

from Beijing University. 'p^'q%3j'^q'^'i3j-55<^-5-|<^-gq-g!;-2r=^| 
<^| god II What is the name of that god? ™-^q-»1^3j-"l-5'^Jl]-|^| 


g'Fi^'l temple || It's a small but beautiful temple. 

"S'|3^'l fable, myth || Do you know the myth of the earth's creation? 

"S'll doctor II That doctor practices Traditional Tibetan Medicine. 

^■5^^'i'qi atheism || His creed is atheism. pq-=^^-q-^-™-s^2^-|3-q->SS3j| 
"S'5^] goddess || The painting was of a beautiful goddess. 

™t^".ll Heaven || When I die I want to go to Heaven, '^'^'t'"^''^"-!'"-!''^^'^'^'^! 
"S'q^l maker of statues || He is a maker of statues. p'3j'™'qg'(^J!]'^3j] 
"^■'^l Lhasa || Lhasa is in Central Tibet. ™-'^-^^=^-^=;'N-^-2r^l 
"S^ more than, surpassing || I have more than twenty yuan. 

™J!]'5]^'^] remainder (in division) || Twenty divided by six has a 

remainder of two. |'-P|'5J!]'S|!^'q^^'^'™J!]'5]=;'N'J!]|'N'5Sajl 
"S'^'iil furthermore, in particular, especially || I like him and, in 

particular, I like you. ^'p'^-V^J!]'^] ^'(i^'^-VOTy^^'^l 
"S^'^^^l remnant, remainder || There is not even a remnant of the temple 

that was once here. |3j-c5=^''^^'5'^^'q'l'^^3j'q'^^'™J!]''^|%''»l'^J!]'^=^''5'N-s^2^] 
"S'^'5^] leftover, remainder || How much money do you have leftover? 

"S^'^5^] a little over, a little more || I have a little more than one hundred 

yuan in my pocket. '^^■f^.J!]'5^'l'aj=^'^'^=^'s?q^'™J!]'55^'^J!]W^| 
'W^'^] remainder || The remainder of the food is for you. 

'^^'^^ wind II A strong wind blew last night. ^^^'^'^^'^'S^'S^'^'^^'^^^'^l 
"3^'^'q] distinct, obvious || The answer is obvious. 5^'".13j'3j'5]s;3;'Jn!5inj'=;!>'q' 

<S=^] adulterant || This gold contains an adulterant. J!]^=^''^=^'".V™=^'3J!]''^5'^] 
™^'53jl diluted, adulterated || This is diluted milk. q^-^-'?T»l-™^-5aj-5S3j] 
"SS'5^^1 pure II This is pure milk with no water added. 

"S3j'g'^] innate || Fear is an innate human feeling. 


"S3j'=;] together, with || May I go with you to the shop? 
"33j'^] patch II My mother put this patch on my trousers. 

"23j'§&]M] council, association || Our viUage council has only male 
members. =;-S^-S-qq-n,i^)-q|3j-™3j-S&]'N-|-5^-|-^-|'N-q-.P|-^Jl]-^3jl 

raaj'q^s^'^] ^gathering; 'joint || 'Our annual village gathering will be this 
afternoon. '^■c^'^'q'S-"T^q-™3j-qf5^M-^-^-^=;-|^^-q^-^-^=^l "We were 
successful after a joint effort. ™3j-qf5^'N-|-qq=^-q-".vq'^aj-ajM-=;-§?k-^".vp^qi 

<S«^] boot, shoe || This boot is made of leather. W'^=^'3j''T]'q^'qg^] 

ras^'sqj shoelace, bootstrap || My shoelace broke. ^^■™s^'aJ!]'c5=^'^^'] 

™si'5^gf\l] shoe sole || My shoe sole has a hole in it. 

"S'N] yard, enclosure || We have some flowers planted in our yard. 

'^^'^\ courtyard || Please close the door to the courtyard when you 

leave. ^=^-^=;-q^^q'^-'^!^-3;<^-|^q| 
"S] joint II It is difficult to disconnect sheep's joints. '5^'^'"S''^5]"-V^'T]'^| 
™'&!]'^1 joint II My knee joint aches, ^^q-^'s^-sjqw&i^'^-aj] 
"2'".1^ part, piece || This part of the machine is broken. 

■g^^ 'abundant; "loose || 'We had an abundant harvest, ^■sf".!'"™]'™^!]^ 
^^^'l ^The pack was so loose it fell off the yak. Y^^-™J!]^^3j-q'N-5!]"^5!]- 


"S^'S^I prose || His prose all has a Tibetan setting. 


=^'=^ loose II I've lost weight so these trousers feel loose around my 
waist. =i^''5'N-.P|-(g=^-3j'N-i5^=;-|»l-q^-=^J!]-=;q-=^|-»1^3j'^-™J!]-™J!]-|'^l 

^'^] to fall II If I fall will you catch me? J!]".iy=^'™=^'^'(i=^'|M'=^'q%§'«S3j-3j»ll 
Don't fall down when you go down the stairs. |5^'^'^'^J!]'^'".l'^'qqq'^q^' 

"S3j'5]qi naturally formed || The hole in that rock is believed to be 
naturally formed. g=^^'^'^^'fl=^'g'^'^'"S3j'5!^'5^'"^3i-q^-|'»l| 


"23j'^] ^mountain; ^steady || ^ There was a forest fire on the mountain. "23j' 
q^q'^R3jJ!]^'cf".VS^'",V?i'^] -He drove at a steady speed of fifty kilometers 
per hour down the dirt road. 'p^-'N-"1«-S!;-f ii^-^^-|-S:vavq^q-5^|jljs]-jf:^- 

"S3j'c5^'^] stable, steady || He has a stable character. 

"2^'".13j] diligence || I admire her diligence in study. 

"S] south II It's warmer in the south than in the north. 

"S'JSl southern direction, south || The temple is south of here. 

^sp] southwest II Yunnan is in Southwest China. t^3j'3j3j'^'^!;'^q'<^5q'3jW^l 
"S'^'^^'l Antarctica || It is very cold in Antarctica. 

"S'^^'l north-south || The fence ran in a north-south direction. 

"S's^] south, southern || The south village has Monguor residents. 

<|^-P|^1 southeast || The lake is southeast of here. »l^'q^'Jl]q'-n^-^-?l-3i'Srs^] 
™J!]'™J!] seething, boiling || The pot of water was boiling. 

"S^l to relax, to release || When I feel tense, I try to relax. 


™^''^^^'^] calmness || The calmness of the ocean in the evening helps me 

feel calm. »icf3j'srq-^-5^a§q-^;:,-q^J!]'N-|'^-=;-".V'J'^-q^J!]'^-|-§?k-q-|3jl 
<S=>''^^^'^] peaceful, placid || She looked at him with placid eyes. 


"S^'tJ] loose, at ease || He felt at ease while giving his speech. 


"S'^''^S'^^ southern latitude || Hainan Province lies in a southern 
latitude. =9'^'3jaj-^=;-i3j-^-™q-q|=^-gj!]-^=;-3j-55'=^l 



i3M'[^] paternal uncle || My paternal uncle is a businessman. 

iSM'l^^] U.S. dollar || I've never seen a U.S. dollar. 

i3M"5] elder sister || My elder sister just graduated from university. 

'^^] elder brother || My elder brother lives over there. ^'S'i3M'^'5i'J!]'3j'^^| 
i3M'3j's^'3j] exactly the same, completely alike || Those two brothers are 

exactly the same. ^aj^'J!]|M''T]'q'^!^-S'^-'^-i3M-3j-5^-3j-5,:^| 
i3M-^l aunt II My aunt is a doctor. =;q-i3M-^-^-^3j-q-^J!]->^3j] 
^V^] father || Where is your father now? ^^'|w!^-=^-'^-J!]=;-^-Sr^l 
i^V^l grandmother || My grandmother lives in Gansu. 

'^\'^\ 'adult man; 'brother || 'He's not a child, he's an adult man. p'Sj'^''^''^' 

^5!]-»l-^^l P^'^l'q^^^'^^^l 'My brother is a farmer. =;q-i3M-q^-^!;-q-^J!]t^3j] 
^si] mother || My mother's birthday was yesterday. 

i3M-s^-S>-p] America || America has fifty states. i3M-s^-S,-p-n,V|^aj-<^-q^-55i^| 
i?>V(^^'l maternal uncle || My maternal uncle was the most honored guest 

at my wedding. '^^■J!]^3j-^3j^J!]W(^=;-^-q|'q^^-i-^'^-gq-qq-»l^aj^'^3jl 
i3M'^^ liquor || This liquor tastes sweet. i3M-^J!]'q=^q'g'q's^^^] 
i?>V".l3j] response, answer || When can we expect your response? 

i3M'",iJ!j'^] Living Buddha || The Living Buddha studied in Lhasa. 


i^^l'Sjl sister-in-law || My sister-in-law is a good cook. 

i^M'cjj'^^'Sajl changeable || His changeable character is difficult for his 


friends and family to tolerate. 

i3MJ!]'c5Sl] beard || Even though I'm forty years old I don't have a beard. 

i^MR'Tj number, numeral || Six is a number. 55!j-^'i3^^''rj'^J!]'^3j] 
iJ^^'S]^'^] number || What bus number must we take now? 

i3MRJ!^a^'q| number two, second || I'm the second oldest child in my 

family . '^■^■^=^'cf=^'^'|,^'i!'i3M!;-J!]|'N-q-'^3jl 
i3MR5J!]^] number || Thirteen is an unlucky number for many Westerners. 

i3MR=;Rq] champion, first || He is a champion runner. 

i^MS^'^JJ] pocket II What have you got in your pocket? 

I3vi^-q2:5^| cement, concrete || I walked along the concrete sidewalk. 

UM'v''^'^] construction; building || The construction of the new building 
will require one year. gJl]'p^'^'s):^-qq-uM:^-a,i^]-n,vn,vqj5q^-;^q^s]-^-^;^| 

ISJ^^*)] insistence, persistence || At his insistence, I agreed to come. 

i?J"^3j| committee member || When did you become a personnel 
committee member? ^^■5^^3j'1^'^aj-".V3j»l-i'^-^^l 

i^'^^^l chair, seat || This chair is made of wood. isM^'^J!]'^''^^'.P|^'".1^'qg^| 



c\ ^r^ c\ 


Aa I (^^ 5^ -P|^ II A boy fell down and cried this morning. 'Sm'^' 
a bottle of | =^»l-q-J!]=;-l || I want a bottle of beer. 

a cup of |'^=^'J!]=^'l II I want a cup of tea. ^^sj-^^-Jj^^^-q^^^-q^^!^] 

a few I ^^^] II Only a few students study hard. ^q'*l''^^'^'P^3i'M'|=^'qf3i'|,^l 

a glass of I ^=^'^^'] II He wants a glass of water. p^'^'^^'^^''^^''^^^l 

a little I g=^'51 II I want a little sugar. '^'"-V'T^-^-ai^-^-t^q^'^)] 

a lot of I 5^=^^ II He has a lot of money. 'p^q-^^-Sfsl'^^W^] 

a piece of | "iq's^'(^J!] || Please give me a piece of beef. 

a slice of | "iq's^'(^J!] || He ate a slice of bread with butter. 

able I '^q'^l -qS3j-g=;-'^3j-qi || 'she was not able to go home. p5%f\Vf\v 
5]'5^'^q] -The able man easily found a good job. q^3j'g^''33j'i!q'|'^'i!'^'^' 


about I '^^■Sj'Nl gJ!]-3j'^l -€si] =9-n,l»ll II 'He knows a lot about history, f'^^ 
^■^■^^■3jM'5^^'q'-P|^] 'I will be away for about ten days. 



above | ^^'j '^^^ \\ The picture is above your head. 

accept I S^'"-l3j'^=;'i!] || I accept the invitation to have dinner with them. 

accident | c5^'§^l || There was an accident on the road yesterday. 

accuse | Js't^tn^^'qi || Don't accuse him of cheating, p^'s^^'a^'^'^'^^'gsi' 

across | q^^-V^] ^gS''^] || Be careful when you walk across the road. 

act I ^'^■g=^''^^3j'i!] "n|gq'cf3j] II ^She knows how to act like a queen. p'5^^'^",V 
s?=^=;-q5-qq-<^-|=^-q%-Pi'Nl "I fell asleep during the play's third act. t^'sTq- 

actor I f^l^q'^aj'^l] II The actor had a big part in the play. 

add I ^3j] II Please add these numbers, ^j^^'^r^'q^^'^^^l^'^aj] 
address | a=;'J!]3j'^] S'q^S] || ^Please give me your new address. (iS'^'fS' 
3j'^''3]'^'v'q'^'".V^'^^'] 'His address made all the students happy. f^^'M 

admit | p^'"13j'^S''^l || She had to admit she didn't know how to cook. 


advise | q^»l'nc5^1 p'^] || I like to advise students on their careers. 

airplane (airplane) | ^3j5^'5]l || I like to travel by airplane. ^■J!]3js^'5]'".vqs^' 

affect I .P|3j'-P|J!]^] II The weather affected his mood. 

afraid | a^'^] || We are afraid of our teacher. ^'cf^^q^'^aj'^-VaJl] 
after | I^N-aj^N] ^i^'^'aj^N] || After he left I went to sleep. p^^^'I^N] !;-^".vq^-»r=;-] 
afternoon | ^§\ \\ We have class in the afternoon |,^'^'§f".V^'||=^'^l 
again | "^^'q^^^] || Please say the new words again. 

against | q^3j'^l p^j'^j '^^"-Vqj || The ladder leaned against the wall. 



age I 3j-i=^l ^^N'^l II ^What is your age? (i=^'|'3j-i=^-^t^3jl "My body began to 
age quickly after I reached the age of forty. "1'q(^'q§'".vg^'^'^'^^''^'^'i!' 

agency | ^^'3] "-l^'f^^^j || Did you buy the ticket at the travel agency? 

aggression | q53j'^^".l] || Aggression is a very strong emotion. 

ago I f 3j] II My birthday was one week ago. 

agree | ^^^'^^j || I agree with my mother that I should finish my 
education. !;q-i3vr5^^)-!;-q-^q-J!]'^5^gq-|;gj-q-^J!]^q-q'^-q^2^-q-f\V!;-^!;-qg2^] 

agriculture | (^^'"-1'^] || Agriculture is the main business in the rural 
areas. ^'^•".l'N'^'^=;'§§q''^!^'^5n!^-J!]^fij3j| 

ah I ^\ II Ah yes, that is correct. ^] ^'^] '^^^^^] 

aid I =^^^1 ^l^'^] ^^'^■^^■^1 II She came to his aid when he was sick. 

aim I ^»lJ!]^t^".l] II It is my aim to become a doctor. 

air I »ipq-^gJ!]'Nl || The air is cold. »ipq-=^gJ!]'N-q(iJ!]'s)| 

airport | ^3j5^'5]'5^'l || The airport is a busy place during the summer. 

alive I ^^3j] ^^aj't^l II If they are breathing, they are still alive. 

all I W^^'Nl -cdk-»l] II ^I played basketball all afternoon. |,^^=^'^'^'=^^'^'^'|=^' 

^'3I-|^i| -All of you are Chinese. ^=^'§fcf=^'5^'^=^'^q'^=^| 
all day | a3j'J!]^'q=^] || I studied all day yesterday. 

all night | (^J!]-J!]=;^ »lcf3j'J!]=^^ || I slept all night. =;-(^J!]-J!]=;^^'^".ll 
all right | c5^ || All right, you can come with us. 

all the time | 3js^'"^^'] ^^^\ \\ I try to speak English all the time. 

almost I '"-1=^1 -!^".vi^l II ^I almost missed the train. =;-s^-qp'^-|,-|'N-".V5^-I=^-".l^- 
^'^l 'Almost all of you can read and write Tibetan well. ^"I'S^'fi^* 


alone | ^5^'^] p^'^^'l || I was alone all of last week. 

along I '^^Jll'N-qi *1^*1'S1 ^^^^'=^1 II Please sing along with me. =;-=^=;-q^J!]'N-3j'N- 

already | ^aj'^l] || I already finished my homework. ^M'^-l'^'^'^'^'cf^'gaj] 
also I ^^'1 ^^] ^^] II She also knew how to speak English. 

although I "^3j'3jq^'l '^Sj'^^'] II Although he was short, he was very strong. 

always | 3j5^'"^^'] gaj'^l^^] || I always like to eat ice cream. 

am I "Sajl II I am Tibetan. =;^^-q-5S3j] 

amend | ''«'^§^'§'^'^| "q^'q^^'^^^'^!] || ^You must make amends if you 

want to say you are sorry for what you did. '']"l'y(i^'^^'^'gS'^'"-V'^^S'^' 

I'N's'l ^=^'^'N'^»5'q^'^'^-q^!;-|,^'=^q]'^| -He wanted to amend the contract. 

America | i3M-s^-R-p| || America is a country. i3M-5^-^-p-^-gn,vpq-5qj-fi)3j| 
American | i3M'5^'^'p'q| || My teacher is an American. 

ammunition | '^^^'^'^j || They lost the war because they ran out of 

ammunition. 'p^sfq-qJJj^-f 'N-g^'q'^l ^»lJ!]-q(gJ!]-".l-s5»l-p-gq'Nl 
among | aj^'aj'^] |g^'Sj || From among all the flowers, the blue ones were 

the most beautiful. 5^y!]-cf'^-5^^-3j'^-3j'Nl s^y!]-^3ji5^-^-i^)-u^q]if^=^] 
amount | cf'^] '^q=^'5]^'^] || She told me to buy a large amount of sugar. 

ancient | ^3jq'^q^l || Ancient culture is an interesting topic for study. 


and I =^=^'l II Bill and Mary are Canadian. q'T=^=;-»iq-K^)-^-5-3j-^q-5^T^3j] 
anger | p^'(^l || Anger can destroy friendships. 


animal | Sj^'cB^^] || There was a dead animal by the road. 

anniversary | "I'^^R^^j || They had a party for their tenth wedding 


anniversary. p^§fj!]^3j'^J!]'3j'N'"fqp=^'q§q""53j'q^l p^c?N•^!]w'^■q^P|5^'Nl 
announce | (5^'§^^'^^'^1 1| They will announce the results of the test 

tomorrow. p^cf'NAi!^-|aj-§J!]M-qgM-(iq-|j!]-|=^-^-^=^l 
another | J!](^3j'(^J!] || Please have another piece of bread. 

answer | ^"-ISjl "^aj'Sl] ""-laj'^^^q'^'i!] || 'What is the answer to this question? 
|-q-q^q-a,i3j-%-^qj-5,:^| -J can't answer that question. =;'N%q-^-".V"iaj-q^q'N-9|- 

any | h^R^ '^R^'^] \\ I don't have any money. =;-n,V^^-5fJ!]=;-^=^-sis^| 
anybody | ^] || Does anybody want to go to the store with me? 

anything | 5'(^^ J!]^'"^^'] || Do you want to eat anything more? 

apologize | =;J!]^'^'^J!]'(a'q] || She didn't want to apologize for her mistake. 

appeal | 'psi'N-aj'N-niaj-qi "^S^'^-^^'l^^'^l ^'i^l II 'Please appeal to your 
mother for permission to go with me. [i^^'^'N'iJM's^q'ps^^'aj^'q^^'aj^'Rs^^' 
^»l'^''^^J!]'q'S'J!]3j=;'q'"r=^'Nl "My appeal fell on deaf ears. =;q-^-(g-^-q3j-qq-^- 

appear | s^^Sj'^l] || The sun did not appear from behind the clouds. 

apply I g=^'^] II Please apply what you have learned, (i^'^'^'3'q^jq^'^'g^'] 
appoint I q^'q] II I will appoint him to be the class monitor. 

approve | ^^'^^] c5^'s^c53j''^^^''^] || Who needs to approve this request for 
paper supplies? ^J!]-g<^-q'f|^v|=^-'^V^<^-IJ!]-»lc53j''^qf^'=^^^l 

April I p-q^-^l II April is m spring. P'^^'^^'^l'^-'T'^Sil 

are | '"^aj] -'^'^] \\ 'Are you American? ^=^-§^-i3M-5^-S,-p-q-iSS3j-3j5^| ^^e are 
Chinese, '^'^'^'^'^q'^iajl 

area | "^"-I'^H ^^] \\ The grasslands cover a very large area. 

argue | ^'^^] \\ Don't argue with your teacher. |iS'Q,'S^'^5j'^^'«^'§'=;] 
arm | S^^'^j || Your right arm is stronger than your left arm. 



arms | ^s^*3j'c5] 'S^^'^j || ^They took up arms against the enemy. p'c5'^'»l§53j' 
S^^'^'3j^'=^5]'q'^'ngq] "He broke both his arms when he feU out of the 
tree . 'pT=^^^'^''^'^'5]^-™!;-3^^-2^^!;-q-J!]|'N''T]'q5J!]'^l 

army | ^5^J!]'5^] || The army was very tired after fighting the battle. 

around | s^^^'^^'SjM] a'^p=^'3jM] || Please walk around the playground. 

arrest |'ql3j-q|=;-|,=^-qi -ql3j-q|=;-] || 'He said to the policeman, "Don't 
arrest me, I didn't do anything wrong." p''^'^3jy!]'^'".l"^''^^3j'q|^'s^'|,^l 
'^l'5^'q^J!j'q'J!j5^'^^'«^'".l'^"(^^'q-P|^] 'After his arrest he was put in prison. 

arrive | 53jl ^^] \\ What time will your mother arrive at the bus station? 

art I I'g'"-!] II He wanted to study art in school. n'^^'5!'^i'S'"-''i'^''^'^'il 
as I '^^51 '^q'N-^l II 'He looked as if he was sick. 'p^q'^'^-§?=^-".V3j-q^3j-2r=^-q-q51 
'He fell as he was walking down the street. p'23^'"is^'^=;'aj^''^5]'aq^'g^'"l' 

ash I gn-vq] II There is a lot of ash in the stove. '|J!]'N-gq-^-g".vq-»l=;^S5i^l 
ask I I'^'^^Sjl '^^■^l II Ask me a question. ^^•".V^-q-^J!]^:;'^] 
asleep | ^^=^l || I was asleep when she telephoned. 

assist I ^^^■^S''^! II He was asked to assist the teacher in class. 


at I ^J^-aj^N] gJJl'aj'Nl || I usually eat lunch at 12:30 p.m. 

at a bad time | S'^'5^'".lJ!]^'i!'S'^q^'^] || I'm sorry, you have come at a bad 

time. ^^^^'Sj-q-si-afs^l ^=^-S'^-5^-":iJ!]'N-q-^J!]-"1''^3j| 

at a good time | ^q^N-qg^^^^JJ]'".!] S^'^iJll'N^^J!]-".!! || Let's meet later at a 

good time for both of us. |!^-^-^=^-J!]|'^-".VS^-^q'N-qg=;^qw^-S'^-»l^".ll 
at first I ^^'Sl^l || At first please speak to me in simple English. 


at liome | «J".V3jl ^»l'3jl || I am at home today. ^'^^^''^'^si'^W^l 
at last I s^^TS^^^] II At last I was able to speak English well. 


at night | s^cfej-sp^] || I sleep at night. »lcf3j'«r=^'=;'8^"l'"l'^"ll 

at once | ^^"-I'S] || Do you want to leave at once? (5^''^^"-l'S'p''^'^'^l''^^^l 

at the beginning | =^^■5^ || At the beginning, I thought learning English 

was difficult. ^=;^J!]-=;^v=^|;3j-«SJ!]-^q-g-^-^T]q-s?^5!]-t^3j-q==^-q^=^] 
at the end of | ^%^^] ^^^'^^] \\ At the end of class, the students were 

almost sleeping. ^^'^=^'|'«^§^'51 ^^■5^'cf'=^"-vi^'^|=^''^^ 
at the moment | ^^^'^^j ^^^'^^S'"!] || I don't want to eat at the moment 

but I probably will later. 

at this time | 3jsi'§§k''^^'"ll || At this time of the month I usually get paid. 

at times | s^cfs^'^'s^cfs^M'^] || He is very funny at times. 

at work | ".l'^''T]'".l'^'qi || I was at work yesterday. p'!^!;'=;'N'".l'N''T]'".l'^l 
attack I ^%'^] ^^1] "^^'^Ij II ^Wolves like to attack sheep when they are 

hungry. ^^■'']''3^^'?v'^''5^'"-l'^"ll 'The enemy's surprise attack was not 

successful. ^5]^^'^J!]'i2'^^'^"-V^'^'=^'"-V^"l'f^«^qi 
attempt | '^'^''jS] '1,S'S''^1 II 'The assassin's attempt on the president's 

life was thwarted. ^3j'13j'^^'^^=^'|=^'=^'^'^=^''T=^'^*l'^'N'^'^^=^'l 'She won't 

attempt to tell him the whole story. fW^^3j-g»i'N-5^-p^".vq.P|=^-|'^-5]-|!^] 
attend 1 1^^!]^] || Will you attend the party tomorrow night? '^!;''^3;'^J!]^'S^=^' 

August I ^■q'qg'N'i!] || August is our hottest month. 


automobile | ^^^''^p^j || He hopes to purchase an automobile next year. 

autonomous | ^^'S^'l || Yulshul Autonomous Prefecture is in southern 
Qinghai Province. '^'^V-P|'^V^'^'|'=^'f^'^V^'«^§^3j'^'^'i3j%™^J!]'N-^-55'^l 

autumn | ^aj'^T] || In autumn tree leaves turn yellow. 
^aj-'T]^! ^=;w5^^'q'^'q^^i 

awake | c5^] J!]a=;''^=;'i!] || He wasn't awake when I arrived. 

award | '^^JJjT^J!]^] "=^J!]'^'^J!]'^'J!]3j^'q] || ^She got a special award for being a 
good student. |Sw^-|q-»i-qg=;^^Ji]-^3j-q'^-^Ji]q-^Ji]'N-|i^-q^-q-^Ji]^q| -We 


will award the best students with cash gifts this afternoon. 

Bbaby | ^Im'^I] -|,'^'=J'".vqt'qi || ^My baby is two months old. 
=;q'|,^'q^'q'J!]|'N'"r3jW^l "I'm now an adult so don't baby me. 

back I '1^1 "^q] ^^^'l?'!'^! II ^At six o'clock, go back home. 
f 5f=^'5^'^'^'^'l l^'t^^-V^-V'T^^'Nl -My back is painful. '^'S'^^'aj'^ 
^He kept a lot of empty boxes in the back of his shop. p^'^z^'^n'S^'pR 

bad I ^'^^] -k^^'^] II ^He is a bad student. 'p^-^q-»l-=;3j-q-^J!]-5Sajl "Her 

English is bad. pW'^|;Sjt^J!]'S|-^-S'^-5^'qg!;'l 
bag I ^'^si] II My bag is blue. =;q-f^J!]-»l-|3j^^3jl 
ball I ^'^"^\] II We lost our ball. =;-§f'N-=;-S^-^=;-":i^=^l 
balloon | =^gJ!]M'^R] || They gave her a balloon as a gift. 

bank | ^5""l'p^'] -^^^js^] || ^We need to go to the bank to get some money. 
'^■c?=^5".vp=^'^'^^'s?'^J!]^'"i3j'q^''^^=^^^l "We planted trees along the river 
bank this morning. i^5;|!^-q5;-R§gi!^-^-q5]»i-^-wj;^q^q^s]| 

barley | 3f^] \\ I like bread made of barley. '^•3j'^'|-".l'^'qwqq'^^'".V^J!]q] 
base I ^^'^■gi lj^'^'^1 II The statue rested on a base made of wood. 

basket 1 1]^ || Put the grass in the basket. If'^'^j'^'^Ti^'^l 
basketball | '^!;'^'>'|j''^] || That new basketball costs more than I can 

afford. «j=;"t=^"f"«r^'^=^'q'^^'3]'=^'^'Tjq-5q^M-q^)-!;^)y9J-^q] 
bathroom | ^^fl'=:] l^^f'^'l II Where is the bathroom? |'^'P'^'^'^'^'^=)1 
battle I SS1^''^(^^ II The stronger army usually wins the battle. 


beach | sicb'^^js^] || It's always nice to spend the day at the beach. 

beat I ^<^S^'|^^ '5^'l ^^^ || 'That disco music has a strong beat, ^^'^'p'^".!' 
^S^'^^ ""' "^S^'I^^'S^^ "2^1 'He was very angry so he beat the horse, ff 

beautiful | »1?M'5^] "^^'ij] || Those are very beautiful flowers. 


beauty | s^^M'^Jl] || Beauty is a common topic of poets. 

because | JSj'^'N] || I don't want to go outside because it is 
raining. cB^'q'f^qq'q^aj'ST'^'iiq'^aj'I^Mi !;-|^|,^n,vf\vq^5^-q^2^| 
become | '^^^l || His shirt will become gray when it becomes old. 

bed I »1".V^1 II The bed is not new. »l".V^-^-J!]'N^-q-5^3j] 

bedroom | »l".vp=^'l || My bedroom is this room. =;q'»l"l'p!;'p=;'q'q^t^3j] 

beef I ^s^^'-Pj II They bought a lot of beef at the market. 

beer | ^'cB'^'l || This is a bottle of beer. q^-^-'g-cB'^'-Pi^.V'^si'Jlj'^'^ajl 
before | ?3j'c5^] ^f Sj'"!] "Sl=;3j'aj^] || 'Where did you study before you came 
here? ^^-q^'Jlj^-s^-Sr^^-qq-laj-".!! (f'^'I'^'^'^'^'^^'I'^'^'^'^'^Sjl "He asked the 
young women to come and dance before him. R'^'^'^=^'5^'^'"1'^^''^^'3j'^' 

beg I g^'] II She needed to beg for money. p's^^'g^^^'s^'SR^^J!]^'^^] 
begin | '^^'g's^l || Please begin reading now. ^■^^■'^J!]'§'5^'=^^'] 
behind | '^'^3i\ ^q] || Who is that behind you? ^^'|'^'^'l?'l'^'|'^3j'^'^'^l 
believe | "^=^■c5^■'J] ^^'^] \\ I believe that tomorrow it will snow. 

bell I 5"^'g] £!]"J=^'5",l] II Our class is over when the bell rings. 

belong I ^^^'^l S^^'l || That cow does not belong to that family. 


best I «^c5^ =^q] i^'qg^'q] || This is the best meat I've ever tasted 

betray | ^^''^^"•I'^^'i!] ^■".IJ!]'^!] || It is not good to betray a friend. 

better | q^^'] 5^55^ '^l^^j || Her English was better than his. 

between | q^] || I want to sit between those two girls. 


bicycle | l^'N'^l || This is my brother's bicycle. q^-^-=;q-^3j-«^q-'|Jl]'N-^-«S3i| 


big I cB] c53j'^] II The big black yak ran across the grassland. 

bike I ^l^'N'^l "l^'N-^^-^aj-qi || ^Is your bike red? ^^^'I'^Jll'N-^-'^si^^iKl-^Sail 
"Let's bike to town and buy some groceries. '^J!]^'5=^'(^3j'3j^'5]^'qS".VS' 

bill I ^^5]'5]3il 'cB^^'^'^^^'q] II ^ You had better pay your telephone bill. 

^;^-|s]-^q-u|aj-3j-p-q^-|,-q^aj-^^-=^q]'^l -Please bill me for what I owe you 
and I'll pay you tomorrow. =;'N-ji=^-'^lY^-c5=^W^'q'l'c5=^'g^^J!]'|'N-=^=;-'N=;-|3j-=;^ 

bird I ^1 q^^q-cBJ!]'^! II The bird is in the sky. ^■^■5Jp"^'^|=^'^'^''^9^1 
birthday | ^^'^^1 1| We are going to celebrate her birthday tomorrow. 

bitter | ^'^pj 'f^^^] \\ ^That fruit tastes bitter. '^".iy!]-^q-'^pi "Being poor, 
hungry, and homeless is a bitter experience. ^g'^'^^'=!^^'=^] gsi-ij^^-q-a-^q]- 

black I 3jJ!]^Tj!]-Tj!] II That yak is not black. J!]«^J!]-^Tj!]Tj!]-si-5,:^| 
blackboard | g^'^^s^] || Write this word on the blackboard. 

blame | ^^3j''^J!]3j] -!^3;'|^sr|'=>5]'q] || 'When blame was assigned, he was held 
responsible and punished. ^3i''^^3i'"-V^^'^^'^'^'^'3il p'^-V'^^aj'l^'aj^'cB'^'^' 
^5^1 "There was no one to blame for the accident. c5^'§^'^^'5^'3j^'^' 

bleed | (^^'qi^^'q] || If you cut yourself you will bleed. 

blind I "T^^'q] s^'-Pj^N-q] II 'My grandmother is blind. =;q-|^-"r=;-q-«Sajl "He 
was blind to all his wife's faults. p^'^^^'sn'S^'s^'l'^'cf^'s^'s^'^'J] 

bloat I g] II If you eat too many apples your stomach will become 
bloated. ^"-iy^^'|'N-^--P|l'^-5J!]'N-^-pJ!]-q-'^|^] 

block I ^5"^^ "'^^^ II 'The cement block fell from the roof and narrowly 
missed hitting her in the head. ^'^■^^■^■B^^-(^'^5]-^-|q|-iq|-™!;-3j'N-prq-»iqy 
n,i^qj-aj-|75^-g!^| "Don't block the entrance to the school. ^q-^q-",wp-»l- 

blood I (g^ II Blood is red. (gJ!]-^-=^5^^-q'^3jl 

blouse I ^=^'^^1 II I don't have a yellow blouse. =;-"l-^^-^'^-'^^-q^^Jl]-5^^| 


blow I 'j!]«jJ!]'g^^] '^^ II ^With a single blow of his big hammer he 
killed the yak. p'^^q'i3j^J!]t^J!]'g=^'^'J!]|j!]'5|'^-J!]«JJ!]-q'N=^l "The wind blows 
hard on top of the mountain, ^'t'^^'^^y^"^^ 

blue I '|3j^ -5^»i^)-5^-5^q] II 'The sky is blue today, ^'^'^-qiajsi-laj^^^^l "I feel 
blue when the weather is cloudy. ajs^^'qgq^'^JS^'^q's^s^'^'s^'^] 

boat I 5]'§=^'l II The boat is on the lake. 5]'§=^'5^§fgJ!]'3j'"r=^l 

body I '^'N^ II His body felt cold in the wind. gj'^'3j'^'3j'^f^''3'^^3]=^'l 

bone I ^'N'il] II The necklace is made out of yak bone. 

book I 'f,'a] II Where is your book? (i=^'|''^^'c5'^=^'^'^=^l 

bookseller | ^^'cB'^s^'s^paj] || Ask the bookseller how much this book 

costs. =^q'c5''^ik-»ip3j-^-",V^q-c5''^^'^-S,3j-qy;-5^1-=^R| 
bookshop I =^^■'^c5^■p^■] II Do you want to buy a book at the bookshop? 

border | g^-l's^cfs^'^] || There are always police at the border. 

born I I^N] II The calf was bom last night. q'J'^'sl^'^'^^q^^^'q^iSi-q-Sia^] 
borrow | '^^^] \\ May I borrow some money from you? 

both I '^^^'^ II We both want to go to the movies. 


bottle I ^".V=^5^1 II This bottle is small. ^t^-^»l-q^-^=^'l 
bottom I (^q^l II The coin sank to the bottom of the well. 


box I §^»11 II The box has some chalk. §^»l-^q-3j=;-'N-|Jl]-qJl]qw^| 
boy I ^'"^l II The boy is not tall. ^■":v^-J!]|J!]'^-5^-R!^-] 
brain | ^S'^] II He had a brain disease and died. 

brave | S^'W^'s^'Saj] ^q'^'iJ'SSj] || He is a very brave man. 

bread | ^^] \\ I eat bread for breakfast. =;'N-3j=;'N-^".V^^l'^l 
break | 'q=^'J!]^^'] "J!]5^'^] || 'Halfway through class we take a break, ^iq' 
^;^-|-q^-n,i^aj-q-3j| z^-gij-qi^-qjSj:;-!:^! "Don't break my radio. =;q-|^-^=^-qpk-?^ 


breakfast | <5Jr|!5i'^] || I eat breakfast in my classroom. 
breathe | =^g^^■^ql || I could hear the horses breathing heavily. 
bridge | 35^'^!] || Many men worked to build that bridge. 
brief | s^=;=^'q^^] || His speech was quite brief. 


bright I ^M^-vq] II The light was so bright that I had to shut my eyes. 

bring | ^^^] \\ What are you going to bring to the party? 

broadcast | '^^qa^!]^] '^^^'q] || 'Let's listen to the radio broadcast 
tonight. ^'=^^'^''^'cf'N-g'^''^|3i'^'^'q|3^'N-".V^3i'=^^'^l 'The television will 
broadcast a soccer game tonight at eight o'clock. ^'^JJj^'^'sSk'qg^'gJTi' 

broken | c5^ || The bottle is broken. ^'^V=^s^'^'c5^''^^'] 

broom | §'J]'^'8^] || Our classroom has a broom. ^■§f^'^'p^'S'^J!]'^'5^'^J!]W;] 

brother | ^3^] \\ He is my brother. p^-=;q-^3j-«^-«S3jl 

build I q^ajl ".I'Nl II It is not easy to build a house. p=;-q-^J!]-".l'^-^-^AVS?»l-5;2^] 

building | p^'qg'J!]'^] || I saw a very tall building in town. 

built I "1^1 II My father built a nice house for our family. 

bull I ^^'1 II The bull was standing alone in the field. ^^'S'l^^'^j^'^'^-S^'^^' 

bullet I si^!31 II That gun only has one bullet in it. 


burn I nSl] II The paper quickly began to bum. 

burst I ^'3^1 II The sunlight burst through the clouds after the rainstorm. 

bury I g] '^^ II We had to bury the dog after it died. 


bus I |'|=)'5j'^'^''^p''^l II Will you ride the bus to town? 

bus station | ^.^^''^p^Ava^Jj^M] || I will buy my bus ticket at the bus 

station. =;'N-5.=;'N-qp'^-'N-s^Ji]'N-3j'N-^=;'N-qp'^-|,-q-'^y^-5S3j] 
business | §§k'] || He went to town to do some business. 

busy I ^"-1] n^q] II They are very busy working in the field at harvest 

time. '^3j'qf'S'^q'N'^'p^c?^=;'!^<^-$;;'".l'N'f^'|"^| 
but I '^Sj'^^'] II You can come with us but you don't have to. 

butter I si^] \\ Please put more butter in my tea. =;<^-^3j=^-".V»l=^-»l=;-sT=^'^| 

buy l"^ II I will buy a book. =;'s)-:^q-s-^q^y^-fi)3j| 

by I "Wj'N-".!] q5]»l-3jl II She stands by the door. p-»i-§^-qg]»i-^-q!;'s)-sr^] 

by the way | (^=^'=;'q.P|=;'g'"l] || By the way, I forgot to tell you about class 

yesterday. (^^■^■q.P|^'^''^V=^'N-p-!^=;-^-^q-^^-S3;-^^-q-A':^-^-q|=^-'^^^^ 
bye I q=^■5^] II "Bye, see you this afternoon," my daughter said as she left 
for school. =^<^'g,'3^'J^'^=^'<^^'f ^'^■^'^■i^'"q^'«lj^'^'^'|^^'^'3]" 

Ccake I 'T^'^^l II I like cake. =;-'T]-^-^5;-n,v;^q^q| 
calf I q!31 II The calf was very hungry. q^J'^'^^'S^''^'^] 
call I 'f^qk] "p'^^^'^T^'l II 'Let's make a call on our teacher 
this Sunday afternoon. §!;'5l"(^^<^'5i]g(^'|3j'5^'l'|,^^'=^'§f^2;' 
5n'2^5i'^3j'",vqcf«^^'q5'^^'q=^'qg]] "I will call you on the phone 
tonight. ^■^^'^■'^'^■ji^-n.vp-q^-Jliy;-] 
calm I "^^'f^^J!]^] II The lake was calm after the storm. 

camera | '^^'cB'^l || I want to take a picture with my new camera. 

can I ''^J!]^'^3j] '.^q] "'cW] ^^1 II 'l opened the can of beans with my knife. 
=;'^-^'N-233j-»iq-'|J!]'N-^3j-|,-p-|'^l -I can speak English. '^'N'^^lsj-^^^-ll-^qi ^Can 
you come to my home now? (i=^'^''^'^^'(is^'".V"^^'3j'c5^'^5^1 
Canada | 5'3j'^] || Canada is near America. 5'3jy3jWS^'=^'p'^^'ft] 
cancel | s^^'^I^^'^^^'q] || They had to cancel class because the teacher was 
ill. ^^j-^sj-aj-q^ajw^-q^N] p^sf'^Afq-^'^-s^^^-q^-Jijy^-^^qi^v^!;-] 


cancer | S3j'3j^l || Cancer is a serious illness. a3j'3j=^'^'3j=^'J!]^'cfq^'iaj'^J!]'")3j] 
cannon | s^'^^^j || The cannon was pointed at the enemy. 

car I ^^^''^p^'^^'^l II That car cost a lot of money. 

care | ^"S'^^ "'^§^'1,S''^1 II 'l will always be grateful for the care you 
showed me when I was your student. J]^'s^<^'S'^'^'(i^'^'^'^'"-V'^'^^'^'^'^^' 
^?<-a^3j-t«:;-53^-^-q!5l5]!5i-^:^] "We need to care for the sheep. '^'cf^N-'^'^'qc? 

careful | ^»1^'^^'] || Be careful when you cross the road. J!](aR",ls^'(^g!>'^' 

carefully | ^si^'^^'^l]'^] || We carefully walked along the narrow path. 

carrot | "-1'^=^] || Carrots grow under the ground. ^■'^J!]'3j^'".V^=^'a] 
carry | ^'^^] \\ Can you carry this bag? (i^'^'N'f^^'5^''^^''^f^^''^'^'^l 
case I '^^1 "q^»l^'3j'^] II ^That is a very big case he is carrying. p^'^^f^^'^^S' 
q'^'^'g=;'=9'5^'£53j'q'(^J!j'^2;] -i -want to tell you why I didn't come to your 
party, in case you didn't know. (i=^'^'N'^'i5=^'^Wc&]^'".V5^'^=^'«^'^'q'-Pi^' 

cat I ^'"-1] II The cat ate some bread. ^■".V^'^'J!]'^'^'^] 

catch I q|=^'l ^3^^] II The boy didn't catch the ball. ^■^■^'^■^=;-":V'^5;]-^-»l-|3jl 

cattle I ^'^^'1 II There are many cattle grazing on the grassland. 

cause I '^'^^j] |".l] 'qa"-!] II 'what is the cause of your illness? jiS'^'S^' 
J!j(^qA]^'^3j'3j'5'(^J!j'^3j] "I hope I didn't cause you any trouble, ^^■|i=^■"^■ 

celebrate | ^5j'^g"l'(5] || Let's celebrate your birthday. 

center | 'S'q] || The store is located in the center of town. 

ceremony | s^^S'q^] || They want to have a big wedding ceremony. 

certainly | p'^^ || I can certainly speak Tibetan. 



chair | ^i^T^^'^q^'N] '^g'*l^=^'|^'=^l || 'This chair is broken. 5C=;-^J!]'N-q^-c5J!]''^^Jl] 
"Who wiU chair this afternoon's meeting. ^■^^■|,^'c&]^l''^'".V^M'=^g' 

chairman | ^^3j'J!]^ ^^"^l II He wants to become chairman of the 

committee. p^i3^'Sr3j-™3j'p=;'S]'J!]=^3j'J!]^|'^'n^=^l 
champion | ^?^1^■=^^■'J] || If she works hard she will be a champion 

basketball player. 

chance | '^^^1] '^'^^'^l || 'By chance, I met an old classmate this 

afternoon when I went to town. ^'^'^'|^^'^q'N-q^J!]-3j'^l =;-^=;-".vq^^q'^- 
^]q'5]J!]^'5Rq'(^J!]'".vq^=^] "I'm sorry I didn't have a chance to call you. 


change | 'g^^^'s^i^'f^^'s^] 'q^'q] || 'Please give me change for this money. 

g^^'s^'q2^q'q^'5^'^^'Rn.VS2^'5J!] "Please wait for me while I change my 

clothes. =;'^-^3j'q'q|'aq'^-=;'"-V§=;'^»l'§^J!]'^l 
charge '^] "^^■^5=^■'^] || 'What is that hotel's per night room charge? 

5^^'P^'^'S'P^'^''^^'^5^'".V^'§§=^'^=^] "The shopkeeper charges too much 

for these apples. §f=^'qw-fl'q^'=^J!]''^v3f;'J!]5=^'a-i''r=;-l 
chase | '^^■q^=^l ^^■q^=^■'^l || 'After a long car chase the policemen 

caught the bank robbers. ^3j^J!]-q'N-«J3j-S:!;-n,v|^)-q^:^-^^)-s]g^-2^n,vp!;-^Jl]- 

if^3j-^-q|=;-l "The dog chases the cat. ^'^■|,-".15;-1^)-q^=^-^^)] 
cheap I ^^'^1] II The cake is cheap. 3!^'^!^'q=^'J!]^A]] 
cheat I s^^'^^l II Students should not cheat on their tests. 

check I '^".V#^'qW3j'?iJ!] '^q'q-Pj^'l^^'^^l II 'May I pay for these items with a 

check? =;'N-^5'^v|=^-q^3j-^J!]-^'N-^T^^q^-=^J!]y^-3j-IJ!]-J!]»ll -I will need to 

check on their progress. ^^■p^§§q'3]k''^",V5'5n3^!^-^aj-f\v^q'q^^'|,=^'=^q]'^] 
cheer | '|W|,^1 -P|'^'N-|3j-qi -=^^■'^=^■^1 1| 'Don't be sad. Cheer up! ^si'^-si-l^ 

q^^'^'g'^'N] 'The girls cheered on their friends, encouraging them to 

finish the race. gw§f'N-^J!]'N^^5^'N-".V^^-q=^-3j'N-§J!]M-^".vq5]3j-q^^-«|5i^-f5!]'s)- 

chemicals | g^''^^^] || The atmosphere is full of many different 

chemicals. 5^'N-ps^'N-i3j-s?||!^-f^-q^^-f-5^!^-(^^!^-2r=^] 
chic lien | ^'-Pl || Chicken is easy to cook. ^'-PI'^^S'^jj 


chief I ^'=f3(^] -^^] II ^ril need to ask the village chief. '^'^-S-^^qij-n.vql- 
'^^'^l 'The chief reason I don't want go is that I'm tired. Rq5]'s^'q=^=^'qq' 

child I l^'^l II The child is learning English. l^'^^'N-^^l^aj-'SSq^-lk-q^ajW^l 
children | I'^'q'sS] || Children are in the room. |,M'q'c?p=^'q'l'3j=;'^W^l 
China 1 1\'=:'^ \\ China has many nationalities. ^!;-3yn.V5^-S,q^M-»i:;^ur=^| 
Chinese | ^^'^'^1 S'^S] II Most people who live in China speak Chinese. 

choose I ^SSl] II She will choose a nice dress to wear today. 

church I c5^'p^'] || Some people like to go to church to pray. 

cinema | ^^'^i^j'p^'] || All my friends want to go to the cinema to see a 
film. =;q-^J!]'N^cf=^-s^'N-^J!]'q^3j-p=;-s-»r=;-3j'N-^J!]-q^3j-'^vq'^-q^-^^^ 

circle §^^'§^^1 ^^^1 '^^'^'§^'^1 II ^All join hands and make a circle around 
the tree. cf=;-»l'^-".lJ!]-q-|".V3j'N-'^=;^".v|'^-q^qi "Let's circle the holy 
mountain this summer. ^■".l^'^^^'p=^'J!]3j^'5^c5^'=^'q'"-V^=^'q'^^'^=^''^3]] 

citizen | g'=;s^^^] || He is a helpful man and a good citizen. 


city I 5!^'(i^l II The city is many miles away from here. '^S'3j'^'5]^'(5^'S<^' 
civilian | =;s^^^'^=^] || Before he was a soldier, now he is a civilian. 

clash I '^^".l■c5'"^=^■'J] II From the look on their faces, it seems their ideas 

clash. p1§q^»i^J!]'".vq<^'N'3ji p^§§q'<^'q'".vqJ!]".Vc5w^'i!''^51 
class I '^'(1^1 '5]"-V^5^ II ^When do we have our Chinese class? ^'c^'^'^^' 

^■^q'^=^'3j5^'cf^'"^3jl -What social class do you belong to? ji=^'|'§&1'N-|-5]".V 

classmate | §]q'5]^^l || She saw her classmate on the way to school. 

classroom | ^'P^'l || Where is our classroom? ^'sS^'^'p^'^^'SW;] 
clean | ^J!]5k's^] "^sX'S'^^^'q] || ^The classroom is not clean. 

^q-p=;-J!]5X-»l-5^-5,=^| -Please clean the classroom. ^q'P'^'"-l'^^'^'|''|^^l 
cleanest | S^'^sX's^j || This is the cleanest school I have ever seen. 


cleanse | q^l || It's a good idea to cleanse a wound with fresh water. 

clear | ^^si\ ^^^^''^^R] '^^'^^^'l,^'^! II ^On a clear day you can see far. 

q^u^q-:^qj-qq-|3j-sr=^-^=^-|^]-^:;-S,:;-»ig':;-^q| "Let's clear away all the dishes 

from the table. ■^J!]-%'^-^'^-^-^^-s^-=^J!]-J!]=^-q=^^-gi 
clever | ^^'^'531] ^^''^'i] || She was very clever at math. 

climb I ''^^■q] ''J^] II 'The long climb up the steep mountain path 

exhausted me. «J3j-^=;-^-J!]g^-".vq3f^-q-^'N-=;-g=^-c5=^'^'q§J!] "The goats like to 

climb steep cliffs. ^■»i-J!]«j!;-J!]g^-n,vqqyq^-^qjq| 
clock I ^■S^'<^|^^''5I] II The clock in our classroom is broken. 

close I '^^3j] ^J!] ^q] '•^■^^1 II 'close the door, g^'^q] "Don't sit so close to 

me. s;-!^s;-(^^-(^5<^-^-!^3;-5]-^!^| 
closed I qgq] II I closed the window. ^'^'^^J'f^^'^g^l 
cloth I ^^] II She sewed the dress from a piece of cloth. 

clothes I ^aj'q] II Where are your clothes? (5=^'^'%=^'^=^'^'^1 
cloud I f|3j] II There is not one cloud in the sky. 

cloudy I saj'ngq^] || Before it rains it is usually cloudy. 

coal I E^"i\ II They bum coal to keep the office warm. p'65'N'F'^".vg,'5^' 

coast I '5^cf^5]5^] '^^■^■'^^"•Vqi II 'Someday I will go swimming on the 
coast of France. |3j-^J!]'".V=^'§'^3jAl'f5^§fq5]»l-S-»r=;-3j'N-^-^".v|,=^-^-«Sajl -When 
we reach the top of the hill, our driver will turn off the engine and 
then we will coast down, ^^'sf^'f !;-^-|q!^-^] =^'c^'|^'"rq'^'§^".v|,^'q^".vqpk- 

coat I ^^^"i] '-m II 'My coat is too small. =^'^'^=^''H'^'5^'N1 "Let's put a 
new coat of paint on the walls. ^^^^■"-v|'-P|3j'^^^'q'S^'^^'§l 

coffee I prBl || Coffee without sugar tastes bitter. 'Tj'^'s^2^'^'p'|q''^q^] 

cold I 'g]=;'s5j -S»l-q| II 'l don't like cold winter weather. =;'=^^3j-pq-3j»l^-g]=^-5r 


n,V5^-2^q]q] -He is taking medicine for his bad cold. p'^-pq-c5»l'i!'|^'«f".V||3j- 

collect I qf 1 ".13J1 II That man has come to collect the taxes. 

color I p-sj^Ji] II What color is your coat? ^^'|'^^'"|^f ^lYT^'^'^^'^Sjl 

come I ^^] >P|^ II Please come here. '^'^'"-V-Pj^ 

come in | 3j=;'".V^J!] aj^^'^-iw;-] || Please come in. 3j=;'".V^J!] 

come over | "^^'j 53j] || I want my friend to come over to my house 

tonight. ^■=^^=^'=^'N-=;q-^J!]'N^§^=^-cdk-'\vSr=;-g-H!;-3j-q^=^l 
comedy | q<3!>'5r|!>] || I like to listen to comedy programs on the radio. 

common | g3j''33j] || Colds are a common illness in the winter. 

company | ^^'3] || Many people work for that electric company. 

compete | ^^3^] g'S] || He doesn't like to compete with his friends. 

computer | ^^'^S] || Computers help people do many kinds of work. 


concern | q=^^■g^ M»i^'[^^] || She showed her concern by coming by for a 

visit. p?qcf5^'N-q5-|'^-^-<?!;!^-3j'^-pw^-^»i'^-f^^-|=^-q-q^3jl 
condition | c5'53jl J!]3j^'qq] || That truck is in very bad condition. 

conductor | q'^'f^Sz^'sij^s'f^q^'S'q] || You will need to ask the conductor 

for a ticket. ^^•^'N'q-$-(^S=;-5]fq3^-(^q wq'".l'N'q-$-5J!]''^l3j'=^^^] 
conflict I qJ!]"l'53j] II The war was started by a small conflict. 

congratulate | 53j'qg".V(5'q] || We must congratulate him on his new job. 

connect | s^S''^] || Can you connect these telephone wires to this pole? 


consider | J!]^J!]'^'i]] || She hopes to be considered for the teaching 

position. p^^'^!;-^=^-=^^-ffi3i-§-'^!^-5I|3i!^-^^-<?!^-q<^-5]-aj-q!^S]-q|^q|!^-|:^-S-aK,- 


contain | "^=^l '^'^'^1 || This bowl contains fruit. 

continent | ^^'c53jl || One has to travel from one continent to another by 
boat. 9S'J!]3J!]'5]'^=^''^Vqf=^'3j'N'|=;'i3j'J!]5J!]'3j'N'J!]l^3j'^JI]'f\Vq5]'^Vq(g=^'|,^'=^^^ 

continue | ^3j'^|5^^'^=^'i!] ^'s^^j || She wants to continue studying 
English. p^^-=^|3j-5Sq]-S|-|q-|'!;-^3j-q(i=;'N-|=^-q^=^l 

control I ^§3j'i!l || The young teacher could not control the students. 5' 

convention | c&]M''^] || A lot of business people will be at the 

convention. §&]'N-qsq-^=;-§?k-q-»l=;^(g'^'N-^-^=^l 
cook I g^N-JJlSfq] ^-sij ^i5j ^si] II ^I like to cook for my friends. =^'^-^=;-5]- 

^Jl]'^^^»l'N-".vg'N-J!]S5^q^-=^J!]qi -My father is a cook in a restaurant, ^^qw^^' 

cool I 'q^nj-qi -•^5]!^-^q|-q| ^q(iJ!]'qi || ^Summer in Xining is cool, not hot. 

%"^=\'S'=^^^"S'5i'q!5inj'q''^!^'cd^5^3j] "That is a very cool haircut you have. 

|f=^'§'|'q<^5;-|!si-^-^s]-q-^-^-y^c;-'^5]!^-^s[|-q-^^i^ ^She can't eat the food 

until it cools off pr»5-g'sj-q|gqj-$q|-q^-^-g-5^-5^i| 
copy I ^^^] "q^'CM'5^'ffiJr|'q| || 'The handwritten copy of the manuscript 

was very old. 5^'^'g^'5^''^^'3j''9'5^'5^'q'^^l 'Please copy this document 

for me. =;'".l'«Sq]-c5'q^'q5;-cM!^-^m-|mTj!]'^] 
correct | ''^S]^'^] ^^'^S^'^^'^] '•^'^^'l/^'^lll ^Your answer is correct. (i=^'^' 

"laj'^^^jJ!] 'How long will it take you to correct your students' 

homework? ji^'|'N-^q-5^q-'^l'N-^-(g-=^J!]-|=^-q^-^!^-ai3^-J!]-§f=^-q3]'^-^-^ 
cost I ^3j■J!]^■^P|=^■q] II How much do these apples cost? 

cotton I Sj^'q"-!] II Where can we buy some cotton clothes? ^'S'N'Sj^'q'^V'^'s^' 

could I ^q] II Could you buy something for me? 

count I q§] II Please count the students in the classroom. 

country | g^-V^q] || China is a very large country. 

county I g^'l II This building belongs to the county administration. 


courtyard | 'S'^'^]] \\ There are many pear trees growing in the 

courtyard. ™'N-^'S-aj^-^-":v^=;-5^^^|'N-«r^l 
cover I ^p'i^iq] "f^^iq^'q] J!]"^J!]'q] ||'The old well cover needs to be replaced. 

|g3j'i!^'p''^iq'5^'q'^'q^'=^J!]'^] "Be sure to cover the top of the water bucket. 

COW I q'5^] II I learned how to milk a cow when I was a child. 

crash | ^S^'^^'S^'^l II Ten people died in the train crash. 

creature | Sj^'cB^'^l ^^^] II Every living thing is a wonderful creature. 

credit | '"^^^5j'=^5"-l'33j] gq'g^'] ^^^1 || ^I can't pay now so can you give 
me some credit? '^'^■=^''^-^3j-|=^-5^-^q-q'^l j|'^'|'N-=;'"-V'^^^3i'^5"5'g3i''^^'^'^3j'^' 
S^lj'Jljs^] 'He deserves a lot of credit for the success of that project. S*l' 

crime | 3j^'^^l || That boy got involved in a life of crime. 

criminal | ^^'Saj] || The criminal went to jail. ^^'SSj'^'q^aj'f^'^'^'^l 

criticize | §3j'q^=;'^^'i!] || She didn't like being criticized for the way she 
did her work. ^(^3i'|,'^'^=^'|=^'|'^'q'|^q'^=^'^-".v|3j-q1=^-|^-q^-pw»l-^J!]qi 

crops I "\'^^ II There are many different kinds of crops growing in the 
field. ^=;-3j=;-^-S5y!]-f-s]!:;-|'NW^l 

cross I 'g'Sl^^l "^SS'^^l ^"-I'^l II ^The cross is a sacred symbol for 

Christians. ^■5]s^-^-^-^'N-I'^-'5J!]'^-q^-»lS?3j-aj-»lcf3j-5^-»lIJ!]-^^-^£!]-«Sajl "The 
new road will cross my fields. J!](gR",ls^'Jl]'s):^-q-S-^q-(^^-!^(^-gq^-q^:^-^-^:^| 

crowd I '^'^^1 ^s^'ft'']'^! 'H^^'q] || ^There was a big crowd standing outside 
the cinema. ^^■q53j'p^'S]'|,'^V=;'5^'§&]^'53;'5'<^5n'"5=^] 'If everyone crowds 
into the bus, we will be uncomfortable. J!]".iys^'cf^'5^'|'g=^'^^*5''^p=^'§=;' 

cruel I 'g'q's^l 'S^'l'S^S'^^l II 'He said some very cruel words to his sister 
when he was angry. p]^=;-(g^i^l=;'N-S'^-pq-|=;-5f".V&!]-=9-5=;-§-qwq.P|=^l "I love 
my father because he was never cruel to me. ^qw=^'^'^'".VS^'^''^^3j' 


crush I ^5^'^] II Make sure the potatoes don't crush the tomatoes in the 

bag. f^J!]'5^q'3j=;'S]'^J!]'pJ!]'S]'N'^'^=;'|'J!]5^'^'5^''^'^ 

cry I '5'qi -5'^^1 II ^Please don't be sad and cry. Sj^^-l^ajM-s^-^-] "Her loud 

cry of fear was heard far away. p'5^'S'S^'^^^^'^'5'^^'553j'^'^'^^'^^'3j'^'^'^l 
culture I =^J!]'J!]3j'^] II The way people live is different in every culture. 

cup I ^=^1 II What color is this cup? ^"^^^-q^q-p-si^qi^^^l 

cure I ^^'^■gq^l "^^'q] II ^The doctors were working hard to find a cure 
for the disease. ^3j'i!'^5^'N-|'N-qq=^-q-i3j^^-3j=^-q^<^-J!]'^gq'N--PjJ!]-qs?".v|3j-Sr=^] 
"This medicine will cure your disease. S^j'^^^^'li'^'^'aj'^'Jl^^'^q] 

current | '^"-V"-!^] '5^1 %3^1 II 'That newspaper always reports the 
current news. ^^'^■^^■^^■^!;-2^5q-Hr^-g2^-|-J!]s)^-q^^-^3j-q^-qq]=^-|3j-Sr=^l "He 
got a severe shock from the strong electrical current. ^^■^■g'q'q^3j''^' 
^'^■R'=53j'^^'^=^'q^^'] 'The strong ocean current pulled the boat away 
from the shore. ^'*l§f'^'f ^ai'S^!]^'^'^!'^^^'^-".!'^-^'^] 

custom I J!]s^^'2j"l] II Drinking butter tea is a Tibetan custom. 

cut I qs^^'^l II He cut down the tree with an axe. p'^-^-^'N-^=;^-q5=^l 

Ddad I i^M-s^l II My dad is thirty-four. ^^q-i^M-s^-Sj^q^t^aj] 
dam I '^^'N] -^^^N-I^N-^-ql^-Vqi II ^They are building a big 
dam on the river. p^sf'N-f q^-".V^J!]'N-i3j^^J!]-^'^-q^3j-Sr^l "We 
will dam up the river here in order to make a big lake. 
damage | '^^^'qj^^ '^^^^S^^^^l 1 1 'How much damage did the 

drought cause to the crops this year? ^■".F'g3j'i!'^'".V^J!]'".VJ!]^=^'q^J!]'5''^5' 
qg".V^^'| "The floods will damage the crops. S'"-l^'^'^'".V^^'".V^^=^'q^^' 

dance | 'f^q'^'^] '(^q^'^'njgq'q] || ^Many young people don't like 

traditional dances, instead they prefer modem dances. 3j'^(^3j's^^'q'23"-V 

^3j-|-(^qsi-1^n.V5^-2^q]q-q^-^R^q^l-|-(^q^l-|^q£5»l-q^-:^qjq| "I learned how to 

dance when I was a child. =;'N-|»5-qq-S'^-3j'^-(^q'^-|^q(gq-^-|=;'^-q-5S3j] 
danger | ^3j'pi || It looks like there is danger up ahead on the road. 


dangerous | a3j'p'53j] || The mountain path is dangerous. 

dark | '^aj-q] -|^-=;3jl || 'At night it gets so dark outside. »lcf3j'sr^%'^"-V^'?J3j'q' 
^q^-q-qgq^l "He gave her a dark angry look. p'^'p'«^'".vp^'|g'S'^5^''^^=^'i^' 

date I |3jl 'a?N-5]=;'^l "^'^'c^'^'I'^'^^l \^^']] II ^What is your birth date? ^^^ 
^'^■^=^'^'j§^'5]^^'3jsi'"^3j] "I don't want my daughter to date that young 
man. '^'N'^=^'^'g'«5''^'^'N^'g'^'=^'^'S'^'c5=^'|,=^'S'a=^'3j-9S-q^=^l ^My son has a date 
tonight with his sweetheart. =;q-g-f\V^-^^=;-'pq-|!;-^J!]-»l-2^!;-^J!]-^q-^^-c5=^%J!]' 

daughter | g'sij || My daughter is fourteen. =;q'g's5^qfq^''^3j| 
day I |ajl ^^^\ II What day is today? ^-S^^q^gq-^-q-^,:^! 
day-time | ^3j's^] || I go to school in the day-time. 

dead | ^P|■q] || We saw a dead animal on the side of the road. 

deaf I ^3^^] II After his long illness he became deaf. 


deal I '^'S^'l "^■«^'^S''^1 1| 'Buying the land for that price was a good 
deal. 'N-^=;-^-^3j-^=;-^-q5'^yq-^ysf=;-5^'^J!]^^J!]-^=^l -I only deal in new 
goods, not in used goods, '^'^-af'^-f 'N-J!]'N^-q-f^3jysf=;-|=^-q-".l'N-§?k-f 'N'^'^-qy 

dear | si^^q] || My dear wife is a teacher. =;q'5^^q'qq'^=;'»l'^'=^5i'^3j'^£!]'^aj] 
debate | 'g'S'^] 'S'S'^'l/S'^l II ^The smartest children won the school 
debate. ^^^'i'N-|^qq-|^-q-^»l'N-".V^q-5]q-f=^-^;;-^=^-^".vp^qi -I will debate 
this question with you whenever you like. 5'^''^^^^^'3j^'ji^'^'N'aj5^'^=^' 

December | §'^'^§'^^^'^1 II Christmas is in December. 


decide | 5^■^5=^■'^l || She decided to go to town in the afternoon. 
declare | (i^'^S^'^1 || He declared that the school would open next week. 



deep I J!]^Rgq'q] || The river is deep and wide. ^'q'^^'JJ^^^'gq'E^'i^^'i] 
defeat | ^"i^'^l "^s^'p'^^^'^] || 'To not study defeats the purpose of going to 
school. ^q'|=^'5^'|,=^'i!'^'^q'5!^''^^q^'=^9SJ!]'^-t^".V".l'N-™J!] -My father always 
defeats me when we play card games. i3M-!^-=^R^2^-q^|^]-^^i-^q^-%|-^i-3j-i3M-s5^1- 

defend | Sj^'^l '^^^''^l || He had to defend the sheep from the wolves. 

degree | ''^^aj'^^^l] ''^^\ \\ 'l hope to get a degree from college someday. 
=;'N-3j5^-^J!]-f^V^q-5]-i3j-5rq-ql3j-t^J!]-5J!]'f^3j'^q'q^'^'q''^^3Jl "My temperature is 
one degree higher than it was yesterday, ^i^'cf 5]^'p''^^''^l^'i2!3'^5^'^^' 

delay | 's'^''^^,'^'] ''^^=^''^5,=^'|=^'=^1 || 'How long will the delay be? S^''^^'^'!' 
^'^^^S^^l The snowstorm delayed the shipment of goods to the 
town. J!]'^'N'|aj'^'N'^T'^^q^=;'q^".vs'q^".vq3;-qqj'^-q^:;-^si| 

delicious | ^»1^ || The food is delicious. g'N-q^-^si^^^^l 

demand | =;J!]^'s^p] ^'q'^^^Naj'^!] || 'There is a great demand for meat in the 

market. cf^'=^'l'3j^'=;'-P|'=9'5^'^3]^'5^pl5] 'I demand that you stop calling 

me bad names! (i=^-|'^-=;-".V»lcf=^-5^=;-Sl'^-5^-qq'^-q^-=;'^-^-q-q^3jl 
deny | '^^^'^j p^'s^'^iaj'^l] || He didn't want to deny his children an 

education. ^'^■^'^■^■g''^V^q'J!]»?'^gq'^'^''^^J!]'5^''^'^=^l 
depend | ^^Sj'^l] p'aj'"^';'^!] || The family depends on their cow for 

milk. s=^-^»i-q^q-rf»i-p^^-q-s?".vq'^aji 
desert | ^'g^'] || It doesn't rain much in the desert. ^■g^'=;'c5=^'q'i3j'^'«^''^qq] 
desk I »1^3j'5J!] II Put the book on the desk. ^q-c5'»1^3j'3J!]'^=^'^'^J!] 
destroy | ^^^''^j || By mistake he destroyed some important papers. 


details | (^q'si] || Please give details about the accident. 

develop | J!]^''^'^l] ^^'N'^'JJj^^'q] || They need to develop plans to build the 

school. j^§f'^'^q'^'q^J!]'^'^q'qc5^'^^"(^§'^"^q'^'^y^'^3]''^l 
diagram | 'j^q-^J^l -'^q-^^^-^'q^^^'q] || 'it is helpful to draw a diagram 

before building a house. p!;'q'»l'q|j!]'N'qq'|3j'S''^q-^!^-!:!'f|'^-3^-qg;;-l "I will 

diagram the data so it is easier to understand. ^'^'"-15j'S'^[s^^'^^^'c5^'^' 


dialogue | ^^'^"-1] || The dialogue in the play was interesting. ^'^■^^"|g=\'5' 

diary | ^Sj'^] || I write in my diary every morning. 

did I "-I'N-^J!]-?]-^^] II When did you graduate? ^'^■^'^■3j5^'»ig^'|;3j-qt^3j| 
die I -^'^^l II Every year some people die of old age in that village. 

difference | (SS'^^^l || What's the difference between Tibetan and 

English? ^'^■^^■=^^'^|3jt^J!]-q^-|,-(i^-q^-|-^3jl 
different | s^'^^^'q] || Tibetan and English are different languages. 

difficult I S^'l'^q] II Learning a new language is difficult. 

dig I jfi'q] II They had to dig a ditch for the water. 

dinner | 5^'^aj] || We eat dinner at six o'clock every night. 

dire | p■cf=^^'^■^^^^^l || There is a dire need for a hospital in that town. 

direct | '^S''']^] '^^^'^1 II 'He gave a very direct answer to my question. 

^''^■=^'l'^'q=^'"13j-=5-5!^-g=^-'T]^-q-^J!]-q^q-^=;-l -In the future please direct all 

your questions to me. ^'^■^■(i^'^%q'cf^'5^'^'"-V^^l 
direction | ^^^] || People come from every direction to the festival. 

dirty | ^'^^\ h:!^^\ ^=^-q] || ^Her clothes are very dirty. pTq-^aj-q- 
=9'5^'q^^ "Don't dirty your hands cleaning the car. ^^^''^p^^'q^'^'aj'^' 

disappear | "^"-Vq] si'g^q^'^^'q] || A rainbow disappears after a short 

time. '^^■5»i-q^^-'|'N-q^q-sf3j-5^-|=;-q^-^^l 
disease | SjS] || Many animals died from a disease. 

dismiss | ^J!]»5'»J'ng^'q] q5]",vq] || The students will be dismissed from 
class one hour later, f i'^-J!]5J!]-^-1'N-^-^q-s^-^s^'N-^q-^=^-".l'N-q^".V^-^=^l 
dispute I 'g'^^'Jnraj -§■^■'^1 II 'The dispute was about who owned the horse. 


g^'J!]^'^'y^'g'".V=^q^'s^aj'^'^=^] 'I won't dispute what you said because I 
agree with you. =;■^=^■|M■q^P|^■q■".l■'^g=^■q'^■=^'N■^=^■=^=;■f^^■q■5^■|,^l 

distance | ^=^^'5^ 'S^'^l II '^Y village is a long distance from town. i'^'S' 
g]^'qsf^'^^'q=^'g5[^'=^^'] 'Because I don't like him I have chosen to 
distance myself from him. =;''f^".V5^'=^J!]q'q'N'=;'^''f^^=;'|!;'|,=;'^'gJ!]'q5=^] 

distant | gJ!]'=^^'q] || The town is so distant that we can't walk to it in one 
day. ^=;'q^".v^'^'gJi]'^=;'q'^'=;'§fif^=;'g=;'".v|3j'J!]5J!]'^'N'9S^3ji 

dive I ^''^"^'gJ!]'^!] II The boy didn't know how to dive into the river. 

divide | q^'q] || The dormitory is divided into two sections. 

do I ^'i^^'^'^^^l "•I'Nl 1^1 II Do you like English? ^^■^'^■=^|,3j-^5t]-"l-^5i^q-q«l| 
do my liomework | ^'S'"1'^'^''^gi || I do my homework in the evening. 

do not I =^J!]J!]'&!] II Do not answer the telephone. p'q^-n,vi3M-n,i3j-si-S^] 

do sports I ^■"-Vg^'^S'^1 II I'm too busy studying to do sports this year. =>' 


do tlie sliopping | ^'cB'^^'^J] || I will do the shopping today. 
do tlie wasliing | ^aj'^^'Hl^'q] || When will you do the washing? 

doctor I 'ijSj'qi '||3j'^5''^'|^'=^l II ^I'm sick so I'll go see the doctor. '^'^'^3^ 
q^'^3j'i!=^'qs3j'=;J!]^] "I can't doctor you because I'm not a physician. ^' 

document | "^^'cB] || The document stated that they could open the 
school next year. 5Sq^-c5q-3j=^-^-p^§f'N-"T|'N-5^^-^q-^-^-|^q|=^-IJ!]-q-qaJ!]'N-^^ 

dog I (il II The dog was black. |3'^'3j^'^'^^l 

dollar I ^V§^=^] II The mother gave her son a dollar to spend at the store. 


don't I ^'^^'^'=^^^'§^1 II Don't come home late. '^"-l'S''^^'=^'*l''^|l 
door I §^1 II Open the door. q^'^'N'-Pj^ 

doorbell | i<^'5".V^'^'l || Please ring the doorbell. f<^'5"-V^!;'^^".vTji]'S5] 
down I s^^l ^^1 II I saw my friend walking down the road. 



draft I ^Si-^^ 23.jj^^.j^|.|j..j^^ II \j^^ ^j.^^^ of your book needs a lot of 
work. ji^-|-^q-c5^'»l''^J!]'".lW^J!]'»l=^^|=^'=^^'^l -Can you draft a report of 

the project? ^=^t'^''''^^^T'^^'f ^'^^''^ll'il"''''^! 
draw I ^-Sfql-q] || Did you draw this picture? ^■«?'^^'^=^'|'^-|'^-'N»11 
dream | ^E^'"i^] "gj] || 'She told me about the dream she had last night. 

pr'^-»l=^!;-=^qi!;-|'N-qq-|-".W^-=^-".vq.P|^| -I dream about you all the time. 

dress | '^3j'^l -^3j] || 'Her new dress was not expensive. p's^'S'J!]3j'i!'J!]'^=^'q' 
^'l'=^3j'J!]^'s^'s^g] 'I like to dress in nice clothing before I go to parties. ^' 

drink | 'q^'^'^l "^=^'^1 1| 'What is your favorite drink? ji^'i'^-^J!]q-qq-q^=^-^- 
^■3-^J!]t^3jl -He doesn't like to drink tea. p^^q|!;-^^-5^-=^J!]q] 

drive | '^^^'^^p^^'^^^'q] "'^SS'^^l || 'l like to go for drives in the countryside. 
!;'^!;'J!]5^q'y5.!;'^'q'pk-^^-3^!^-q^q3;-:^q^q| -The shepherd drives the sheep 
to the grassland every morning. ^3j'5(^'^'5=^''^J!]'f ^■'^J!]'^s^^'¥'gR=;'q^=;] 

driver | p'".vq] || Tell the bus driver to stop over there. 

drown | ^^^'q^s^'^!] || If you don't know how to swim you can drown. 


drugs I SSjl II Doctors use drugs to fight infections. 

dry I '^s^'^l 'f^^'^] II 'These clothes are not dry, they are wet. ^3j'i!'q=^'=^J!]' 

^sf^ks^] q^-=^qi^3j-q-<SS3ji "Please diy your hair. (l=^i|-^«^-p^^l 
duck I ^^'q] II There were many ducks swimming in the lake. 

dumpling (boiled stuffed dumpling) | s^^s^^ || How do you cook 

dumplings? (i^-|'N-s«]-s«]-|-<^^-q^ 
during | ^q'^'^j || They all work hard during harvest time. 

dust I '^'S"^!] -'^■^"-V^^'q^^'^^'^1 II 'There is so much dust on the road. 

q^(a^'f\15^'S^''^-?a,vs^^-qxq;^| -yW (Just the furniture so you please sweep 

the floor. =;'^-5'".lJ!]'^=^'S]''N-5".VJ!]=^-q=^^-|=^l ^=^'|'N-g=;-|5!]'Nl 
duty I ".l'^'q^3j] II It was her duty to watch the school children. 



Eeach I ^'^1 II Each student had to write a paper. 
ear | '^] "^'^^j || 'She cut her ear when she feU down. 
p'5^'g^'^'q^n,V^q'^'^'qT^qi-ai-qi-5qi'|j'^] "He has a very good ear 
for music. Tq-^^^'^'N-g'^-^-p^nj-^-^'N-qg'^^qw^] 
early | ^•s5j || He gets up early everyday. |3j'5<^-i^q|!^-q-^-sr^-p^siq-q'^-q=^'^-| 
earn | p'^q'^^] || They earn a lot of money for their work. 


earth | ^q'^"-!] -^] \\ 'The earth is round. ^Nq-^^-V^ls^^TSjaji -Hq plowed 

the earth with a wooden plow. p^'-Pj^'^-PI'^V^'N'^'q^iJlj^^] 
earthquake | '^''^^"-l] || The earthquake killed many animals and people. 

ease | ^^^s^'^^s^^n'^!] 'SS^] \\ She danced with a special grace and ease. 

easily | "IMAvs^^'^^'] || He was able to learn English easily. 

east I -Pj^'^^'^l II The school is located east of the village center. 


easy | ^[sij || It is not easy to learn English. ^liSj-SSq^-lk'^-^-q'NAVSf^Jll-s^ajl 
eat I 3] II The family likes to eat together. |sj-S!;-^-cdk-g-»l-»l^5^-^-g-q^-=^J!]q] 
economy | S'^"-!''^^^] || The economy has a big influence on the life of 

the people. =^q".vq|^^-|,^-5^-»i=;-Si-qs?q^--P|'^'N-^3j-iaj^S^l 
edge I s^^^] II Don't walk so close to the edge of the cliff g^lj'tng^-^*^' 

edible root | ^s^ \\ Rice, sugar, yak butter, and edible roots cooked 

together are delicious, '^g'^-'^';-] 'T]'^] q|-»l^l ^»l-q^!^-»l^»l-S-q^'^-q-=9-5=^-^»l| 
educate | ^]q'J!]M'J!]^^'q] || Books are helpful when educating students. 

effect I ^Sj'Sj^l ^S'"l'^l II The increase in rain had a positive effect on crop 
growth. c5^'^'t'S^=^'=j^''^^q'^'f^J!]'(^^5;-aJz;!^-(^gK,-q;^i^3j-5j^]-qg:;^Sr=^| 

effort I ^g'Sj''^^]^! '^q^'^l II A lot of effort is required for learning a 

language. ^^■^^'N-^J!]-|=;-q^-qq=^-qf3j-i3j^|=^-=^3]''^l 
egg I l^'^'l II The chicken laid only one egg last week. 


eight I qg=;] II He works eight hours every day. 

^^ ^ 

eighteen | q5■qg=^l || She graduated from school when she was eighteen 

years old. pw^qs^q^^^'^'^'^q'^'aj'N'sig^'Isjl 
eighth I g^^'N-q^^^-q] i^l=^'q^=^'=^l || This was the eighth time he tried. <^^'^' 

eighty | ^gS'^j || My grandmother is eighty years old. 

either | "^^^'aj] ^'^^'^] wi^^'s^ajl || He either wants to get a job or go to 
school. 'p''^'«^!;'5^3j'^'q'^J!]'(^S'^-!:!q»l'wi!;-5^3j-^q-^^-(^^5]-q^=^] 

elect I q=^»l'qi q^si^N-qi ^'^m'^] \\ When will we elect the class monitor? 


electricity | ^^ || Electricity can help improve living conditions. 

element | 51^=51 1| Rain, snow, and wind are all elements of weather. 

c5^'q'=;=^'l p'q] ^=;'q5'N'^'J!]3j»i'J!]-pj'N'^'5]q'c5'«S3j] 
elephant | ^^'c53jl || An elephant is a large animal. 

eleven | q^'^5^ || She begins to prepare lunch at eleven o'clock. 

embassy | J!](5^'cfq'p^'] || They went to the embassy to get a visa. 

emotion | S^'q] || Hate, greed, and envy are powerful emotions. 

^=^■^=^=^■1 q^q'^si^N] ^J!]''^J!]'q5'N'^'-P|J!]'N'55n-q<^-af^-qt^3ji 
employ | ^'q] || The factory employs many people. qg'5]'=;'^'s^'5^^'q'^] 
empty | ^^'^j || The house was empty after they moved away. 

end I ^^^^ '^§T^f '^1 II ^Did you read the book all the way to the end? 

(i^'^'^''^^'^'^'*'^5j'^'*'5''l'^^'^J5^'^''^*'l "He will end the meeting in 

exactly one hour. ^■cf^'J!]5^'^^'^^'§^'|'5l'^'p»5'§&]'N'qsq'»l|J!]'q^'^'^=^l 
enemy | =^5!■ql || The army fought against the enemy. 

energy | '^^'^^^j || The boys on the basketball team have a lot of 


energy . '^!;-|'^-^5'pJ!]'5|-^-"S-^»i'N-".V'5'N-^q'M-i3j^'^3jl 
enforce | "-l^'^^^'^,^'^] || The police enforce the laws. 

engine | q^'^l'^S''^^"-!''^^^^] || The truck had a problem with its engine. 

engineer | ql^q'f]'^'^] || My father is an engineer. =;q'i3M-s5-^-ql^q'f]2^-q-^J!]-'^3j] 
Englisli I '^^^^ II I enjoy learning English. =^'^'^'=^|)3i'^^''|=^'q^'|j 
Englisliman | S^'^'^1 || An Englishman came to visit our school 

yesterday. P''^^'^||Sj'^'^'^^'^'sf'^'^^'5!^''^'^^'^^=^'Nl 
Englislimen | S^'^^1 || There aren't any Englishmen in my town. 


^Jijoy I fi'q] S^'Tq] II She will enjoy buying a new dress. 


enjoy yourself | ^^'^S'S'S'^S'^l II I hope you will enjoy yourself at the 

party. (i=^'|'NWc&]'N-q^q-^=;-|W|=^'=^^'=^'^'^'q''^W3jl 
enougli I ^'^^] II He didn't get enough food to eat. ■p^n,vg-»l-q=^!;^5^=^] 
enter | Sj^'S'^^^-Vq] || They can enter the building through the front door. 


environment | p^'^^ || The people work hard to protect the 
environment. ^■=^»l=^'^-|'N-qq^-q-i3j^'^-p=^t^J!]-23=;-|q-|^l 

equal | q^'s^^s^] || The students all shared the cleaning job equally. 

equipment | "^'^S] || We need to repair the telephone equipment. 

escape I'^^-Vq] '^^'q] '^^'q] II ^The wife's escape from her cruel husband's 
control is a familiar theme in novels. ^^■5^'p^'^J!]'J!]i2«^^'^''^l'^'^'q'^' 
q§'»l'^'|^RqJ!]q'J!]5^'»l^^^'^'q1=^'^'^^'^=^l 'The mouse couldn't escape 
from the hawk's claws. ^■q'^'^J!]'J!]'S^'s^'",i'^'g=^'s^'^q] 

especially | "S^'Jil q^'^'^l II I especially like the color blue. 

establish | '^^'^''^1 || They want to establish a market on that comer. 

even | ^'Sj] || I don't even know how to drive a car. 



evening | '^'Sj'^] ^^^'5^] || She often cooks a meal in the evening. 

event | ^'^j SSj'cBSj] || The Spring Festival (Lunar New Year celebration) 
is a big event for the whole village. "i'J!]^=^'^%q'^^^'".VS^cf3j'3j^'iaj'^J!]' 

ever | ^^aj'SjM] aj»l'"^^'] || She doesn't ever want to leave home. 

every | ^'^] \\ Every day something new happens. 

everyone | 5^'=^'=^] s^■gs^^■5=^l || Everyone in the village celebrates Tibetan 

New Year. S-qq-5^-g5^s]-5:^-^s]^J^-^-q^q^s]^-a,v'^3j-q|a.V(a-q^3j-Sr^| 

everything | ^^'^■i!'=^'=^] =^^^■i!■g5^^■5=^] || Everything got wet in the rain. 

everywliere | ^3j'^'^''^] ^^l]'^'^''^] || The sheep were scattered everywhere 

on the grassland. '3^'^»l'^yg=;-Sl-|5!]'N-»5^=^-(iqi 
evidence | q=;3j'=;i!^'] || There was little evidence that he stole the money. 

evil I f^^] ^3j'i!] II There is a big difference between good and evil. 


exact I J!]^=^'a§=^W^'qi^'^-53jl^»ll || What is your exact age? ^'^'^''^si'^'si]" 
examine | ^^^'S^S] || The doctor wants to examine the patient. 

example | S'^'^^S] || Can you give me an example of how to use that 

excellent | ^"^'S'^^'q] || She got an excellent job at the university. 


except I s^'J!]^^!]^] II Except for the youngest son, the whole family went 
to town. ^s^-cf=;-^q-g-g-^=;-s^-J!iy!]'^-cf=^-»i'^=^'q^"-v^'^=;'l 

exchange | 'q^'^'^j 'q^'q] || ^The exchange of gifts between old friends 
took only a few minutes. ^J!]'^^=;-qq-q^-'^lJ!]'N-|'N-q|-^'N-g^-q-^-^^-»l-qJ!]q- 
q^'s^-qj!^^] "Can you exchange this pot for a different one? (i^'^'^'^]'^' 


excite | "^^'^'^■^j || The film was very exciting, ^^'q^aj'^'^'^'^^'^^^'l'^'^' 


excuse | ^pqj-ql'j!]-'^] Va!z;!^-q|^c;-q| ':^?jc;!5i-:^q|-a-q| || ^She didn't have any 
excuse for not doing her homework. p^'^'".lM'^'5^'|^'^=^'p^''^'^^AV5'«^R 
s^S] 'If you are late again the teacher won't excuse you. ''l'^'y(iS'^^'^' 
'^'^'S'l ^^^i'^aj'l^'N'^'^'n.V^-ajz^i^-t^l^z^-s^'l^l '"Excuse me! That's my coat, 
not yours," one woman said to another when they were about leave. 

execute | ^"•l^'q^^'g^^'q] '^^'igajj^'qi^i^'qi || ^They now have enough 
money to execute their plan. p^cf^'=^''^'p1f^'nc5=^'^^'"-l^'q^=^'^^'q^'^=^'«^' 
'^^^■^'^■.P|J!]'"^^] 'They are going to execute the criminal tomorrow, 's^^;' 

exercise | ^^'^'f'^'ll^'^^^l '^'^■f'^'|'^''^^^'|,^'^l II 'Playing basketball is 
good exercise. S=^'t=^'^^|'^'^'^'^'f'^'|'^'^^^'"^^^^^'^=^l "After I 
exercise I feel tired. ^^'^'f'^'W'^'^^^'^'^'l'Nl =;'g=;'c5=^l 

exist I "T^^'q] ^3^^^] II The school didn't exist before 1978. 

expand | g'^cB^'^^^'q] || We want to expand the farming area. 
expect I ^'g^^ II He expects to attend the university in the fall. 
expel I ^^'^'^'^1 II Several students were expelled from school last year. 

experiment | ^'^] II In science class we do experiments. 

expert 1 65=^■"^'^■5^p^■q] || They had to call an expert to help with the 

problem. f^§f'N-i^-"^'^-«|^'^q-^J!]-J!]=^3j-5=;'NyJ!]3j=^^3j-'^'^vTj!]^v|=^-=^q^^ 
explain | '^5!"l'q.P|=;'^^'q] || Can you explain your answer to the question? 

explode | ^^'q] || The bomb made a loud noise when it exploded. 


explore | n§5".V(^q] || They explored the area and found gold. 

export I '^^■'^^^l "§^''^5^'1,S''^1 II 'Wool is an important export product. 


^"•1%^^''^5^'^^'?^'^"-1'^^'^^'"^^1 'Next year our country will export 
more than it imports. ^'^'<^^] '^^^^^"•\^fl^^^^^3f^^%3^"•]^^%'^^^%3^^^^^^'^^ 

express | ^s^l^Jj^N^ -=^5^q]^)-q^)n,i] (i=^'=J^'qi II 'We decided to take the express 
bus rather than the slow one. =;'cf'N'|'|=^'5.=;'N'qp'^'=^'^V5f".l^v|'|=^'5.=;'N'qp'^' 
^5/^^''^'S^'%'^'S'^^'^5=^l 'My express purpose for visiting you is how 
you are. =;'N'^=^''^vq^s^'N'q5'|,^'qq'^5^Ji]'N'q'N'^v|,'=^5^£i]'N'^'^r^'^=^'q^'srT^ 

extend | ^^^'^i'^^^'^l II The visitors chose to extend their time in the 

countryside. q5]'^vq-^5^'N-|^V^=;-J!]^q-y^'^-q<^-S^-ai3i-'|-^=;-S-J!]y;-^q-gJ!]-q5=^^ 
extra | f^^^'s^] "S^'s^j || I will buy some extra clothes for the journey. 

extreme | -P|3j'W "^'S^'] || It is extremely hot during the summer. 


eye (right eye, left eye) | 5^^ || The doctor examined both her right eye 
and her left eye. |]3j-q'N-(T?rq-5^J!]-J!]«^'N-J!]Sr3j-J!]|'N-".vq^5;]-'^g'^-^^l 

eye exercises | s^J!]'^'g^'qs=^] || The teacher suggested she do some eye 
exercises to help improve her eyesight. 


Fface I '^l ^'^'^'l -fy^] ^f^^'^'^] II 'The young girl has a beautiful 
face, gw^^'^^'^'^^"^^'^^'^^] 'I lost face when I was publicly 
reprimanded. =;-".v|-q|^J!]'N-^-p-5=;-q^=;-3jsj-E;q-p^?i'^-^-q^i;!j ^jhe 
teacher punished the disobedient student by making her face 
the blackboard for ten minutes. =^5i-^3j'|,^'^q'5^'^'c5".V^'".v|^'N»l'g5;|!^-^'^^' 


fact I SSj'^^'^l II It is important to separate fact from fiction. 


factory | q^'^ || Many people work at the factory. 

fail I g^^'5j'^^^'^l II If she doesn't study hard she wih fail in school. 

fair I '^'^■^si'Nl J!]|^ -=^'T]^-»l=^=;'N-c5J!]'^-qi II 'We don't think that rule is very 


fair. '^■^'^■^J!]'(|»l'N'^'5=^'^»l'N'-PjJ!]'^=^'5^''^'^=^l "She easily gets sunburn 

because she has a fair complexion. p'5^(^'p'X'^'Tl=^'»l=;^'^'J'C]5J'^'s^'^''^&!]A]] 
fall I '^^j'^T] ra^q] -qqq'q] || ^The leaves on the trees turn color every fall. 

^3j-'T]-^-^^-^=;-"rq-s^'^J!]-q^^l -Snow falls every winter. =^^3j-p-^-^^-p=;'s)- 

fall off I ^™=^'qi -^%'^^] II 'One needs to be a good rider to not fall off a 

horse. 9S'^J!]'^'".l'N'5^'™!;'qq'g'5^'qg=;^^J!]'«Saj'=^^^l "Our factory's 

production will fall off if we don't buy some new 

machines. ^f^Vy=^'§f'N-q^'^Vc5'N-5!]'S)3;-q-<^q|<^-S^-'^^]-S|:;-§gq-ql^5]q-g^^^ 

fall out of I 'qqq-q] ^'^^] - (^aj-p-aj^N'^^^-q] || 'Snowflakes fall out of the sky. 
J!]3js^'3j'^'p'q'^''^=^q's^'5^=^''^qq] 'We will fall out of favor with our teacher 
if we don't do better on the next examination. J!]".vyg!;,'5^'^'5^'5](^'sqi!5^- 

false I ^3j] II Please answer if the question is true or false. 


family | (i«^'cf^'l || She has a very large family. p'«^'".V|55^'cf^'£53j'i!'(^J!]'^=;] 
family tree | (i*l'gSl || A picture of the family tree hung on the wall. 

famous I s^^'5]J!]^'53j] || Michael Jackson is a famous singer. 


far I ^=^^^] II The village is far from here. S-q-^-!^-q^-aj^i-gq^-S::;-| 
farm | ''^'i^^'] -|]''^S^'^'^S''^1 1| 'The farmer grows barley and vegetables 
on the farm. ^'^■q'^-'^-^=;-^=;-S-3j'N-=^=;-§?=^-5^-q^q'^l "He wants to farm those 
two fields but I think they are too rocky. p^'(^^''^S'^^^'"l'^''^Sq^'^^' 

farmer | <^^^] \\ The farmer works very long hours every day. '^^'^^' 

farther | ^■'^l^'^^'gJ!]'=^^'q] || The market is farther from town than I 
thought. ^=;'q^".V3j'N'§§k'^<^-q^-§-«J5]-gsn-a-!^q-q'^»l-a^5^TH!5^-gq^-S::;-| 

farthest | g^'S'^'^^'q] || The other side of the county is the farthest he 
has ever traveled. fk-^-|-s?J!](^3j-^-^-p^^=^-q^=^-qq-'^-c5'i'N-gJ!]-S:!;^=^] 
fast I s^^^^'s^] II The young children run fast to catch the bus to town. 



fat I ^^] II That yak is fat, not thin. J!]"^J!]-^-sf3j^T^3j-q-^'s)-^:^^si-^:^| 
father | i^V^] || The son was looking for his father at the market. 

favorite (favorite) | ^^T^] ^^^'§^^1 || Red is my favorite color. 

fear | '^^^^^'i!] '^'^^] \\ ^My biggest fear during class is that the teacher 
will ask me a question and I won't be able to answer correctly, ^q' 

^'I'^'^'^'^^jl -I fear walking on the dark road at night. ^^'^^^'^^^^'sT^'^aj' 

feast I ^^'^■^Sj] J!]'^".V^3j] II At New Year's we always have a feast. 

featlier | ^^] \\ The feather floated in the air. ^'|'^'^'"-l'q|'^l 
February | g'^'J!]^^'^!] || March follows February. 

feed I '^3aj'c5'^] '"S^'^l II ^Is there enough feed for the cattle this winter? 

^^■"r^'=^^3j'p^^^'".VJ!]g3j'c5'N-q=^=;-^'^-^J!]W^-^»ll -What will you feed the 

children? ^^■|'N-|^-q-".l%-^J!]-'^^-^-'^3jl 
feel I ^'^] II How do you feel today? ^'^=^'(5=^'|'cf^'q'5''^5''^S^ 
feel worried | ^5^'^'(^"1'^S''^1 II ^ ^^^^ worried before examinations. 

female | 5^] || My class has twenty-six female students and twenty-one 

male students. z;<^'<^^a^'^<^'3^2^'^'|q'^=l]'^'^':Q'^'!:i^''^2^'|q'^=l]'5'^':Q'^' 

fertile | Saj'^l] ^-P|3j'i!l || Fertile land is good for growing crops. 

few I g=;'5'l II There are few lakes in this area. J!]3j'N-q^^-s^^<5R=;-5-".l'N-s^^l I 

have a few toys. !;-",v|=^-|^-a!;-5-^J!]-",l'^-5^=^l 
field I ^^'^] -gc,-| II ^The horses grazed out in the field. ^'S^M'^'^'aj'^'^'^J!]' 

I'^^l "Our school has no sports field. 2;'S^'^q'^''^'^'^'f«J'g!;'5]!^| 
fierce | '^^^'^'^■^^'q] ^^^] \\ The fierce dogs scared the robbers away. 


fifteen | q5''3| || Fifteen days ago I went home. 


fifth I '^^] i3M!;-<^-q] II This is the fifth day of the New Year. 

fifty I '^'■q^l II He was sick for fifty days. |3j-<^-q§q-^=;-".vp^3j-q-^^l 
fight I ^'^(l^'f'^l "5=^'^'N'|=^'^1 II ^The drunk men got into a fight. ql^' 

'^(^^ S^^^'^'Sl I don't want to fight you because you are my 

friend. ^'^■^■=i'S-^J!]'^^^3j-q'Nl '^'^■^=^'=^'^'5=^'^'N-|=^-5^-q^^l 
fill I '^^'^■q^'l^'^Jl Jll'Nq-qi || We should fill that hole in the road. 

film I ^|aj■^P|J!]■'^5]'^l■5^] "qsaj'^^q] || ^Do you have any film for your camera? 

^=^'".vq^'c5'N-|-|3j-?iJ!]-q^".V»l-Sr=^-^»ll -I want to film the traditional dance 

m my village this summer. ^'"•I'^'^^^'P^l ^^'^'ft'^'f'q'^'Sj^-V^aj'^'ncBS^'qsSj' 

final I s^^'^ II At the end of the year the teacher gives a final exam. 

find 1 1f^^] II I can't find one of my shoes. =;'^-=;q-™»l-«J-J!]5J!]'5^'^=^l 
find out I §'=;'J!]5=;'i!] II How can we find out who was here yesterday? 

fine I ^^^ ^^^'=^] -c5=^'=Jl 's^'q'J!]5=^'qi || ^I'm feeling fine today, ^-^^^-^iq-ik- 

q'qg^q'^j;] -I didn't have enough money to pay the fine, ^■".l■c5=^■'^■f|^■ 

S*^'^""' '^^^'^^^l Our teacher will fine us if we don't come to class 

ontime. '^■c?^^^J!]'y^q'(|=^''^VS^'«r=;'^'=;'§f'^'^5i-^3j-|,»J-^^^ 
finish I cf^'q] 5^^J!]'^J!]'^'q] II Did you ever finish reading that book? 

fire I 5^1 II Quick, bring some water to put out the fire. 

firm I ^Tl^'^l Sj'q] 'S^j^^M^ || ^The business firm lost money last year. 3j'^^' 
a§k'q^^^'^^'|q'5^'g'c5^ 'The firm potatoes are the freshest ones. ^J!]'^^!]' 


first I ^^■'^l II He wanted to be first in line at the store. 

fish I ^^1 -^■'^%qi II 'There are big fish in the lake. »lc?3j=;'^'^'i3j^«5i^l "I 
don't like to fish but my father does. =^yqf3j-q^-5^-^J!]'^l r53j-^!^-=;q-is^i-=^- 


five I ^aj II There are five fingers on each hand. ".lJ!]'i!'^'".V«^^q's^'<^^'"^^] 
fix I (asn-J!]^'^=^'q] || Do you know how to fix the radio? 

fiag I ^=^^'c51 -".lJ!]-qF'^3j-qi II ^The flag was flapping in the wind. =^^'c5'g=^'S^'^- 
^S^l '^^ °^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^ mechanical problem while we are traveling we 
can flag down another car and ask for help. ^"-Vy^'af^'^.^^'^^p^'^-VS^' 

fiee I ^^'^"-l] II The people had to flee from the overflowing river. 

float I J!]t^=;-qi II Wood floats on water. ^q-^=;-S-^=;-J!]t^=;-l 
fiood I ^^'"1^ '%^'^] II 'The flood destroyed the crops last season. 
S'^-&!]'^-^3j-»iq-sq!^-^-^-Srq^-q]'N-'^J!]-q|q'^l 'If the dam breaks the 
reservoir's water will flood the countryside. J!]".vy=^J!]'^'.P|=^'^] ^'s^^^'^' 

floor I g^^'l m^i] II Don't put the clothes on the floor. |^3j-c5M'g=;'^'»l''^l'^ 
fiow I qs^^'gaj] II The river's flow is less than last year because of this 
year's severe drought. '^•"Tq'gsj'q'cfqM'iaj'Sa^-qJ^-^^q'^-Sl'Nl ^'q'^'qig^'^aj'aj'^';' 
"-l'^'^'^^'"-!'^^'] "The river flows swiftly in the springtime. ^^^■'']^'^^ 

fiower I ^s^'Ty^ "q(^^'q] || ^The poppy is a beautiful flower. ^■s^3j'5^'^J!]'3j'5^' 
yq^-u;iq^if^q^-5,:^| -This plant will soon flower. |'-Pj=;-q^q-s^y!]-5^-q^=^-q^- 

fluid I ^-^^'f^l II There is very little fluid in the bottle. =^»l-qq-3j=;-S-J!]-Pi^-f^- 

fly I 'l^''^^! q^^'^l '^'^■^1 ^^^^'"^1 II 'My mother is so religious that she 
won't even kill a fly. =;q-i3M-si-^^-q-i-3j'N-g-3j-|3j-ng-^J!]-aj3^-^=;-5^-J!]»r=^l "He 
wanted to learn how to fly a plane. p^'J!]3j5^'5]'R'<^=^'q^^'^'|^''^'^^] 

fog I W^^] II The truck had to go very slow because of the fog. 

follow Iqi-q-qg'^'^-qi I'N-^Jll'^-qi || The calf followed its mother 

everywhere . q'3-^W5^q'q|'".VJ!]=;''N^'qg!;'Nl 
food I wm] II We go to the market to buy food. =;-S?§?k-^^-'^=;-aj'N-g-»l^ 
fool I ^^aj-q] -»iqf^^-J!]y=;-qi || 'The clown acted like a fool. iJM-^^-^'N-^aj-q- 

(^^■'^l^q'^aj'^'^l 'Don't try to fool me with your silly answers. [iS'^'^' 


foot I 'i^qM] -^^^] II ^The shoes were at the foot of the bed. »l".V^q-(^qM-^- 

™5^-Sr=^l -The horse stepped on his foot. ^^?)-'pq'Jf^=^'q^'^=^'^'q|'Nl 
football I if^^'f^^'^^ II We like to play football with our friends. 

for I ^'^■"-l] II We played outside for a few hours, '^'sf I'^'f §f'^''^^'T".v|'^l 
force I ^q53j'-Pi^] "^5aj'^"1'^^''^l || ^The policemen were criticized for using 
unnecessary force to subdue the criminal. a3j'5^'i!^'a^'53j'c55^'".V'^qq'^' 
q^-:^q^^)-s^=^-|-q53j-^:^-q5f^n,rq^-q](^3j-|,^-|3j-q'|=^-^^ll "She had to force him to 
do the dishes. p^'^-p^'^vq53j-^".V^^yg'N-J!]2SF^-q|J!]-=^^^-^=;-l 
foreign | ^'^^'1 1| Traveling to foreign places is interesting. 

forget I q^S'^^l II Don't forget to do your homework. 

forgive | qg=;'§^s^'^=;'i!] || She could forgive him if he said he was sorry. 


form I ''^^^■^l -^535^^ II 'He wants to form a new academic 

organization. p^'^q''^J!]'S5n^'!y'J]'^==;'q'^^''^^^^''^'^=^] 'To get the job the 
form must be filled out. gq'^''^gq'^q'i!^'i=^'^'^'3'5^J!]'^'^'^-q^-S-q^=;-=^3]'^l 

former | '^3j's^l '^^] \\ 'The former chief lived in that house. '^J!]'|g=^'^3j'5^' 
=;'|^^'q'2;q'3j^'=;'q^2;'q'^2;] -I agree with your former point but not your 
latter point. =;-^^-|-'^-q-^-»i-^-qg^-q-nj?i-'^-q-|-»i-".v5^-qg^] 

forward | ^SSj'S] || The car moved forward slowly. 

four I q^l II There are four people in the bus. |-|'^-5,=;'^-qp'^-3j=;-S-5^-q^-55=^| 
fourth I q^'q] II On her fourth birthday she was very happy. 

free | '^=;-=^q=;-5S3j-qi -^aj-s^-^^Sf^-q] || 'People do not like to be controlled by 

others, they like to be free. 5^-^5^M-|'N-^=;-^q=;-q^=^-q-".l'N-J!](^3j-|,-sf=^-q%gq'N- 

^'^'^] -The newspaper is free. ^Jl]'^-q=^-^=^-S,3j-5^-2^q[^] 
freeze | '^(i^'^^l || If the apples are left outside they will freeze. 

French | g'=^3jAiq'^=;] || Do you know how to speak French? 



fresh I J!]'^^^'^] ^aj'i]] II The milk is fresh from the cow. 

Friday | J!]g^i!Ai^M] || Friday is the last school day in the week. 

fridge (refrigerator, ice-box) | q|gJ!]'|^s^] || They were happy with their 

new fridge. 'p^§?5;c;-S|-q|gq^-gJ»i-q^^]^-q^-u|:^-a^»l-Sr=^| 
fried | ^q^J!]^'s^] '^^^'^jH 'Fried mutton makes a good meal. '^^'-Pj'^^^^' 

»l-^-g'^-=9-5=^-^»l^^J!]-5)3j| -I fried this bread yesterday. p-!^!;-!;^)-qy5,-q^- 

friend | 5!^'^'^1 1| I want to bring my friend to the party. 

friendly | 5^^'T5^3j''33j'i!] || Those people are so friendly. 

frigliten | ^^'^^'^1 '^l^'N-^^-Vqi S^'^J] || Don't let the fierce dog frighten 

you. ^q53j^-".V»l-^J!] 
frisbee | '^^'l^l || Toss me the frisbee! '^^'I^'^''^'"-!'^'^^'^'^'! 
from I Sj'^] "-l'^] II I went from Lhasa to Lanzhou last year by bus. 

front I si=\5] II There were many trees in front of the house. 

fruit I '^"-V^JI] II We went to pick fruit from the trees last week. 

fry I |si-^-q^q] qg;q] || She doesn't like to fry food. 

fuel I ^5^] II Be sure to buy some fuel for the car. 

full I ^^^'q] II This bus is too full. |-|=^-5.=;'^-qp'^-q^-s^'^-q'T|c;-(^^q| 
fun I %'lj] II After school we like to have fun. 

funeral | ?i^'^l '^S^l■5^c5=^l || They were all very quiet on the way to the 

funeral. (^'^!^-5]S'^-^-q^qq-f\isi-^-|^-J-p-^zT|-5|^-q!^!^] 
furious I p^'l^^-F^'tJ] II His father was furious when he learned his son 

missed school. pq-iJVi-s^^j-g-^q-jj^-s^-sT^^-q^^-Sj'N-'p'^-^iaj^n.l'^'Nl 
future I s^'f^^'^'s^l II In the future we will have two schools in this village. 




gain I'^^^^'^l f^gq'il] II The doctor told her to gain weight. 
game | S'S'si] || They played a new game in the schoolyard. 
garden | s^'^J!]'=^'q] || Shall we plant some flowers in the garden? 
gas I ^si] ||The car stopped running when it ran out of gas. 


gate I §^1 II Be sure to close the gate behind you. (^^'^'g^'y) 

gather \fS^] ^^^]] II They left early to go gather the sheep. 

general | '"^^'^■(iq] "=;s^J!]'g] || 'The general idea about going to school is 
to get an education. ^q-5!^-q^qq-2^=;'N-(iq-|-=^5^J!]'N-t^'^V^-^q-J!]»r^J!]-qgqW^- 
"^3j] 'He recently was promoted to the rank of general. a'",l5^'p'=;s^J!]'g^' 

gentle | ^"-VS^] ^^^s^'il] || She gave the horse a gentle pat. 

get I '^S''^! "13j'i!l ^'q] II Can you get me some things from the store? 

get down | s^^^'^^qq'i!] || She told the child to get down from the roof. 

get dressed | J!]3j'i!'^3j'i!] || We have to get dressed and go to school. 

get home | (isl'S'^^^'q] || I hope I will get home before it gets dark. 

get on I 3j^'S'a=;'i!] II They are hoping to get on the bus to Xining. 

get ready for | 5!'§3^ || He had to get ready for the evening party. 


get ready to | ^"^3j] || Let's get ready to go to lunch. 

get to I =^^^l■'^l II Do you think we wiU get to go to town today? 

get up I 5]i^'i^!5^'",i^'^'q] II We get up early everyday to go to school. 

get warm | ^^''^^^'^l II Let's go inside the house and get warm. 

gift I f^^M'^^l II She wanted to bring her friend a nice gift. 

girl I g'M] II There is only one girl in our class. ^■§f^''^W'3j'5]=^'g'«5'^§^'".l^'«^=^] 
give I g3j''^] J!]3j^'q] II Maybe someone will give us some money. 

give . . . tlie message | ^J!]''^^3j'J!]^^'q] || Be sure to give her the message. 

glass I ^-^"1] '^'^■=^=^1 II ^He broke the glass window pane by accident, p^' 
^q5^-s^-qci^5^-q3;-^a,v|^-|i2-^:;-q5qjs]| 'i would like to have a glass of hot 
water. '^'^^^3^'^^'^V^^'^'^^'^^'^] 

go I f^gj] II Don't go there, ^^'s^'q^j] 

go for a walk | nc55^''^c5S^''^V'^5]'q] || We like to go for a walk after lunch. 

go for supper | =;J!]Rg^'g'q=^''^5]'q] || Do you want to go for supper at that 

restaurant? ji^-^=;-g-p=;-^^-^^!;-g'^-g-q^-q^q^=^-=^5^1 
go home | (is^'S'"-!^''^! || He didn't want to go home right away. 

go on I ^'S^S] II She was so tired that she didn't think she could go on 

working. pWg=;'c5=^'5J!]M'i!M'?J'S^=^'^'^=^'g'^'".V'^^^q'i!^'5^'q'N»l'^l 
go shopping I ^■c5'g^''^^''^5!'q] || I want to go shopping with my mother. 

go skating | '^(S^'^lflS'^S'^l II We could go skating if the lake is frozen. 

go to bed I ^"^'q] II I told my sister to go to bed at eight o'clock. 

go to class I JI^'HS"'^''^^^''^! II We have to go to class now. 

•403 • 

go to the classroom | J]^'P^'?1''^5!'^1 II After lunch we go to the 

classroom. ^'^■^M'l'I'N-aj'N-'^-S^q-p^-^-q^ 
goal I =;s^J!]^'«j",l] II If we work hard we will achieve our goals. 

god I "SI II He did not know the name of the god in his village's temple. 

gold I J!]'^^l II There is a lot of gold in Qinghai. «^3j-S-J!]^^-»l=;^W^l 
good I q^^'q] ^'^^] II She did a good job on her school paper. 


Good idea! | gqM's^p^] gq^'^jjj^'q] || Good idea! Let's go to the party now. 
goodbye | qS'si'^^'^l || "Goodbye. See you tomorrow." 

goodness | ^qg^'q] "J!]3j5^'^3j'5^] || ^She is so kind and full of goodness. 

p■«^■3j■J!]^P|^■^=^■qg^■".l■J!](^3j■^5^^■£5] 'My goodness! That is a very big 

problem. J!]3j»l-^3j-»ll ^■^■J!]3j=^^3j-=9-5=^'i3j^^J!]'^=^l 
goods I ft^'3^'] II We had better return these goods to the shelves. 

govern | =;qRg=^'q] || It takes many people to govern a nation. 

government | Sj^'J!]®^] || The Chinese government is a large 

organization. ^^■^'^■23^'^'^^'3i'|3^''^^^'i3i'^'f^^'^^l 
grade | '^^'5!=^'N1 ^s^'q] ^^m] \\ 'What grade did you get on the test? ^=^' 

^^■^^^■^=^'5Wq^'^] "My daughter is in Grade Two in primary 

school. =;q'g's5^'^q'^=^'^'^q'^»i'J!]|'N'q'«S3j] 
grain | ^^'^^^1 1| There are many piles of grain in the yard. 

grand | ^"I'c53jl || The store opening was a grand event. 

granddaughter | cfsJ] || My mother loves her granddaughter very 

much. =;qi3M-»i-iT5rq'cfs?".V=9'5!;'(^3jl 
grandfather | S'q] || My grandfather lives in our house. 



grandma (grandmother, granny, gran) | ^'5^] || My grandma is eighty 

years old. '^'^■^^5W^^=^'l'"^3jl 
grandparents IS^'^^q*'! II Will your grandparents come to visit us? 

grandson | ^] \\ He was an obedient grandson. p^'cd^p'"i3j'5^p3j'^J!]'^=^] 
grant | ^?5r|5^'!>^nj] "S'q'fcqi || 'l got a grant that will allow me to do 
research on Tibetan folk songs for one year. ^■".vq=;'^'=;5^^^'^'".VJ!]5^'^!^' 
^q'q^ci^'|^5;'q^-?m!^-:^^aj-gq| 'Perhaps he could grant three wishes, p^'^' 

grass I S'l II The horses are eating the grass. ^'^s^'^'^'^X^'^^^j''^^ 
grassland | ^^^'1 1| Mgolog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture has much 

grassland. »l3y^J!]-y¥-g!;-ais;!5i-qw^] 
great | =^^'^l '^'^^'\ \\ It's great to see you again. 

Great idea! | gq^N's^p^N-^^^] || Great idea! I wish I had thought of that. 


green | 'S^^] \\ The trees turn green in the spring. 

gray | g'q] || The sky has been gray all day. ^3j'^^'q=^'3js^'«^p'^'(^gc]'5l] 
grind | '^g^'sj] || We use this machine to grind the flour. 

ground | ^^^'j "qE^^'s^] || ^The apples all dropped on the ground. ^'-Pj'gs^^' 
5=;'gRn.v™Ri -I added some ground spices to the soup. ^^'fl'^'^'^j^'^'^'^Sj' 

group I c&]^] ^^\ II The group of students went out to play. 

grow I ^=^q^■'^l II We grow many different kinds of vegetables. 

guarantee | p^'^^ || This letter guarantees that the equipment will be 
replaced if it breaks. «Fc5'N-'^^-c5J!]-|3j-^'^-^-q|-^-«S3j-qt^-qi-q^^-pJ!]-gJ!]-|2^| 

guard I ^5j^'=;5^Jn 'Sj^'^l II ^The guard stood all night outside the building. 
23!^-2^»iqj-^-»lcf3j-J!]=;^^-p=;-qq-|-^-".l=;'^l -Don't be afraid because several 
policemen are guarding your apartment. ^3j'^^''J''^^'^'(3S'^'-P|^'^^'23^' 


guerrilla | ^^'N-s^^^-^n.Vf'^-^'pqi-S^-^siJ!]-^^] ^'^■s^=^-^".V5=;-|| ^She showed me a 
picture of a big black guerrilla in the jungle. p's^^'R",V3jJ!]M'J!]^iq'ys=;'i!'l' 

was a guerrilla fighter during the last war. g!;!5j'^3;'5](^"!;s]qi'asqi'jg!;'p'3j' 

guess I ^§§=^'=^^^ "^^^1 II 'Your guess is correct, ji^'^'cf'^'^^^'^^^ 'I can't 
guess the answer to that question. ^'^■5'q'^'l'".13j'^i!J!]'s^'^q] 

guide I '^'-Pjaj'^!] '(Is'^1 II ^He wants to become a tour guide after he 
finishes school. p^^'5!'3j'N'«^^^'|3j'|'^'^"-l'^^'|'^3j'^'^^'|=^'^'^=^l "My 
friend can guide you because he speaks three languages. ^'I'g]^!]'^'^!'^' 

guilty I ft^'i!'"^^'^!] II The court found that he was guilty of a crime. 

gun I 's^'s^^f^l "S^'s^'^T'^aj'i!] II 'He doesn't know how to clean a gun. 
pi)-5^-»i=^q%<^^-q|^!:;-5q|-|2^-»-5^-^!N| "The criminal threatened to gun 
down his hostages unless his demands were met. ^^'SSj'^'N'^^^'sri' 


I B ha I "91 II "Ha!" he laughed out loud. "=9" (^'N'pi^-^q-a-^^-^^- 

hair | S || She has such long and thick hair. 

half I ^^'^ cf".vq] II Please cut the bread in half ^^'^'|'^'''1^'^5'^''^'^'l 
half an hour | ^■§P^■^=^■''] || After half an hour I will go home. 

halt I f =^l II "Halt!" said the policeman to the thief running away. 

hand | '=(J!]^'^5^] ""-l^lj'q] || 'if you can't do it by yourself, please tell me 

and I'll give you a hand. ^"-Vy^'^'^'^'^'N-l^q-sS-^q-Sl '^■".V^=^'=^=^'=^'N-^=^-".V 

^^"^^1 'The mother held the child's hand as they crossed the street. 

handbag | "^''l'|^''l || She put her money in her handbag. 


hang I ''^q]".!'^] "S'sai'qi || 'We hang out the laundry when the sun is 
shining. |■»^■^P|^■q■3j■=^■§f'N■q]3j■q■^»^'^■|■»^^■'^l "They wiU hang the criminal 
tomorrow. !^;;-^3^-f?-S'^-^!5i-^3i-^<^-i-q'^5]!5i-3^!5i-q|§:^-s-5!^| 

happen | '^^'^l || We all stood around waiting for something to happen. 

happily | ^^Ij^^'q^^^'] || The two sisters talked together happily. Jn-sa'tri:^!;,' 
happy I S^'^^l II I was happy to see my father coming down the street. 

happy birthday | |'N-^^-".vq^--Pj'N-q^-'^lJ!]'N-CT || We all sang 'Happy 
Birthday' at her birthday party. [^^■|'^-^^-|,W§&]'N-^=;-3j'N-=;-§fcf=^-»l'N 

Happy New Year! | 'TJ!]'N^'qg!;'l J!]3j»l'"Fj!]'N^'q^'q^'^'N'q^'":iJ!]«)'CT || 
Everyone yelled, "Happy New Year!" when the clock struck 
midnight. 3j»l-^=;-§]-5k-q^-5]Ji]'N-q-=^=;-sq'^-S5f|-5^'^»l'N-|'N- "^Jij'N^-qg'^-" 


harbor | 5]'pi || There were many boats in the harbor. 5]'P'5'5]'^^'^'^S1 
hard | ^'^q'^'il'iaj^ -^^ si^^^^] \\ ^She worked very hard at her studies. 
pT'^'^q'I'^^'n.V'^q^'q'iaj^^'^l -Rocks are a hard material. gJ!]^'=^T^^23'«? 

hard-working | '^q=;'q§'aj'53j] || They were all hard-working students. 


harm | '^3j=^'nj§i -J!]3j=^'|",vq] || 'iTl take care of you and make sure that 
you don't come to harm. =^'N-^^-".VJ!]5'N-|k-g^tSS3j-q-:^^-^:^-n.vqj^^-qag'-5^- 
'^^^s'q'^^N'p^'^^'^] 'He was careful not to harm the animals. p^'Sj^lj'cB^^' 

harvest | '".V^^'J!]'g3j''^qq] -^aj'S^'^!] || 'The wheat harvest was bigger this 
year than last year. =^''^l^'5]'S'g3j''^qq'aj'3j^''^l^'i] "All the villagers help to 
harvest the crops. ^'S^W^'N-l'N-^aj-^'^-Tq^M-l:^] 
has I «r=^l II He has two children. 'p^".v|^-q-J!]|'^-Sr=^l 
hat 1 1^'«^] II Don't forget to wear your hat. (5^'^'i^'^'5,3i'§'5^'^^^l 
hate I '(^■f'^'l -5^''^'^=^'qi ^'^■q] II ''Hate' is the opposite of 'love.' 'i^'^^^"!!' 
'q|'^»l'N'-^-'^Jl]-|-«S3j| -I hate to see that child cry. '^'^'I'^-q-^-^-q^ai-q-sfe- 


have I W^] II Do you have any money? jS^W^^-sTw^-t^si] 

have a cup of tea | ^^'q'^^'^^^'qi || Let's go and have a cup of tea. 

have a good time | g^'^'^^'^l S'S'1,^'^1 II I think we wiU have a good 

time on our journey. =^'^-q<^'^-3j-=;-§?q-^=;'^-^-".V^!^-|^^Sjq|-Sr!;-^-5,:^| 
have a look | 'S^] \\ We went to have a look at the mountains. 

have a rest | ^"-I'^^'^S''^] || They stopped for a while to have a rest. 

have a swim | ^'S^-V^l || It was so hot that they decided to have a swim. 

have breakfast | (^J!]^'g^'g'q] || It's important to have a good breakfast. 

have lunch | ^^g^'^'q] || Where shall we have lunch? 

have supper | ^N^ljRg'^'g'q] || I'd like to have supper soon. 

have to | ^^'^^^'^vj || Do we have to go home now? 

he I p] II He didn't want to go. |^'qg]'s^'q^^] 

he'd I fm] II He'd always drink too much at parties. 

head | 5^3]j || That horse has a big head. ^-^^-si^iaj^^JllW^l 
headquarters | ^■(iq'"-l'^'f^^'^l || That brick building is the police 

headquarters. s5-Siq-»r^J!]-Sl^J!]-p=;-^-^-|-q^q-|-(iq-".l'N-f^5'N-«S3j] 
health | q=^■5^■] '^'^'ps^'^] || Eating good food will improve your health. 

healthy | q^'5^'53j] || Getting enough exercise makes a healthy body. 

hear | ^'q] ^^'t^] || Speak louder, I can't hear you. 

heard | ^'q] ^^'^^j || I never heard what happened to them. 


-« '/ ' ' ' -^ 


heart | ^^'j || He has some problem with his heart. P'^'^^'"-Vg3j'^J!]''^SJ!] 
heat I cfq] II The heat in the summer feels good, s^^^'p'l'cf q'aj'q^'^^'i] 
heavy | 'SS^] II The load was too heavy for the donkey. 

helicopter | ^^j'^^^'^^s^'Sj] || You don't see many helicopters in Xining. 

hell I S^"-V^l II Some people believe hell is on earth. 

hello I is^''^^'^] II Hello! How are you? '^X'^^] (5=^'q^'«5j 
help I Tj!]»5-^»1] ^q^^i-^5^-|:^-q| || ^l appreciate your help. 

(3^¥^^^^^ "^'^^^^^1 '^^ always like to help our teacher after 
school. ^q'^=^'|'1'^-^'=^'§f^3j-q^-^^-^3j-".vKjI]'^-^Sl-|2^-q^-2^J!]q] 
her I p'5^^] II She didn't want to give her sister the book. 

here | ^] \\ You are welcome here. ^=^'§f5;|3^!^-q^^'5q!f<-q';'2^Jl]'Tqg'Sl 
hero I =^'J'^■q] II Many boys want to become heroes. 

hers I p's^^] || She didn't know if the book was hers or her brother's. 

herself | 5^'=^^'^=;] || She wanted to bake the bread all by herself 

hey I =9] || Hey! What are you doing over there? 

hi I ^^^] II Hi! Nice to see you. '^X'^^] ^j^-t^^q^j^-q^-j^q^q^^^l 
hide 1 5!]q'^] ^^'1 II The child liked to hide behind the trees. 


high I sw'q] II That mountain is very high. R'q'=;''9'5^'s«j 

highland barley | 5^^] \\ Highland barley is a common crop in this area. 

hijack I ^q53j'(g=^l "^53j'^'N'|g=^'i!] || 'The airplane hijack attempt occurred 
when the plane was over the Atlantic Ocean. ^3js^'5]'aq'g'5^§fl53j''^<^'ci^' 
f !;-S-q53j'^=^'|=^'|'N-^^l -The thieves hijacked the bus. ^^'^3i'|,'^'|'|=^' 

hill I S'J'^^I II That is only a small hill over there. 


him I pj II Did you give the letter to him? (5=^'|'N-'^'^'^'P^"-Vi^l'|3jl 
himself | p'=^^'^^] P'^S^'^] || He went to the festival by himself. 

his I pq] II His hat was made out of fox skin. pq-s-s5^-'-d-qJ!]'N-".i'^-ql''^-q-^^l 
history | "-Vg^j || She didn't know the history of her village. 

hit I qj^^'q] II I told him not to hit his brother. =;'^-p'^-^=;-^-5^".V»l-qj=;-(^'N-".iqi 
hmm I !3^1 1| Hmm, I wonder how much this costs? 

hold I q^^^'q] f^laj'^l || Would you like to hold the baby for a while? 

hole I l^^^'gi II The fox jumped into the hole. 'JJ-Sf^-f^'^-gq-aj'^-^-siIk'^l 
holiday | q^'^riis^!;,'] || During the winter we have a holiday from school. 

holy I ^'^^^'53j] II We often go to visit the holy mountain. 

home I (i*!] II Do you think your brother is at home? 

hometown | ^'^"-l] || She always likes to go visit her hometown. 

homework | "l^'^j (i*! g^'l II The good students do their homework. 


honest | ^-Pj'^'^^'l ^"^^'^^'l II She was an honest girl. 

honor| qg'f^^Jl] || They wanted to honor their grandparents' wishes. 


hope I ^^'q] "^■q'f^^aj'i!] || 'His biggest hope is that he will be able to 

graduate from college and then get a good job. pi^'=^'q'S^'c53j''J'3j'p'^]q'^' 
i3j-s?3j'^-»ig=^-|3j-5=^-^-3j'^-^-q-qg=;^^J!]i=^-^q-^-^-«S3jl "We hope they don't 
get caught in the rain. =;-S''N-(T'^S^'q^'3j=;'^'5^''5'^-qq-^-q-qWajl 

horrible | cfq^'cB'q] "^'^'q] || There was a horrible accident on the road. 

horse | ^j || I like to ride my horse. ^■=^^'Jl]'5'"l'i^aj''^=;=;| 


hospital I S3j'p^'] II We had to take him to the hospital when he was sick. 

hostile I (^'f^'Saj] (^■^R'^^aj'il'l] II The people were hostile to the strangers. 

hostilities | ^^^j^^'^^^aj'^'q^s^'i!] || Before a war there are usually some 
smaller hostilities among people. ^5^^''^^'«^'^^'^'S'^3j'S'5^'=^s^^'^'^'|g'^'^' 

hot I c^ II The soup is too hot to eat. [^■q-=9-5=;-cf«r^3j'i!'N-q^=;-^'T]qi 
hotel I S15!3j'p^'l II They just finished building a new hotel in town. 

hour I ?f roS] II I will be back in one hour. 

house I p^'q] II Would you like to come to our house for dinner? 

housework | |35^'".l'^] || My sister doesn't do much housework. 

how I ^%'^^] ^'^'^] II 'How long will it take to get there? JJiaj^N'^^-ql^^-q^- 
^'^■J^S'S'^^^'i^^'^^^^] "I don't know how you did it but I'm glad you 

did. ji=^'|'N^3j-^-|-<^^-'^l'N-q<^-&-!;'N-5^-^'N-sr^irf3j-^!;-ig^ 

How are you? | (iS'qS's^] || How are you? I'm fine and you? 

how many | Fj\ \\ How many brothers do you have? (iS'"''q^\\"^°il 
how much | 5\1 1| How much money do you have? |g=;'",V|^=^'s^'^'"J^] 
how often | fi^'^'S^j'^v] gaj'S'^^'^'S's^j || How often do you go to the market? 

How old are you? | |i^'^^'".V=;'"^3j] || How old are you? I'm ten years old. 

ji=^-^=;-3kt^3j] '^■^'^■Sfqf'^ajl 
however | '^^j'^^'] ^^'"S^'^^'l || I don't know if it's possible, however, you 

can try. '^^v'^-=^q-5^-^q-5^--Pi'N-sr^l rf3j-^!^-ig=^-|^)-af=^-<^-|=^-Iqj 
huge I c53j''^l II I saw a huge animal on the mountain. 

human | »1^'=^J!]^] || The people said the strange creature didn't look 
human. 5^'^»1'N'^'N'^JI]'SJI]'N'S'S^=^'^'9|'S'^JI]'N'^';'5^'»1^=^'^'I=^| 


humor | ^^'^'^1 1| He has an excellent sense of humor. 

hundred | ^g] || We learned how to count to a hundred in English class. 

hunger | ^^'^] ^'^ || No one should die from hunger. 5]-^-a)K,-^-^^i-^-5^-^!;-] 
hungry | 'S^'^''^] || The child was crying because she was hungry. 

hunt I £,3^R\ '=^'^^^'^3j''J] II 'During the hunt one hunter accidentally shot 
another hunter. ^■^J!]'N%^qMlX3j'^'^^'^'^l'^'^'^'«^''^^^'^^%^'^'^3i'^^''^'5i" 
5]!^(^-^q|-q^-g!^] -The older boys left to hunt wild animals. |,»5'i!'i'q'^»l'^' 

hurry | '^^^'cB] -^^'s^^^'f^gj'q] || I'm not in a hurry so take your time. ^^#1" 
o6-si-n,i!;^)-q^-^!;-|!;-|^^)] -We had to hurry or be late for school. ^^'c^^^'sT^^' 

hurt I '^si'^-^J!] -gj^N-q] ij'N-laj^Jlj-qi || 'it has taken me a long time to get 
over the hurt you caused me. =;-(i^-|'N-q^".vq<^-^»l'N-^Jl]'"l's)-g3;-q3^-c^]T^3j- 
^^^'q'f^^^^l -Re careful. Don't hurt yourself using that hammer, ^^q' 

husband | (i'^ || She was happy to find a nice husband. 


II I ^'1 II I don't know when I will be home again. 
ice I c5q'^5^1 =^^l II Do you think the water has turned to ice yet? 
idea | ^q^] || It would be a good idea if you wore warm clothes. 
if I 'J]"-!'^! II If she knew him she would tell me. 


ill I 3j'q] 3j'cf] II My grandmother was very ill last year. 

illegal I |g«^^''^5i^'^| II He didn't want to do anything illegal. 

imagine | q'^5^■cf=^■^=^■^] S^'^j "^S'^S'1,S'^1 || Can you imagine what a bird 


immediate | ",W^R] || Mother said to come home immediately. 

import I ^j^'^^^aj] II Our country needs to import certain goods. 

important | ^".l'c53jl ^"-VcB] || It is very important to go to school. 

improve | J!]^''^^".l] ^"iJ!]^'^'J!]^^'q] || They bought the machines to 
improve farming methods. 

in I 3j^'] II In two years I will finish school. 


in bed | ft".V^^'3j^'] || She was so sick that she stayed in bed all day. 

in Cliinese | g'"^^!]'^!]^] || That book is written in Chinese. 

in Englisli | S^'"^^'^'^] || Do you know how to write a letter in English? 

in front of | ^ISSj'S] || I waited for him in front of the school. 


in line | 5!"^'S] || We had to stand in line at the cinema. 

in lucli I ^q'^''^5!^''^l II I think we are in luck. Here comes the bus. 

in tlie classroom | 5]^'P^'3j^'Sl II The teacher is usually in the classroom. 


in the desk | s^=;3j'5^'^'3j^'=;] || She likes to keep her pencils in the desk. 

in the end | 5^§J!]'5^g=^] || In the end he agreed it was a good idea. 

in the kitchen | J!]"^^'p^'3j^'] || It is very warm in the kitchen. 

in the toilet | l^^f'^'l || He's in the toilet now. ^■'^■p^^-p^-3j'^-^-2^=^l 
in Tibetan | ^S'SS'^''^] || We can all say that in Tibetan. 


in trouble | S^lj'^] || I hope they don't get in trouble for being late again. 

incident | S3j'33il || The newspaper reported the incident in great detail. 

incite | Jj^'q] ^^^^'-Pl^'^^^aj'^] || It was said that those boys incited a riot. 

include | '^'^''^1 1| She wanted to be included in planning the party. 

increase | ^^^^^'q] ^'s^g^'Jij^^q] || 'I'm worried about my recent weight 
increase. '^(^J!]'=;!^-^:;-fj-ni!5)-q^-|=^-cf^-q!^^-q-n.V!;'NAW'N'f^5'|,=^l "They might 
have to increase the price of meat soon. p^cf^N's^'^^^^'q^^'-PI'^'^'s^g^'Jl]^" 

independent | =^^'»lJ!]'g3j'i!] =^^'q^3j'53j] || She is an independent woman. 

industry | q^'"-!^] || The tobacco industry makes money from selling 

cigarettes. g-»iJ!]-q'S^",i'^'^'N'g'»lJ!]'q^=;'^yp'qg=;''53i] 
inflation | ^"l'"l==^'q^5^'g",V.P|=^'q] || Inflation can lower the value of 

money . ^".v"r^'q^»i'g".v^^'^'=^5".v"rq'q^q'g=;'»i^'55n-^'Nl 
influence | -Pj^'^'j^jl || The leaders have a great influence over the 

country. q^^=^-^»lM-|'N-^".vpq-^=;!5l-"l-~P|J!]'^-^3j-i3j^".ll 
inform | qaJ!]^'^]] qj'q^^'q] || The radio program didn't inform the people 

about the storm in time. ^'^■q|^J!]'N-'^Vcf3j'3j=;'^-5^-^s^'N-'^V5J!]-c5^%q^'^^wy 

injure | ^'^''^1 1| I injured my foot when I fell the other day. 

innocent | '^'^^'S^'^l II She looks so innocent in that pretty dress. 

insane | S'^''^] || That man screaming over there is insane. 

insect | 233i''^l || I thought I saw an insect under the bed. 

inside | 3f^^ \\ Shall we go inside the house? =;-S?p=^-qq-3j=;-S-q^^-'^3j-3j»l| 
inside | 3^F] \\ They wanted to keep the puppy inside the house. 


inspect | (^q■q^P|^] || The police came to inspect the building. 
instead | "l^j || Instead of meat he wanted to eat vegetables. 
instrument | ^'^"I'cB'^] || Do you know how to play a musical instrument? 

insult I '^siq-qqq's)] 2:^siq-q^q55-|:^-q| II ifijg jjjg^i^ jjjj^^g jjjg angry. pq-^»iq- 
q^qM-|M-Rp'R^n,i:;M-^-q§J!] "He didn't want to insult anyone, j^'^'sj-qqc,- 

intelligent | ^'5]'^''^3i'^l II The scholar is very intelligent. s^p^'q^^s'S'^-jjisi- 

intense | ^'^^] \\ The heat in the summertime is intense. S^^'P'^'^'^^^'S] 
interest | '^S'''] 'S'^^'l II ^What percent interest does the bank pay on 

one -year deposits? ^5'^vp=^'^'N-'^J!]3J!]''^aj-|-^5'^VJl]»W]-f\v|=^-'T]-q^-c5'l'S'5^^ 
^^] 'Do you have any interest in studying English? |iS'"-l'S^'"^^'g^' 
interesting | S'^^''^3j'i!] || I find traveling to other places is interesting. 

interfere | 5'^^^^] q^'c5^'^^^'q] || His mother wanted to interfere in their 
neighbor's business. f^q-i3^-s^'N-p^S^-(|5^-5^Jg''N-|^3j-^Jl]-'^vg-J!]yJ!]'N-|=^-q^=^l 

international | §"^^'^1 II They waited at the airport for the international 
flight to arrive. f^§fj!]3j»i-5]-qqq-g=;-s-^".v|q-J!]aj»i-5]-q|^^-q^-q§^J!]'Nl 

intervene | q^^'^^s^] || The teacher had to intervene in the fight between 
two boys. ^5i-^aj-|,'N-|^-q-^-J!]|'N-|-q^=;-^'N-".vq^-q^»i-|,=^-=^3]'^-^=;-| 

into I 3j^'=;] II It was difficult getting into the sleeping bag. 

invade | ^53j''^"1'^=;'i!] || The enemy was going to invade in the morning. 

invent | ^'^^'^'5'=^'|,=^'^1 II China invented paper. ^'^'3f)'^^'g'^'^=^''']y=^'3'^l 
invest | ^'S5"-V^^^'q] || If you put your money in the bank they will 

invest it for you. ^"-iy^^'|'N-^=^-|-|'^-s?^5".vp=;-S-q5'".VSl p1f'N-ji^-|-cfq'^'^' 

investigate | (^^'^-PI^'^S'^II || The police needed to investigate the crime. 


invite | Jjj^^aj'S'^^^'q] || I will invite her to my home for dinner. 

involve | S^^'^l] g'q] || It's better not to involve too many people in the 

problem. J!]3j^^3j'q^q'3j=;'S'9S'(gJ!]'N'5^p3j'»l=;'5J!]'N'3i'qg!;'^'s^=^] 
iron I '3^'^1 II The hammer is made out of iron. g'q'^'3j''^J!]'^'".1^'qg^| 
is bad for | ^3j=;'c5] || Smoking is bad for you. 

is different from | (5S''^^''23j'i!l || Frying food is different from baking. 

is good at I ".vqg=;-qi II He is good at English. p^=^|sj-«SJ!]-".vqg=;-l 
is good for | "-V^aj'^l] || Exercise is good for you. 

is out I 's^§J!]'^J!]^'q] "cf^'q] II ^School is out for the summer after one 
month. ^q-5]^-q-J!]5J!]'^''|'^-^-»l§'^-fj!]'^-q^ 'The shop is out of salt. 

island | ^^'^^j] || Have you ever been on a desert island? 

issue I '^aj'^'^^l] ^'q] 'S'^^l II 'The newspaper reports on many issues. 
cfi3]'^'q'^'S!;-gq|!^-5]s;-q§-J!]3j'^-#i,vq'fi2^TKJ!] "When will the publishing 
house issue their next book? i!^'a3j'p'^'^'^'g!;!^-|!^-5]<^-2^q-c5'3j»l'6f'^'=^i!^'^' 

It doesn't matter. | ^aj's^^'^l] || It doesn't matter how long you stay. 

it's I ^'^l ^'^l II It's your turn to do the dishes. (=^'^)'i^'*l''^=^'^'N-ji=^-«S3jl 
jail I 'q^aj'p^'] "q^aj'^^'S'^^^'i!] || 'The mother was sad to hear 

J that her son was going to jail. g'q^3j'p=^'^''^^=^^'^'q<^-^5;-g'^]-qM-i3M- 
s^q'»^»l^'!^'5^'^] "The police will jail you if you commit a crime. 

January | ^^'S^'^1 II January is a cold month in this area. 
Japanese | '^^^^'iiaj'^';] || Are you learning how to speak Japanese? 


jewel I ^3j'^'S| II She kept a precious jewel in a box. 


job I ^'q] II He hopes to get a good job after school. 

join I (5J!]^'i!] II She wiU join the army someday. 

joint I ^s^=^'5^cf5^^] -5^^5^'q|n,v^] II ^The joint in the water pipe is broken. 
l'q^'^'^^'^^^^'^'^^'^^1 'Our joint effort resuhed in success. ^^^' 

joke I 'tI'^I '^'^'t'^l II 'He always likes to tell a good joke. j^^Sj'^^'^'^'l" 
|_^-5^5i]q] "Please, don't joke with me! z^-nj-^-^-aj-l'^qii^i 

judge I ^q^J!]-»ip3jl (^"-I'l'^l -q^^'-Pj'^s'^'^Jl II ^The teacher is a very good 
judge 01 character. ^^■^3j■=^■3j■J!]^P|'^■'T]•q^J!]•5^p3j•qg^•q•(^^!]■«^3j] Don t judge 
people until you know them well. (i=^'^'N'5^'5n(a3;'".Vc5'^'N'qg^^5]'"r3j'q^'^' 

July I §'^'^3j'i!l II July is a month during the summer. 

jump I s^cB^'q] ||The children like to jump into the river. 

June I ^^'^^''^l II June is a lovely month for looking at flowers. 

jungle I 3jJ!]^'^] II There is no jungle in Qinghai. 5^§f^'S'3jJ!]'^'^q'5^^] 
jury I q5'J!]5=^'".l^'^^'§&]^'i!] || The jury decided that the man was guilty. 

just I ^^'^^ II The bus arrived just in time. ^'^^'^^^^''^P^'^'^'^^W'^^^l 

Kkeep I ^^^^] "^^'^'^^'|=^'=^1 II 'Keep quiet! Mother is 
sleeping. p'^'^j^'W^] (Jvys^'^qw^] "How much of the money 
do you want to keep for yourself? ^=^'^'N'^=^''^V^^'«?S'^5]-^^- 

keep busy | ^".vqq'^^'a^'i!] || My father always likes to 

keep busy. =;q-i3M-s5-3j»i-s3;-|".vqq-=;=;-^=^-^^-=^J!]qi 
keep healthy | '^'^'ij'q^'q^^'^^N'i!] || You must eat good food if you want to 

keep healthy. J!]qy^2^-^'N'5;K,-S|-<5^)ifq^'q^'f=^'q'N»l'S'g'»l'qg=^^qgq'^^^| 
kick I '^^'"^'N'^^'^^l'^^'^'^'^f^'^1 ||The horse kicked me in the leg. 


kidnap | ^53j'(g=^l ^§[(^^'^^'^1 II It is illegal to kidnap anyone. 

kill I ^^^'=^1 q-Pj^^'q] II They kill chickens and sheep for the market. 

kilo (kilogram) 1 1'51 || I'U buy a kilo of oranges. 

kilometer | g'"1] || We walked one kilometer to his home. 

kind I 'qf-^s^'N-sajl -^^^] \\ 'My teacher is kind. =;q-^5]-^3j-^-q|-^5^'N-53j-^J!]- 

"Sajl -What kind of husband do you want? (5=^'|'^-(f J!]-^^!]'^-^!]';-^^!]-^^^] 
kinds of crops | '^g'=^J!]'^'^'c&]'^] || I grow all kinds of crops. 

kiss I ^] II Mother gave me a kiss when I left home. !;'|55]'!;c;'|^'gnj'sq!5^' 

kite I '^'^^ II The kite flew into the sky. ^Jl]-^-3j»l-»ip^-qg^-'^=;-| 
knife | ^1 1| My knife is long. =;'S'^%^=^'1 
know I ^P|^1 II I don't know English very well. 

L laboratory | c&^■'^■p^■] || Scientists do their work in a 
laboratory. cf3j'^J!]'i!'^5]'^'|!^-§f^''^'p=^'S'^:;-S|-^'q'|^qi 
labor I ''^'^vf^l'l^'^^l -=;".vf".ll II 'l labor every day under harsh 
working conditions. |aj-^^-=;'N-J!]ajM-qq-^J!]^3j'N-=;".vf".v|,=^-=^^^l 
"Building a road requires hard labor. ffi'".W(^J!]'".l'^'q^'^".V§'".V 

lack I s^'q^N^q] || For lack of money she had to wear old shoes. 

ladder | ^^] || I will climb a ladder to reach the rooftop. 

lake I s^\ II Qinghai Lake is very large. 5^*f3j''^'=9'5^'ffi'£5] 
lama | q'si] || The lama prays in the temple. q-»l'N-™-p=;-3j=;-S-J!]'r".vq-q^q'N] 
lamb I '^■^1 II The baby lamb was brought into the tent. 


land I ^'^^'l ■^'^qq'^Jj II ^How much land does your family have? (i^^'cf^'"^!' 
'^■(^^■^■55^'"^^] "Our airplane was forced to land in the ocean. ^■§5^'J!]3js^' 

language | ^=^l ^=;'=^J!]^] || We are learning to speak the English language 

in school. '^'sf'N'^^'^^'=^|)Sj'^=^'^^=^'^'|'^'^^3jW^l 
large | isj^ qk^^'iaj^ II She is a large woman. p^'g^'s^^'n|!5l-q!;^-i3j^^3i- 

last I »1|J!] II I'm always last in line. =;-3j»l-wi=;-5]".V»l§Jl]-"^3j| 
last month | ^'?3j's^] || Last month was my birthday. 

last time | g^^'^3j'»l] || The last time I saw you, you were ill. 

last week | J!]g'^''^p=^'^3j'5^] || I saw that movie last week. 

last year | 3j'3j^'] || Last year I studied French. 

late I I'^-^-'^'^-qi II Don't be late for class! ^^'jl'^'l'l'^'^-l''^'^'^'*'''^^ 
later | |?J'ai?J| |'S| || I don't want to leave the party now, I want to leave 

later. =^''^'2;'|'S5i]'^''^'^'|^"^^«^"5]-a,'^!^-q!5i-^!;-^5]-(^?^^-|!5i-(^^-s-^3i| 
later on | ^^'^=^1 1| Later on let's go to your home. ^^'^^'^'c^ll'^'cf^'S''^^ 
laugh I ^^(^=^'^=^1 "^^^'^1 II 'when I hear his laugh I also laugh. =^'N-(i=^-|- 

'^^Tf ^^*1 '^'^'^'^^^■'^^ "When I laugh I am happy. '^-^^^-^^^^-^q^N] ^=;- 

laugh at I p^'S^S'l/S'^l II When you fell we laughed at you. 

laugh with | s^a5^'=;'qJ!]^'i]] || When you tell a joke, we laugh with you. 

launch | s^^^'^^^'^^'^j ^^^'^1 1| When they are finished building the ship 

they must launch it. 'p^§f'^-5]-^-"l's)-^3;-q-:^:;-^-n,vqjy;-:^q^5)| 
law I j|5^'^''5^'^l II The court system upholds the law. 

lead I '*l^q'^=^l "^^'=^1 II 'l will follow your lead. '^'^■(i=^-|-»l^q-^=^-".V^3j-^-'^3jl 
'You can lead a horse to water, but you can't make it drink. (iS'^'^y 



leak I ^^'^ -P|^] II The windows in our classroom leak when it rains. 
learn | Jiq'^^] || Will you learn Tibetan next year? 

learned | '^^'il'Saj] -q^iq^'q] || 'He is a very learned monk. p^'5!'q' 
=9'5';^^'|'53i'^^'^^| "He learned almost nothing. 'p^'=^".vi=^'-^!^-§- 

learning | ^q'^l] || He is learning English. f^'^'^lsj^^^'^q'^ajW^l 

leave | ^^^'^1 '^^^''^1 1| Please leave your coats here. 

left I 'g"-vqi l,^'^] -^3i\ II 'He left my home an hour ago. 'p^^'^'^'JljSJll'^'laj' 

^■'^^■^»l'^=^'g".ll "I write with my left hand. =;'^-J!]Sraj-n,iq]-q]^)-!^-^-q|] 
leg I qj.] II My right leg is painful. =;q-q^-Jl]"^'N-q-3jl 
legal I |g»l^'5^3j] II The lawyer asked the judge a legal question. 


lend I q^'q] II Can you lend me some money? 

less I j^^'q] (S^3^^] II I have less money than you do. 

less than a day | ^3j'^3J!]''^l^'R^'q] || He worked less than a day. 

less than a month | ^■J!]5^'«^''^^=^'q=^] || In less than a month I will be 

thirteen. |'J!]3J!]'5^''^3]'^'q^''^'^'^'"fqfJ!]^»l'"r3j'q^ 
less than a week | J!]gq'qp^'J!]5J!]'s^'qJ!]^'q^] || I will leave school in less 

than a week. Jl]gq-qp'^-q]5J!]'5^''^^^'q^'=^'^=;'^q'5!'=^=;''^g".V^'«Sajl 
less than a year | "-V^S^lj'^s^] || I have studied English for less than a 

year. =^'N'=^|,3j''^J!]'"Fj!]5J!]'55^'".V|=^'s)| 

lesson I 5]^'cf3j] II What lesson will we learn today? 

let I (^■^■'^^■"•l^'^D ^^^] ^3j^'qi II I let my students go home early. 


letter | '^'^'^l'^^] "'^^3j'^^ || 'The English alphabet has twenty-six letters. 
^||3i'"^^'"-l'J!]'^".v|,^-^^-5J!]W^| -Please write a letter to your friend. ^^'I^N' 


level I ^s^^] ^^'cf^l -si'^sfq] \\ 'What is the writing level in your class? 
^^■c^''^W'3j'5]'l'^'(^g(^'^'cf'^'5''^5'"^3j'3j«^] "The topography here is level in 
some areas and sloping in other areas. '^^■^'1AVc5'P'.P|^'3jMAvRm'5^^5^^ 

liberal | "^^M's^] || She had some liberal ideas about education. 

license | "-l^'^^li^^] || My mother has a driver's license. 

lie I 'f 3jl -f 3j-".iq-qi II 'why did you tell her a lie? (|=^'|^V5'^'|^'pw^-f Sj' 

".iq-q-5S3jl -Don't lie! Tell the truth! f 3j-»l-".iq-q^-q^3j-q-^=^l 
life I n§fq] II Most people want to have a good life. 

lift I f^^JJ^M'^l II Help me lift this box. =;-".V§^5^-q^-q^J!]'NTj!]'N-'|^'^l 
light I '^=^] ^^ II The light in this room is not good. 

lightning | ^^'(^^^1 || The lightning pierced the night sky. 


Uke I 'n^=^l -^5'qi II 'l like to study English. '^'N-^^lsj-^SJ!]-!;;-^^^] "Do you 
have any trousers like these? ji^'"-Vifi=^'|»l''^^'=^=^''^5'qw^'=^»ll 

limit I 'cf'^] "ISk'^^^Sj'^] II 'There is no limit to the number of cups of tea I 
can drink. =;'N'^'^^'S-^5]-q|c,-Ii!]-q-n.Vcf=^-5^=^] "Please limit yourself to two 
bottles of beer. ^^■|'N-1-S=;'^»l'^'Jl]|'^-|-p-™J!]-5^-q^=;-q<^-sf'^-|=;'N| 

line I 5^ II Draw a line on your paper. ^^■^■-^^■g^'^^'§^'5^'^'^'=^=;'] 

link I '|3j'=Jl '^l"-!'^^^ "^ll^'^l I'^'^l II 'He is the link between the two 
sides. p^'J^'N'J!]|'N'q3;'§'|a'qtSS3j| -A bridge links the two villages. 


liquid I ^-Pj^'f^l II The kettle was overflowing with liquid. 

list I ''^■'^^=^■^^■^1 ^ II 'Please list your expenses for last year. 3j'^^'§]''^^ 
5]3j'g''^J!]=;'^^] "We should make a list of what to buy from the store. ^' 

listen I ^aj'^l II Don't listen to what she says. fW)-3-q.P|=^-q^-»l-^3jl 
listen and repeat | ^3j'yq^=^^^'^=;'i!] || As I read the new words please 
listen and repeat. '^'N'g-f '^•^s^'N'f^'^a^-sq!^] ji^'^'^'^3jyqg^'|''^''|^^'-P|Jl] 


listen to | ^aj'^] || Please carefully listen to your teacher. 

little I '^=^'^=^'1 "g'^'^'l II ^My little brother is now a student. =;q-^3j-^=;-q-^-=^- 

<^-^q-»l-^q]-fiS3j| -I want a little chili in my soup. =;q-f^-qq-3j=;-^-q3j-a=;-5-^J!]- 

live I ^^'^3j'fts^'^''33j'i!] 'fS^] II ^They will do a live music performance. 
p^^'N-Tq-=^^!;'N-|-q(gq-'^3j-Jl]^3i-^»l'N-'^3j-q-^Jl]-|^-^-^=^| -Where do you live? 

load I ^p"-!] -|^'^'<^^'^'!^| II ^The yak is carrying a very heavy load. ^^^ 
^'^■p".V=9-5=;-|w^J!]-qf^^-Sr=^l -We will load the wood in the back of the 
truck then leave. !;-S'^-|'^-(^53i-(^|5^-'5r^-(^|^^-f 5]-3^!:;-^--&!:;-S'q^5i]'|'^'(^5"i" 

local I ^'^Sj^'^l ^'^^1 II Those thangkha were painted by local artists. 

lonely | f ^'fi^'] || It was lonely walking on the road at night. 


long I ^^\ II He has very long legs. p^".V;if^=;'q'^!;^W^l 

look I '§'^"-11 '^\ "^'q] II 'This product has a new modem look, gsj'^'^''^^'"-!' 

5!:;>-3;q!5^-^-|_-^a,vq^s):^-q-(^3j| -picasc look both ways before you cross the 

street. ^•".wq^=^'^'q^^q'^'".l»l%"W]'^'J!]|'N''T]^'<^^'^J!] 
look after | q=;J!]'^^'] || When I'm gone, please look after my children. 

look around | n§5".vq] || Please look around your bedroom for the book. 

look at I '^■q] <^^1 II Please look at your book. ji^'|'^-^q-c5'".V'^^-^=;-l 
look by I "\'^'^^\ "\W^^\ "W]'N-3j'^-'^-qq»l-qsf".vqi || Please look by the 
window for your missing watch. 5's^^'"W]'^'3j^'^=^'^^^'l3j'i!^'^'§§=^'^j5=^' 

look for I n§5".vq] || Look for the missing bag in the kitchen. 

look like | qi^Sj'f^^'q] ^^^'q] || You look like your mother. 

look over | ^^'^■5Sl''3'q] || After you look over my shop's merchandise, I 
hope you buy something. ji=^-^'N-=;q-ik-p=;-^-ik^=;-"l-^Jl]'N-^»l-q<^'N-'|'N| ^X^' 


look the same | f^^'q] || You look the same as you did ten years ago. 

lose I q^'q] -Pj^^'q] II The man thought he would lose the bet. 

lot I ^^^] -S¥^^] II 'This lot of students is the best I've ever taught. ^q'»l' 
^=^-q^-^-=;'^-|q-^^-^^-|5-qq-^q-5]<^-5]!^-^-i'N-qg;:,^^3j| -He eats a lot. f'^w 

lots of I si^'q] II There are lots of students in my school. 


loud I (§3'^^'^1) cBSj't^l II The truck engine makes a loud sound. 

love I 'q§''^5^'^] -(^3j] S^'Tq] II 'The love I have for my wife is greater than 
the love I have for myself =;'^-3;!;-S|-'|»l-sr=^-q5=^'N-qq-q|'5S»l'^-^=;-^!^-".V 
q5=;'^-qq-q|'^»l'^-".1'^-i| -I love my mother very much. =^-=^=^-Sj-i3M-»i=^-=9-5=^- 

low I =^»iq'qi II The car is low on fuel. 5|=^'^''^p'^l=^'q'S'|*l'|,''^^3j'S*l'^l 
loyal I %''^'^^\ II She was a loyal friend. 'p^-^J!]'N^^-'^'T|3;-^5|-u^3j] 
luck I ^"-Vq] II We didn't have any luck finding her mother at the 

market. =;-S?k-sf=^-^-3j'S5-^qw»l-^=^-qq-^".vq-»l-^=;-l Good luck to you! g^- 

lunch I ^'^■g'Nl II When did you eat lunch? ^=^-|'N-^=;-g'N-3j5^1'^-q-^3j] 


machine | q^"1'c5'^] || I've never seen a machine like this before. 

mad I 'l^'^'ill -q&!]'q'g'qi|| 'she's not sane, she's mad. pW".V^q=;-§'cdk-s^=^l p^ 
^ i^^^l '^ 8°^ ^° ^^^^ ^^ ^™ because he insulted me. p^'R"l'^s^q' 

madam | 'W^] \\ Madam Wang just had her eightieth birthday. 

•423 • 

mail I ^gJ!]'^J!]'^^^''^p=^] '^^'^1 II ^Did you get any letters in the mail 
today? ^■^^■(3=^'".vg^'"^^'^^'i^''^^^] 'I will mail your package when I 
go to the post office tomorrow. '^'^■|3i''^'|^'|^'P'^'S'|;3j'3j'^'=^'^'^^'^Y'^ 

main | ^1^ || She bought some stamps at the main post office. 

major | '^S'g^l '^^l^l/^^l II 'is English your major area of study? 

=^^'"^J!]'3j'|5=^'^'£5=^'|^'q^]q'^'^3j'3j5^] "I major in Tibetan language and 

literature. '^^=^-|-^^-«SJ!]-=^^-f5^-^J!]-i=^-|=;-|=^l 
majority | s^^'-Pj^] || The majority of students wanted to have a party at 

the school. ^q-5^-s^=;-?f^-|'N-^q-5!q-3j=;-s-Wi''^'N-^J!]-niJi]-q^=^l 
mal^e | "^l^j "-1^] q^"^!] || Do you know how to make bread? (i^'^'N'^'^'^''^^' 

"•I'^-^qf'^-q-^i'^-'^sil How do you make milk tea? ^^■|'^-'T^|-'^^-q^".vq-^3j- 

malie faces | p'J!]a=^'g'J!]a=^] || Don't make faces at your classmates. 

male l"^ || Men are male. I^N-q'^^^Sj] 

man | l^^'q] || I am a man. '^•^•|'N'q'^J!]'«S3j] 

many | ^^ 'S^^'q] || 'How many oranges do you want? |i^'".Vcf'^'5^'^'^5]' 

^^^] "Many people want to learn English all over the world. '^^s^'^^' 

map I ''^■[^1 '^■(^"-V'^^^'^] II 'The map of China looks like a rooster. ^^'^^^ 

'^ W^^^''^^^^'^51 '^^ ^ill i^^P th^t remote county next year. ^'wN' 

march | =;t|R^=;] S^^'^S'^S''^] q-Pj^'q] || The soldiers learn how to march in 

a Ime. =^5i^-9^-^5^^t'^''^9^'f^'^''^^'l'i'^'|^1 
March | |'^'J!]^s^'q] || March is a windy month. 


mark | '^^'N] '^^'S]'^'^! ^^^■»l-^J!]-q] || 'What is that mark on your arm? 

^^'¥^9'^''^^'^'^'^'^^'^'^%^'^^'"^^'^*"1 'He got a good mark on the test. 
p^'^^'^'^^^'q^^'q'i^^'q^^] ■'The teacher said that she would mark our 
examinations tomorrow. ^^■^3j'|,'N'p^'^''^^'|3j'^'§f^'^J!]^'".V^=^'s^'^J!]'^'«Saj' 


market | ^'^^] "HsSk'q] || ^What kind of things do they sell in the 
market? S§k'^q'3j^'^'p'§f'N'5'^J!]''^cf^'] "We can market our greenhouse 
production in town. '^■sf^'=^'i^'5=^-p=^'Sl^3j'f '^■^=;-q^".V3j'^-qsf=;-^qi 

marry | JJ^aaj'S^l] || That woman is going to many my brother. 

mass I c&]'^l II A great mass of flies gathered on the dead sheep. 
material | ai'c51 || Wool is strong material for a coat. 

I :^ 1 II o 

matter | ^^3j] "^'^^ || ^What's the matter with you? |i=^'".V%'^3j] 'I have a 
matter to discuss with you in private. ^■'^l'|5=^'^^'^J!]'y5]^'qa=^'g'^' 

may | I'^^q] || May I help you? =;'N-^=^-".v'^J!]'N-|=^-^q-q»ll 

May I p-^-^l II May is m sprmg. ||-'^-qt=^|=^-'1^3il 

maybe 1 1^1 || Maybe I will be a nurse. =^'^=^'3j^'^"5i!j-5J!]-|^-3j-^J!]'^-^J!]'N-s^=^] 

mayor | (5!^'(i^'5,) '^^''^^3j] || Who do you think will be appointed mayor 

of this town? ^=^'|'^-q'^'^-3j-^-^J!]-^=;-q^".vq^q-q^q^3j-s-q^^-^=^l 
me I '^'l II Don't laugh at me! '^'"•l''^'^3]'^'*l-|^l 
meal | 3^] || When can we have a meal together? 

mean | "^j '(^"-VS^^j || ^What does 'apple' mean in Chinese? ^■^^'^'Sj^' 

'^■.P|'i^-q-5-^J!]-".V^ -Don't be mean to your sister. ^!;-S]-|=;-5r^-(g".VS^=^-»l- 

measure | cf'^■'^^".l■q] || Do you have a way to measure the size of this 

meat | -P| || Is there meat in this dish? g'^-q^q-3j=;-S-.P|-2r=^-=^»ll 
medicine | gSj] || Did the doctor give you any medicine for your cold? 

meet | si^q-q] ^J!]-q] ||When can we meet? =^-S?3j»l-sf=^-»l^".V^qi 

meeting | ^^'^''^l^'^^^l || 'Where shall we have our meeting? ^■i^'^'J]'^)- 

'^^^fi ''IS^^l '^ ^'^ ^^^ S^^^ ^° ^^ meeting all my old friends 
again. '^■^'^■Si'^J!]'N^^3j-q-".vqk-|,'^^q^^-^=;-q-".v=;-^q-y^J!]qi 
melt I qi^'q] II The weather is so warm, perhaps the ice on the lake will 

melt. ajsi'i'^^'s^^^q^Nj »i^^=;-5]-sq''^5^'q(g'3j-^Ji]'N-^Ji]'N-s^=^| 


member | ^'5^] '^'^I's^] || Are you a member of the basketball team? 

memorial | ^^'^Sj'S'^^'] || They built a large memorial to remember those 
who died in the war. 

memory | "^=^■'^^3jl || That student has such a good memory for numbers. 

men | ^^'ij'^si^] || The men take a bath in this room. 

mend | Msi'^] q^s^'q] || Please mend my socks. (i=^-|'N-=;q-qqq-q^»l-Tj!]s)] 
mercenary | =^".V".B'p'3j''^5^^'i!] || His motives for working were purely 

mercenary . p'^-^-q-".l'N-qq™-^=;-^-^5".Vf^^-p^3j-5^»l'N-q-^-^=^l 
mercy | S^'^] || The fox had no mercy for the chicken. 

message | ^5^] \\ Did you want to leave a message? 

metal | 'S^'^] || The bridge is made out of strong metal. 

method | ^qM] || What is the best method for teaching English? 

meter 1 1|^] || I am one and a half meters tall. ^^■^^J!]'^'q^'^!;'^=^' 

microscope | ^'s^gRS^Jlj'-Pl",!] || A microscope helps the eye see very small 

objects like bacteria. 

middle | =^^".ll || The boy sitting in the middle of the picture is my 

brother. '^5-q^-|,-=^|".V^€j!]-«r=^-q^-^-"S-'^-^-^^-^^^3jl 
middle school | Jiq^'^g^'] || The nearest middle school is in the county 

town. gJ!]'i'Nyq'S'^q''^|=^'^'fkwyS5'^] 

militant | qsaj'^] n|gJ!]'§'=^'".V(^3j'i!] || The general's speech was full of 
militant ideas. =^s^J!]'=^q3j%J!]^=^'q.P|=^'3j=;'n(|J!]'f'=^''^V(^3j'q'l''^'q'^'p'^'^'qs^ 

military | '^m^m] '^^^'=fi'^] ^^l^^^j'!,! II The military life is full of 
hardship. ^»lJ!]'5]<^-nafq'^'=^'Tjq-pqj-i| 

milk I 'frsij -qi^qj || 'Yak milk is rich. '^|^''^»l'^'g5^'|,^'§^ 'My mother 


will milk the yaks then collect dung. =;q-i3M-»is)-q|-Sfq(^s]-1s]-|-q-q|-s-$!^] 
mind | '^^^^'^ "^s^M^^M'^^^'^!] || ^Our teacher has a very open mind. ^^' 
=^^'^3j%q'N5^'q'^=;'Nl -Do you mind if I smoke? =^M'g'»lJ!]''^g3j'^'^=^'^'N' 

mine | ^^iq] '^^'f^] ^5i]^^'(^^3^'q| || ^This book is mine. =^^'c5''^^'^'=;'l'^3j| 
"There is no gold mine in this country. ^".vpq''^=^'3j'J!]^=^'^'^^=^'p's^=^] 
^ The plan is to mine copper in those mountains. (^S^'Jn<3'3;'^'!>'!>sn'sn' 

mineral | ^M] || There are many types of minerals in Qinghai. 

minister | g'S'^^j] || The Minister of the Education Department is a very 
busy person. ^q'J!]Wg'3t^"^(5J]:;-^"5^"=9"5=;'|".vq'53j'^J!]'5S3j] 

minor | ^^Sj'&l]^] S'^'S'^ "^^"^^l II ^I'l^ ^'^^ concerned with minor 
problems. =;'N-J!]3j=^^3j-^aj-iJ!]'N-^5^'N-".V^5^'N-(g".V5^-|,=^l 'Until you are an 
adult you are a minor. 5^'^=^'s^^'^3j'^J!]'q=^'S'|5^'3j'aj'J!](^3j'(^J!]'^3j] 

minority | gj^^'RR] || Tibetans are one of China's minority populations. 


minute | ^^'^ \\ I will come to your room in a minute. 

miss I '^^■'^l "^^'S'SJ'*^!^*^'^! II ^I'm going to miss school when it is over. 
^q-^<^-q;^-q|$K,-^q!N-^-!;sj-^q-^-53j-»-$!^| -I'm sure ITl miss the target 
because it is so far away. (^q3i-g5;|-^!;-^-2r!^-q!^-5;!:;-^!^-(^q3^-aj-5q|-s]-^q-q- 

Miss I 2j^'5^] II Miss Li teaches us French. 

missile | »l'-P|J!]^''^=^'5^=;'^] || They launched a missile that will go to the 

moon. p¥'N^'qq'^=;''^^'qq'9j'-P|J!]'^''^^'»i=^'T^J!]'q^=;'l 
missing | q^'q] J!]=^'^RS^=;'q] || Her brother was missing from school 

yesterday. p5q-a^p-'N=;-^q-5!-3j'^-J!]^-»r=;-s^=^-q^-^^l 
mistake | aj^^'^^l^"-!] || I made a mistake. ^^■3j=^''^|g".V(^^'".l^] 
mix I qsj^'^^l II Milk mixed with tea is a common Tibetan drink. 

mmm | i^iaj] || Mmm, this tastes good, ilviaj] q^-^5^^5;:^| 
mob I 5^'S'^^I II A loud and angry mob of people raided the store. 


moderate | 'J!]^5^'i!] -(^•qRJj^M'^'Ji^^Rq] || 'This area has a moderate chmate 
during the summer. M'c5''^=^=^'=^^^'p=^'3j5^'^'^^5^'^'(^^'"^=^l "Ive been asked 
to moderate the discussion. ^■".vg]^'p'^'i^''^^^^'^'Jl]^^'q^'^'q'q^3;'H=^'] 

modern | =;^'=^q^] || I like to read books about modem times. 

mom (mummy) | ^^\ || My mom worked late last night. 
moment | ^^'cB] "^S'^^^] || I'll leave in a moment. 

Monday | J!]gq^'q] || I start work on Monday. 

money | q^^'s^] || I don't have much money. R",Vg^=^'si'S^Rq'»l^] 
monk I 5!'qi || There are many monks at that temple. 

monkey | W\\ || I saw a monkey in the zoo. 

month I ^'q] II Which month do you like best? 

moon I ^'q] II The moon is beautiful tonight. ^■=^J!]^'J!]'^'q'=9'5^'«^¥«)] 
more | "2^ =;'".i^'5^Rq] || I don't need more money. 

morning | f'^] || I do some exercises in the morning. 


most I s^^'-Pj^] II Most of my classmates are Tibetan. 

mother | '^\^\ \\ My mother died last year. =;qw»l-3j-^=;-Jf".l'^-q=^'Nl 
motion | ^s^^''^^^] || She danced with such smooth motions. 

mountain | ^'q] || We didn't have time to climb to the top of the 

mountain. '^■§f^^^'|^''^fJ!]'N-qq-S^-§f^-»l-^=;-l 
mourn | '^'^^j'^S'^^l %'^3j] || 'We all mourned the passing of our 

grandmother. '^■§fcf=^'»l'^-=;-iq-|Wq=^M-q^-^-=;3j-^^l "Now that the period 

of mourning has passed for our deceased father, we can attend 


parties. '^■'^■'^■c§^'^'=^»l'i!'S'^'=;3j-|,-S^-q=^'N-q'Nl =;-sf|1SJ!]'N-".V(g'^'N-IJ!] 
move I '^'^1 '^^"-V^l 'Sj^'^l II 'The move to my new apartment required 

one week. ^'l'-P|^'cf^'^^=^'q^'3j^'=;'^=^'q'".vq=;3j'J!]5^''^^=^l "Please move 

over so I can sit down. ^^■^^■S'>''>'^'>'?^'?i'^^^l 
movie | ^^'^S^j] || I didn't like the movie. R^J!]'q53j'^'".VS^'=^J!]'^] 
Mr. (Mister) | ^''^^'^1 || Mr. Jones came to your classroom yesterday. 

Mrs. I 'W^] II Mrs. Sgrol ma teaches us Tibetan. 

Ms. I Sj'^'s^] II Ms. Smith is our English teacher. 

mucli I ^^'^1 S''^^! '\il II I don't have much knowledge of the history of 
Portugal. g'3-g'q^q-"r^'^-|-^^-aj'^-=;-".V-Pi'N-^-»l=;^s^:^] -How much does this 
cost? q^q-^3j-^=;-^-^5]tS|3j| 

mum I '^s^ II My mum is a bus driver. 

mummy (mommy, mom, mum, motlier) | i?>is^] || My mummy is a 
doctor. =;q-l3M-»l-^-||3j-q-^J!]-«|3j] 

murder | '5]'J!]^=;'?3;'^3;] -q^^'^'i!] || ^There has never been a murder in 
this town. ^=;'q^".vq^q'3j=;'5]'J!]'^^'^'^3^'|3i'^J!]'J!]^3j'3j'^'^=;'»l'^!;'l 'He made 
me so angry that I wanted to murder him. p^'^'p^'ig'^'f^^'f^l^^'^'q^Jl^'Sj^' 

music I ^"I'S^^^l II I love to listen to music on the radio. 

must I ^'^■'J^'^;] II I must see you this evening. 

mustn't I 5^'c5^'^] ^^3j'aj^'^=^'s^'^^'q] || You mustn't leave your home 
alone. ^^■^'^■J!]5J!]'g^'«J".V^=;'qg".V5^'IJ!] You mustn't tell him about the 
problem at school. J5^'|'N-^q-5]q-3j=;-^-J!]3j=^^3j-^<^-S5;-p^n,vq^^3j-3js]-q^:^-9)-^^^ 
mutton I '^^'-Pj II Mutton is now very cheap. ^■'^■'5^'-P|^'^3j'J!]^'=9'3^A]] 
my I =^^1 II This is my book. ^^■^■=;q'^^'c5'«S3Jl 
myself | ^'^■|=^1 || I hurt myself with the knife. =^'^-^'s)-3;:;-^:^-|^!5^| 
mystery | ^'^^■=^'']q■q] || It is a mystery how the books were stolen. 


N naked | ^5=^'g=^l || The baby slept naked in his mother's 
anns. |M-q-^f^-i3M-5^q-q!^-^-J!]5^-g^-i^".ll 
name | ^9l=^'l -5^=;-q|-qi || 'What is your name? 
(i^'^'5^^'".V5'(^^'3=^] "Can you name aU of China's provinces, 
autonomous regions, and special economic zones? (5^'^'^' 

nation | 5"-Vpq] || Chma is a very large nation. ^^■^■3j'g".vpq'c53j'i!'(^J!]'"^3j] 
nature | '^'^■q^aj] -^=;-^=;-p»l'^l || 'She has a kind nature. fS^^'^'^-q^aj-q^si^ 
^^W^l -Trees are a beautiful part of nature. ^^^^■^'^■^'^■psi'N-l-'^qn.l-Sraj- 


navy | 5^cf^»l^ || The British used to have the largest navy in the world. 

near | ^'q] n^^N'^] "Wj^N'^] || Please sit near the fire, s^q-nw]'^-^-^^-'^'^-] 
nearly | ^"1'c5^1 || I learned nearly all the new words. 

necessary | =^^'^■'J1 ^J!]^'^M] || Do you feel it is necessary to talk like that? 

need | ^^^] \\ I don't need any help. =;-".V^J!]'s)-^»i-|-u^!;-|2^-5^-:^q^s]| 
need never | J!]^3j'3j^'»l'=;J!]^] || You need never say that again. 

negotiate | 5]^'s^"1] || The businessmen negotiated a good price for the 

land. cf'^'q'^s^'N'^'N''N'J!]^'^'^3j'3]k-qg!;^^J!]-y^'^-sr".v^'^] 
neither | "^^'Sl^'i!] || She has neither money nor food. 

nerve | 'sq^'g] '^^^'^l II ^When he cut his foot he injured a nerve, p'^'^z;,' 
5|'jfi=^'=J'Jli5^'^q^'^q^'g'^J!]'|]M] "It took a lot of nerve for him to question 
the leader's motives at the public meeting. |'q|^£!]^'§&]^'n=;q'^R|^!^'q^ 


neutral | q^^'^aj^] q^R^s^'^] || He said he felt neutral about the situation. 

never | J!]^3j'3j^'5^ (=^J!^J!^'S|)| || I never saw that movie. 

new 1 5ij5)3^-q| II My coat is new. =;q-^=^-^'^-^-Jl]'N^-q-«J3i| 


New Year | ".VJ!]'^=^] || What will you do during the New Year holiday? 

news I ^^l^'^^^l II Did you hear the news about China today? 

next I ^-ajM] ^iI'Imi II What will we do next? ^q''|'^'=;'6fM%'^J!]'|=^'=^^'^| 
next day | ^'^Sj] || The next day he again did not go to school. 

next time | g^^'^^'s^] || Next time we have lunch together I'll pay. 

next to I ^^'N'^l '^'N'^l II Who sits next to you? (i=^'|''^^'^'^'^'^f =^'^=^1 
next year | "-V^'^'s^] || Next year I will be fourteen. 

" 1 ^^ 2^ ^^ II K 

nice I ^^^] 'ff':^] -<^si^ \\ 'Nice to meet you. (l=^'=^'^''^^=^'3j'N'=^^'^'^'^'^'l 

"This mutton soup is nice. '^J!]'.P|'S'[^'q''^^'(^5^'i!''^J!] 
niglit I sicfaj's^] II When night came his tooth was more painful. 

niglit-time | s^cfej'^^] || I sleep during the night-time. »lcf3j'S'^'=;'^=;'^".l] 
nine | 'm \\ My sister is nine. =;q-|=;-5?w=^^-^3j] 
nintli I ^^'q] II Her ninth birthday was last week. 

no I (^^^'§^1) 5^3jl m] II No, I don't want to go to the store, s^aj] '^■^'^'sSk'p'^'^' 

q|^5^-q^2^] No, I don't want any. s^aj] =;-".V5'«^=;-5^-=^3]'^l 
No. (number) | i^mr^j^^]] || I'll buy No. Seven. '^'N-i^M'^-q^aj-qy^-^ajl 
no longer | §5j'^|5^M'5^'^=^'i!] ^^'S'^'^S'^l || I no longer study English. 

no problem | |3j'«^^'=^l ^aj=^^3j-5^^-q] =^'T]q-q's)-5^3j-q| II It's no problem for me 

to help you study. ^'^■|'^q'|=^'"l''^^'^'^«^'|=^'|'^'=^'^'^'"-l^V-^^'9^ajl 
nobody | s^'s^^'^l] || Nobody came to see me last night. 


noise | !3^'§31 || There was so much noise from the thunder last night. 

nominate | ^^^j'^^p^-l'l^^^'il] ^^'^(^^'^^'^l || I'm going to nominate her for 

class monitor. '^'^■p^'^f3j-^^-'^^J!]^-5-q^q(^J!]-|=^-|'NW^l 
noodles | ^JI]'^] || I want noodles for lunch. =^'N-^=;-g'N-".V^'^-q-q|=;-^-«Saj| 


noon I ^3j'f|^'l II We usually eat lunch at noon. ^■§?^'=;'^'^3j'^3j'^^'aq^'«l' 

normal | S5j''33j] || It is normal to want to eat food every day. 

north I ^^'§^^1 II Grassland is in the north of the valley. 

Northeast | ^^'-Pj^] || Liaoning is in Northeast China. 

northerly | ^^\\^5^'^1 II We walked in a northerly direction, ^ft 

Northwest | S^'^^'l || Gansu is in Northwest China. 

nose I II II My nose is cold. =i^'|''^(i^'^^^l 

not I (=^J!]J!]'a]) s^] 3^=^] s^aj] II Not everyone wanted to do it. 

not at all | J!]^aj-3i'N-9J=^-=^=;-5^3j-q| II When she said, "Thank you," I said, 
"Not at all." 


note I ^q^-^q] '^^'^'^] II ^Please take a note to my friend. =;q-^J!]'N^^-q^-5)qj- 
S^'^^fi^'^^^l 'I couldn't read the notes on the sheet music. ^^l'§^'^^^^' 

nothing | %'^'^] \\ I understood nothing he said. =;'^-p''^-q.P|=^-q-5-^=;-=9-qy»l-'^=;-] 
November | ^'^'^§'^5^''^1 || It begins to get much colder in November. 

now I ^■'S] II Now I am learning how to write Tibetan. 

nowhere | ^ajM's^^'^^] ^^'"-l'^^'] || The poor man had nowhere to sleep that 

night. =^^=;'Sl^^l!;^-n.V^n.V'Nq'J!]aj'N'S^2^] 

nuclear | ^^'5"^] || Nuclear weapons are extremely dangerous. 

number | i3MR5]^m| || Three is a special number. 

nurse | 3j^'^"^^ || I want to become a nurse when I grow up. 


O o'clock I ^V'^lcSk] II At four o'clock we go home. 
obey I pr'^V^aj'i!] || The sons didn't obey their father. 

object I '^^'^ II A ball is a round object. ^=;-":v^-=^T^^S,n,vS,n,v^qj-;!^3j| 
observe | '3'^] || She only likes to observe basketball games. 

occupy I Sq^'^l ^si'^^^Sjl '^^Sj'q^^'g,^;'^!] II He knows how to occupy his time 

well. ^'^•^'^•^•^^•§f'^'R'<^^'=^s^''^%|,=^'=^3f^'=J^'S^"'J]'^'^"q^^^ 
ocean | g'^S] || It takes many days to drive to the ocean from here. 

October | ^'^'q^'q] || How many days are in October? 

of I ('^|"-V|^^'^=^1) "I'^l II She is the best of all the students, p^-^q'siq-jji^- 

off I (^^''^^'Nl) »lcf»l'^-J!]5'^-qi c5=^'qi II The light is off ^^■cB^^'^T^;-] 
offer I gaj't^l II I tried to offer him my coat because he was cold. p<^'^'5^' 

office I J!](g=;-|^q-p=;-i || My office is here. =;q-J!](g=;-|^q-p=;-q^-3j-sr^] 
officer | S^^Sj'^l] || Is your father an officer in the army? 

official I '^^^^l II Did the official say that it was OK? 

often I S'^'^SJl II I often speak English. '^'^'^'^'§3j'S'=^|;Sj-^=^-|31 
oh I ^ II Oh, is it really true? ^ '^'^^■^3^^'^3^'f^^3(3^si] 
Oh dear! | ^ =^%5^IJ!]'J!]^»l'srM'5^(i3jl || Oh dear! I can't believe it is true! 

oil I |*llT|*ll II We need more cooking oil. =;-sf=^-g'N-|»l-=^-S=;-»l=;^^^'^] 
OK I "^1 II OK, we will do what you suggest. ^] '^^'^^'^^'^%'^-ff^'^^'i^^] 
old I ^'N'q] II My grandmother is very old. =^'^'^'»l'=9'5=^'^'N'qSJ!] 
on I %^ 'P''^^'^! II ^The book is on the desk. ^^■c5'5J!]%''i^wy«r2^1 'Please 

turn the radio on. |'?=^''^p'^''^^'P'|'^^'l 
on duty | "I'^'^^'^l || My father was on duty last night at the hospital. 

•43 3 • 

on foot I ^'^^'^] II I went on foot to the shop. =;-§f§?k-p=;-^^-if^=;-g=;-S^=;-q-5S3j] 
on the way home | '^".V^;'".!^'^^'".!^^'^] || On the way home I fell and hurt 

my wrist. t^'^vs'"W]'qq'f\is^'S'=^'^!;'g=;''^vq|,'^V3j'N''^5n-q<^-5^j|j!]-s^-|]'Ni 
once I g^'^■^P|^!] || I once was very sick. g^^'.P|^'".V^'=^^'=9'5^'3j'^^'] 
one I ^3^ II One day later he was well again. 

only I f^ajl »l-J!]yJ!]'^l II I only want this book. '^■".V=^q'c5''^^'p^3j'=^3f)l 
open I ^"^^^'=^1 "'^S''^! II ^ After a policy of economic reforms was 

implemented the country became more open. S'^^-V'^^^'qs'^'g^'^'^^'^'^' 
".1J!]-q^^-^^-|'Nl ^"•Vpq'^'l^'^'^'N-^-'^';-] "Please open the window. 5'»1'|' 

operation | ^J!].P|J!]^'q5^] "q=^J!]'J!]^^] || 'l must have an operation next 
week. J!]gq-qp'^-'|'N-»l^-=;-".V^'^-q^-S-J!].P|J!]'^-q5'^-|=^-=^3]''^l -Our financial 
operations require several accountants. ^■*l'=;i!".V'^^^'q^J!]'J!]ft=^'".V§''^' 

opinion | "S'q] || In his opinion everyone should get a good education. 
|*i'^''3'q=^'s^'=^'=^=^A]q'J!]^'qg^'q'(^J!]'ngq'=;J!]^] I have a good opmion of you. 

oppose I ^'^"-l] II I don't mean to oppose you but I really don't agree. 

opposite I "i^^l II The opposite of 'black' is 'white.' 

oppress I q53j'^".l] || Sometimes stronger animals like to oppress weaker 

ones. ^q'^-q5!]==^-^-^J!]'N-q5aj^^-^-^J!]'N-233j-s?n.vq5aj-'^n,v|=^] 
or I '^^'S\ II Do you want coffee or tea? ^=^-".Vf^-|-=^^^-'N»l-wi!;-3j-^2^q^^)] 
orange | ^^^^\ -^^^\ \\ 'The orange was spoiled, cf'^'si'^'^^-lisjl "Her 

orange jacket was easy to see from far away. 

orbit I ''^p^'^'^is^l '^^'qj f^p^^'q] II 'The earth's orbit around the sun has 
been carefully studied. |-»i^-q^^-qq-'Nq-^".iq-qp'^-".l»l-".v^q-q|J!]-^q-s?^^- 
2^^! "The planets orbit the sun. ^■^^■^»l'Ny»l^-q^^-3j'N-q'p^l 

orchestra | '^3^'S^"-l'^"-ra'^'^'p^ || Ten musicians were in the orchestra. 


order | ^^%m] -^^'^^'^^-ok^^] ^^^ '^^^^3^'^^] \\ 'Put your things in 
order. |i^'^'=^^M'^'^5^^'^'=^s^''^=^'(^^ "Please order your books and other 
belongings so that your room looks neat. ^=^'^'=^^'c5'=^^'^^^^^i^3i'^'^^' 
g]f^'^^^^'q(^J!]'3j'N-(i=^-|-p=;-q-q5'T=^J!]-ygk'Nl ^I must obey my leader's 

order. =;'sj-:;q-qqy||;^-|-q;Tjq-^s]-q^-c-|-q'^-q3j-:^qj's)| 4"j oj-^gj- yo^ ^q ^.qj^q ^q 

class on time," the teacher told the tardy student. ^^^'^^j'^MAiq's^'g^' 
organize | ^^a^l^'q] g''^^^'^^'^] || I can't organize my thoughts. 


other I ^(^3jl II Do you want the other one? |i^'".V^(^3j'^'^'=^^^'^5^1 
our I ^'c^l II This is our home, '^^'^'^'c^'^s^'^aj] 
ours I '^'c^l II This basketball is ours. as^-lj^-^^q^'^^'S^qtSSaj] 
ourselves | ^■*^^'^^1 || We cleaned the room by ourselves. 

out I ^] II He threw the paper out the window. p^'-^^'g'^'5S^^'%5''^'>'^| 
out of I ll II I walked out of the classroom, '^'^'^'^^f'^'^'l'^'lsjl 
outside I ^1 II Outside it was colder than inside. ^■"^■3j«^^'3j^'".l^''^|5J!]^] 
over I '^"-vq] »l5J!]-fj!]'N-qi -^'^■aj'^l ^5i-?aj-^| || 'class is not over yet. ^^'^=^'=^' 
^R5^'5]n,l] "I don't think I can jump over this river. ^^^^!^^'^'^S^^^'^^^^^^ 
'^m'^-^dw^^^q-^:^-^'^'^] ^I live just over that mountain, z^'^'^'^i^'q'?*^' 

over there | 'i'^^] \\ I live over there. =;-^=;-s5-S^^-q^=^-Sr=^l 

owe I c5=^■'J] II How much money does he owe you for those potatoes? 

own I '^^'^1 ^'^^'^^'^l '^^^'^1 II ^This is my own home that my father left 

me when he died. q^-^-=^-^=;-§l-p=;-q-^l l3M-s^-^-"1'S)-q:^5j-^qs]-:;-a,vq(^q^-qi^3j] 

'That family doesn't own their house. |5S^■cf^■^'S■p^■q■p■cf^■".l■«^■=^q^■] 

Ppage I '?ii!]-5]=;'^l ^i^^^] II 'Turn to page ten. ?ji!]-5]=;'^-qf q-".V 
^'^l 'If you page through the book, you will see that it 
contains a number of spelling mistakes. (iS'^'^'S^'cB'^^^'^'^'^sn' 

^1 ^(^■3j=^'^'^J!]^^'»i=^^w^'q'^=^'^qi 

pain I 3j'|^ II The doctor tried to stop the pain. 


paint I ^s^^'^l sill 'Every year we paint the outside of our house. "l'^=^' 
^■§f'N'p^'q'l'|,'?'^'^'|"q^] "The red paint was cheaper than the blue 
paint. |'=^«^^''^'|'|3j^'"-l'N'^'^'5]l 

pair I cB] II I bought this pair of shoes last month. 

palace | '^'^^] \\ The king and queen lived in a beautiful palace. 

pamplilet | Sq'^'>l || Have you seen a pamphlet describing the new 

school? (|=^'|'N-^q'5!^'^3j'N-#^vqp=^-qq-^q-^=;-^J!]-»i=;-=;»il 
pan I 5^=>'a^^| || We need a big pan to cook all the meat. 

panda | =^«^] || That panda is black and white. ^5^'^'3j'=^'T]=^'3jJ!]'|^|g'"^3j] 

paper | -Pj^'g] || I don't have any paper. R",V.P|J!]'g's^^] 

parade | '|gs^'^=^] "(^s^'^^'^S''^] || 'On May first we always have a parade. 
|l-<^-qq-Jg''N-J!]5J!]-'^V=;-§f'N-^3j-q^-(g»l-^^-^J!]-|=^l -We will parade down main 
street and then return to our school. ^■^'^■Jl](5^''^l5^'q^=;'ai^'^'a^'^^'^^' 

pardon | '=^J!]^^'^J!] -=^J!]^^'=^J!]'(a'q] || 'l beg your pardon, I didn't hear what 
you said. ^^^^'N'^Jljw'^Jl]'^] =;'^-^=^-|'N%-^J!]-q.P|^-q-3f»l-'^=;-l "The governor 
refused to pardon his crimes so he was executed. ^=^'q'k''^'!y'^»J'=;^'?j'^»j'q' 

parent | ^^^s^'si] || After my father died I only had one parent. 

parents | ^'Si] \\ My parents are both teachers. =;q'S5'si'J!]|'^''T]-2^q]-^3j-^3j] 
parents-in-law | ^'N'^l'S^'^'N's^] || My parents-in-law live in Rebgong. 

park I 'I'l'^'l ^=^'=J(5j=^'^-qp'^-'5i!]'^)l || 'l went to People's Park last 

Sunday. g!;!^-|3j-»iq-J!]gqy»l-|3j-=;-^=;-5^-=^»l=;'N-|-|=;-S^=;-l -Please park your 

car here. ^'^■|'^^'^''^p'^''^^'5'^^l 
parliament | g"l'^Ml || Britain uses a parliamentary system of 

government. =^|;3j-|-^'^vpq-|'N-^'^V§&]'Ni^-qq-|^-|;;-»l-'5J!]'^-^J!]-".iq]-q^^-|=^l 
part I S-ffi] II Which part of this bread do you want? 

partly | ^S'^s^j || She recognized that the accident was partly her fault. 


party | ^s1&]M] '^^'p^ || 'We will have a party in our classroom this 
afternoon. ^■^'^■|^^'=^'§f'N-^=;-^q-^q-p=^-3j=^-S-W6&]'N-^Jl]-q6&]-^^ "I don't 
know very much about America's political parties. i^M's^'^'pq'cBq'jj^s'^R 

pass I '^^'^ ti^^l '^^^1 II ^That mountain pass was an important military 
location many years ago. ".V5^^'q'S'^aj'".V=^'q'l'^J!]'J!]'^'3j'=;5^Jl]'=;g^'Jl]'Jl]3j^'5n(a' 
J!]".vi3j-^J!]t^3jl -Please pass the salt. c^-^^Tj!]'N1 

passage | '^Sl^-Vqi^S] || It was a long passage by ship to America from 
England. =^|;3j'l'aj'N'i3M-^<^-q^'§-5]S-(^aj-n.l»l-gJ!]-S,!;-| 

passenger | ".W5^5]3j] || The passenger gave the ticket to the conductor. 

passport I f^W^J!] "^l^'ji^l II He thought he had lost his passport. 

past I f ^1 '^=^'^■^] II In the past I did not study English. 

path I "l*l'^3j] II There is a lovely path going through the forest. 

pay I =^3j'S=;'i!] II I didn't have to pay much money for these shoes. 

pea I SjSj's^l II A small green pea fell off her plate onto the floor. 

peace | ^^'^^^J!]^] i^'q^;] || There was not much peace to be found in the 

middle of town. ^'^'^^"-v|,'^|"-1'^'|'^''^^^'N'^=^'=^'^^l 
pear | •Pj'^y!]-"^! || The yellow pear fell on the floor. ^'^yij-'^-^^^^-'N^-™';-] 
peas I SjSj's^l II Many children don't like to eat peas. 

pen I l^'^'l^ II This pen wasn't expensive. '^J!]^'|J!]''^^'S'^3j'J!]^'5^'i] 
pencil I (^'1^ II Please sharpen my pencil. ^q'(^'|J!]'J!](^J!]'^] 
pencil-box | S^q^^l II I bought this pencil-box in that shop. 

penfriend | S^'5!^'^l II I have a penfriend in New Zealand. 

people I sij =;»1^^'S'^^| II I like to be with other people. 


percent | q^'cB'l'cf'^l || What percent of students graduate from this 

school? ^q'5!''^^'".i'N-^q'5^'q§'c5^'^'5^g^'|;3j-sr=^l 

perfect | '^'^I'S'^'^'^l ^■»l'N-»l-^^-qi || ^That is a perfect answer to that 
question. S'5i'5'"-13j'g".VS'^^'q'(^J!]'^^] "Over time I hope to perfect my 
singing style. ^'^■|''^^^'=^'^'q^5j'3j'Nl '^'^■^^■^■^■"JSj-^^'N^s^'N-s^-qf^-q-^J!]-^- 

perhaps | 23=^] (g^'^'(g^^'5^=^'^l || Perhaps it would be better if I didn't 

come tomorrow. '^■^^■'N^-|3j-5^-'q=;-3j-qg^-^^-|=^l 
period | ^-Pj^] \s^] \\ ^Always put a period at the end of a sentence. ^^' 

^3j'^=^'-P|^'5^'p^| "Our class period is over at two p.m. ^'^'^'^SI'I,^'^' 

permanent | J!]^3j''^^^'^] "^Sj'^^^'l || They decided to make a permanent 
change in the school rules. f^§f'^-^q-^q-^J!]-".W-g=^-t^3j-R=^-5]-q5'^-q|^-|=^-^- 


permit | '^^'s^cBaj] ^^'s^cBSj'^^^'qi || 'You need to get a permit to build that 
building. ^^■|'N-p=;-q-^-q|j!]-q^-IJ!]-»lc53j'^J!]'"i3j'^^'^l "Please permit me to 
miss class tomorrow because I need to go to the hospital to see my 
sick father. =;-||3j-p=;-s-3j-q^3j-qq-i3M-s5-".vq<^-^-q^=^3]'^-q'Nl '^■".v'N=;-|3j-^q-(|=^-".v 

person | 5^] || What person would want to go out in a storm like this? 

plione I 'p-q^-J!]y;-qi -p-q^i II 'Please phone me. '^■".vp-q^-Jljy^-Kjij'Nl "Does 

your family have a phone? ^=^'cf^'".vp'q=^W^'^s^] 
plioto I ^^^'^] II This photo was taken in Xining. 


pliysics I S^^''3^'^l II Physics is the study of the laws of motion. 

piano \'^W=^] \\ She played the piano beautifully. fW)-|^-^3j-sr^^|=;-=^^".ll 
pick l''^^^! "^q".vqi ^q^^'q] || 'l used a pick to dig through the stony earth. 

^^l-qT^'l^l^^l-q^^l] "Don't pick at your whiskers. (i=^'|'p'^'»l''^q"-ll 'l 

will pick apples this afternoon. ^'^'^'l^^'^^'^'^'-PI'^y'T^'^SJl 
picnic I 'g'^!]'^^'] "cd^'g^'q] II 'We went to the mountain for a picnic. ^'Ib 

^■qJlj^'S'Jij^^'"l'^^'q'«]aj| "I don't like to picnic where there is a lot of 


garbage. J!]=^'|j!]'N'»l!;^q^''N5;-:;s,va^-^q^-5^-q^| 
picture | ^^'Si\ "aj'^''^'(^5^'q| || 'This picture was painted one hundred 
years ago. =^'«^''^^'3j'".V^'q^^'^3j'^'g^'^'^=^l "Whenever I feel nervous and 
upset I try to picture a quiet forest scene. Jr|'^i5^'aj3;'ai!;,'aj!>'!5^s]!5^'asqi!5l'q- 

piece I S»l'gi 'qq-s5j -^q-q] || 'l want a small piece of cake. !;-n,vqJ!]-qq-n:iq-s? 

(^J!]'=;J!]^] "After asking many questions we were able to piece together 

what had happened. ^-q'si'^^qs^'^'N-l'^l '^'sf'N^aj-S'^'^'q'^s^'N-^q-^q-'^^^-l 
pilot I ''^^■|'^'=^1 "^3i*l'5!'^^''^l II ^The pilot flies the airplane. qg^'l^^-q^N' 

^3j5^'5]=^'p'".Vg=^] "I will only feel safe if you pilot our airplane. (i^'^'N'^' 

ping-pong I qsj'^^'^'".!] II My brother plays ping-pong very well. ^'I'S'q'sl' 

pioneers | ^=^^■"^3j■i!] ^3j'^=;'i!] || The American pioneers were constantly 
moving west. i^V«^'5'P'S'^'^=^'"i3i'=^'^*l'^-?J-5^=^-S-5q-i2'q|=^l 

pipe I '^'^1 '^■^■3j^'^''^53j'i!] II 'We buried a pipe so that the town could 
have fresh water. =;-sf'N-^-^-^J!]-'N-'?5!]-y^'N-y^=;-q^'^l-Sr=;'N-|'N-f J!]^^^ 
^^'^"^1 ^They plan to pipe water to every home. p^cf^N'^s^'cf^"'^!'^'^''^'^'^' 

pirate | ^'^^] \\ I once read a story about a pirate and a ship. 


place I ^3fi] II This is a nice place to live. J!]3j'^-q^-^-^^-'N-^5[^^^5[^-^^] 
place of interest | ^'c5'S'^^''23j''^l || Beijing is a place of interest to all 

Chinese. ^■53j-^-^=;-^qw;'NW»iaf3j-3j-'N-c5W|=;-'^aj-q-^J!]-^=^l 
plan I 'f^cB^'^!]^! -ncB^'f^^'^'l^'qi || 'What is the plan for the party next 
week? J!]gq'qp'^'|'N'»iqW§&]'N'".vqc5^'J!]^'5'^J!]W^l "Let's now plan our 
party for this weekend. '^■'^■'^■§f'^'J!]g'^'5^§J!]''^^^Wc&]'NWqc5^''^^=^'gi 
plane | ^aj*!'?]! || The plane landed with a bump. J!]3j»l-5]-«^»l%l-S-'N-".vqq'^l 
planet | ^'^^l || Each planet has its own orbit. ^•^^•^•5-^!;-^!;-S]-q'p'^-",l»l-$- 

plant I 't'-^'^'l '^^q'N-qi ''^^'N-qi || 'Some people like to grow plants in 
their houses. 5^-".V".vp=;-qq-3j=;-S-|'.f|=;-q^J!]'N-q^-=^J!]qi "Soon it will be time 
to plant the rice seedlings. «^''^S^'^'=^^''^g'N'|,'']''^^'N'^3i'"-l'|]^'N'^'^^l 

plate I S=^'5^| II I broke a plate when I was washing dishes. 


play I I'q] II I like to play with my baby brother. ^'^^^'Sl'^aj'^^'^^' 

»l^»l'^'f'q^'=^J!]q] Now it is time to go outside and play, ^^'^'f 5;-^k,-3^!5i-|- 

player | ^t^^'s^paj] ^^j'l^l II 'He is a good volleyball player. p^-s5q-£5J!]-|^ 
|=^'5^p3j'qg!;-q^^J!]'^^] "My VCD player is broken. =;^' VCD^f a^'^aj't^aj- 

please | '^^'Tq^'l^-qi -^^-^l] (^^^N-'^-g]) II 'it will please my mother if I 
study well. J!]".iy=^'N-^q-|=;-«^J!]^^'^-3j-=;qw»l-^J!]q-q^-|,=^-^Ml -Please give 
me some water. ^'"-V^'^aj^'^^^'^] 

pleased | "^^'ftS^'^J] S^'Tq] || I was pleased with your good study. 

pleasure | S^'^S] || What gives you the most pleasure? 

plenty | '^S^'^] ^'>^] \\ There is plenty of meat here for everyone to eat. 

plot I '"^^^^'^^ll "=;3iB'^'<^=^K,'qi II 'Can you describe the plot of the film to 
me? (i^'|'^-=;-".V^J!]-q5aj-^q-q^=^-^»l-q.P|=^-lJ!]-J!]»ll -You need to spend more 
time doing your work well and less time plotting your leader's 
demise. (i=^'|'N-^=;-^-gq-":iJ!]'N-|^q-|^-q-'^vs^-sf'^-5^=;-s-q'fy^vq-^ 

pocket I '^W^^ II My pocket has a hole in it. !;q-i3^»i-^q^-f^-|^!;-g-^J!]-sr^] 
poem I S3j'^^ II My teacher taught us how to write poems in class. 

point I 'I'sij '^^^] ^^^'W^'^^^\ II 'a needle has a very sharp point. 
pq-n,v|-5?=^-5!;^3j^^J!]-Sr=^] -What is the point of your story? ^=^'|'^^»1' 
S^^^^^^^^*^^^^! ^Don't point at people with your fingers. Jr|<33;'nj' 

poison I '=W] -=;J!]''^=;'i!] || 'Poison is used to kill weeds and animals. 5^'^' 
¥''^5^'=^^'2jJ!]'c5^M'^'^=^'^=^'q'']".l] "The attempt to poison the enemy leader 
was successful . =^5]'=^5^J!]'^'5;|^-q-^i^-S|!^-q5!;!^-g<^-a'^-5;|<^-'^-«i5;|!^-q5]q'^=;'l 

police I '^Sjyr^l "^^'S^'l^'^l II 'l called the police. '^^N'^ajyil-q^^l "It is my 
turn to police the campus this evening. ^■^^^'^^'S'S'^'^'^-l'q^'S^'i'^'i*^' 


police station | ^aj'^^''^'*^'^] || The police station is near a large 

intersection. ^3jy!]AvagJ!]^)-^-q^-5^'^i3j^^qj-q]y^l^-S5'2^] 
policeman | ftaj'SJ!]'^!] || The policeman stopped that red car. 

policy I a^'"-15^1 Sj^'^'^l II What is the school policy on being late? 

politics I cBq'SjS] II You can read about politics in the newspaper. 


pollute I ^q^^^'^'^'q] "f^q^'q^JJ] || ^Don't pollute the river with your 
garbage. ^■^'N'J!]=^'^J!]^'^^'J!]^^^q^J!]^'5^'J!fe'] "Some cities in the 
world are very polluted. q^si-|=;-^=;-^=;-(i^-".V"l-^-'9-5=;-qqJ!]-q'^J!]-'^3jl 

poor I Sg"-V^l 'snaJsi-qq-^OT-qi || Poor people want to become rich. Sg"-Vq' 
^^'^■^^■^^■'^^^■^^■'^^^1 'He has been in poor health for a long time. 

popular I =^^■|iq■c5■q] || Popular music can be heard everywhere in the 

city . ^=^'(i^'|,'^=^''^^-=^^-(iq-i-qq-^-=^^=;'N^^-^qi 
population | s^'S]^'^] || China has the largest human population of any 

country in the world. 


pork I !^^'-P| II I like pork dumplings. !;'S5J!]'.P|q's«]'s«]'".V^J!]qi 

port I 5!'pi II New York City is a busy port on the east coast of America. 

position I 'f'^'^^j'^l ^J!]3j'^l -q^3j^)-^OTyq|i;!^-q] || 'Hc doesn't like to sit in 
one position for a long time. p^'^3j'^^^^'^=^'J!]3j'^'J!]5^'y¥=^'5^''^'^=^l "He 
tried to position himself in the financial market so that he could 
make as much money as possible. p^'=^^'^^'^i!".V'^g^'§§k'=^^'3j^'=;'q§J!]'3j'^' 

possess I ^'^^] ^S^'^^^^j'^^^'i]] II She wants to possess many nice dresses. 

possible I SjS'^l II Will it be possible for you to visit me in the future? 

post I '''yq] "g^'^^'aj^'q^^'q] || 'The wooden post was leaned against a 
tree. ■?|^'^''']'q'^'W^^^^'".vp3j'"5^] "I will post your letter this afternoon. 


post office I 3^'P^'l II I walked to the post office yesterday. 

postcard | ^^'^■s^=^■^^3j'"^^ || I bought a postcard a few minutes ago. 

postpone I ^^■'^^^■^^■q] II The storm caused us to postpone the picnic. 

potatoes I i^^'pJ!] II My family likes to eat potatoes. 

pour I ^^''^l II Please pour me some tea. R",v^qJ!]M] 

power I ^P|^1 5^'^q^] II Lifting weights increases muscle power. 

practice | g^'^^^'^S'^l 'g^^^^l II I practice speaking English everyday. 

=;'^-|3j-^^-=^|;Sj-^=^-q.P|=^-^-|k-q^^-|,=^-q^3j-sr=^l "Football practice is this 

afternoon. ifi'^'t=^'^^'|'^'^^^'^'^'^'^'|^^3jl 
praise | ^q^^lj'^'q^'^] "^^^^'^^^'^^'^l || 'l have only praise for my mother. 

c;q-i3M-8^^-=;5^-q^qj^)-q1'2^-|,:^-^-n,i^)-s^2^] "She will praise the leader if she 

meets him. pWprq-q^^=^-".v^'^-3j-pr^-q^J!]'N-q1=^-|,=^-^-^=;] 
pray | ^'s^rn-q-q^qsj-qj ^aj-qs^-ia-qj || jhe monks pray in the temple daily. 

prefecture | [^"l] || My home is in Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous 

Prefecture. =;'S'^''^"-V^'|]'<^^'^^'N-^=;-|=;-f^".l-«S3jl 
pregnant | 5^^"l'"1'c5^^''^] || My sister is pregnant with her first baby. 

prepare | 5!'§^^'^S''^1 II We must prepare a meal for the workers. 

present | ^'^1J!]'^'|'^] "(5J!]'^'i!] '^^'^^'^l || ^Don't buy me a present for my 
birthday. =i'S'|'^-^^-|,^3j-S-=;-".vn:iJ!]'N-|M-»l-'^ "Who is not present in our 
class today? ^■^^■^■§f^'^^'(|^'"-V^''^^^'s^^] ^Because you are a new 
teacher, I will present you to the students at this morning's school 
meeting. ^'^■^■=^5i-^3j-J!]'N^-q-^J!]-«S3j-q'Ni ^•^!;-ii^5i]!^-q5^-^q-5!q-l&]'N-q^^ 


president | g'(i^'Sg'(|si ^5j'^3j] || Do you know the name of the President 

of the United States? (|=^'|^Vi^V^'^'|'(iq'^g'^=^'|'5^'^'^'N-'N5^1 
press I 's^^'yti^''^] '^^'^l II ^The dry cleaners will press your shirt for 


you. ^*l''^(^|=^'*ip3i'^*l'N'|'N'(i^'§'3f3j'=J^'=^g^'^'§'^'^'Nl "Press this button 
and the hght will go on. ^^'^■|^%^'^'^^''^''1^''^^ 
pressure | ^3j3j'-P|J!]M] || The tires will be flat if they don't have enough 
air pressure in them. 

•^S^ '^Sll I fssl ^ lot of pressure when I take an exam, g^ri^^'i^a'^i?^'!;.*^' 

prevent | ?5j''^J!]J!]'^=;'i!] || Keeping warm is a good way to prevent a cold. 

price I '^aj'^'^'l ^'^■^S'^'^Jl II 'what is the price of that bread? ^5;-^q-S:3j-^=;' 
^'S'^'^^Sj] 'I will price new computers this afternoon and then decide if 
I can afford one. ^■^=;-|^^-=;'^-^5!^-J5=^-5!]'^^-q-^J!]-'^V^=;'q5^'3j'S5-:;^iy^q-5^3j-".V 

prison | q^3j'p^'l || The guards stood outside the prison gate. 

private | q^^'^j || My brother wants to start his own private business. 

prize I ^'S^'^l || If we study hard we may get a prize for knowing the 
most words. J!]'^iy=;-§f'N-^q-|'=;-'^vqq=^-q-^^-^-=;-§f'N-g-^=^-i'N-5^=;^^5;]^^ 

probably | ^"1'c5^] SjS] || I will probably buy a new car next year. 

problem | ^5j=;'=;3j] || Learning English without a book is a problem. 

produce | '^Sj'^^] "^^j'^^'^^'^!] || 'Did you see a lot of fresh produce at 
the market? ^=^-|'N-sf=;-^-3j'N^3j-f ^N'Jll'N^-q-si'^^sik-Hs;-!;*!] "How many 
new cars can your factory produce in one year? |5=^■c^■q3■2]'^■".l■J!]5^■".l■ 

professor | =;J!]'^3j'c53j'5^] || I want to be a history professor after I graduate 
from school. '^■^^^■|q's^g^'|;Sj-|'NW*^v|-=^?i-^3j-i3j-Sf^J!]-|=^-q^=^l 

program | "I'cfaj] || I heard there is a good television program on tonight. 

progress | ^^''^"-l] J!]^'^^".V'^^^'q] || The teacher was pleased with the 
students' progress. ^q-»iq-^=;-q^"l-".V=^^-^3i-55=^-^»lTKci^ 

•443 • 

project I ^"^l^'^^aj] ^s^'5]^^l '^3j'i!] || ^The town leader asked if the people 
were interested in the road building project. ^■qS".V^''^^^^M's^^'§&]M' 

q-q](a!;-q5^-^q]-q^)-qq-q^)-'^3j-g:^-W'^si^)-S5'2^-s^:^-5*l] "Can you project what 
this city may look like ten years from now? "-V^§^'l^'^'5]^'(i^''^^'5''^5' 

promise | 'p'^Sj] '^s^'^STq] p^''^13j'^^'^l || 'You broke your promise so I 
don't believe you any more. (i^'^'N'(i^'^'P'^3j'q5J!]^'i!^'^'^'g3;'2;'^'i§'^''^' 
5n^3;'3;!^'aj!;-5!^-5]'g!;i "He promised to love her forever. p'^'p's^^^'Jlj^aj'S' 

propaganda | ^".vqaJ!]'^] || The speaker was discussing the benefits of 

propaganda. J!]^»l'q1'^'q'N-5".vq|^J!]'N-|-=^^-5^cf3j'^=^'q^3j''^J!] 
property | S^^] ^<^'^'''l || Who owns that property by the river? 

propose I 5!^'^(^''^^3j''^] || The governor proposed to build four new 

schools next year. ^^■ql3j-q'^-'^=;-f^^-^q-^-J!]'N^-q-q^-".l'^-^q-^'^-J!]^-qT3jl 
protection | Sj^'^^l '^^^''^1 || Yaks have thick hair for protection from 

the cold. J!]wiJ!]-".v5]=;-=^^-q^J!]-qq-|^-q-5^'^w^l 
protest I ^■^i'^l] ^'^"-I'^S'^^l II No one wanted to protest against the 

teacher's ideas. ^5i-^3j-|-q'N»l-#>.V".V^'^-^=;^".v|,^-»l-q^^l 
proud I ^q^'^1 ^|■q^=^] ^■^"ll II The parents were very proud when their 

daughter graduated from school. g-s5^q-»ig^-|;3j-q'^-s5-»l-J!]|»j-n,v:;-^a,v|5)| 
prove I ^S^j'S'^^'^S'^^l ^'SS'^S'^l II Can you prove he took the money? 

provide | '^'^aj'fl';] || The father wanted to provide the best opportunities 
for his children. i3Vii^'N-^=;-^-g-^J!]-^5^'N-f\vqy^q'N-i'N-'^lJ!]'N^q^3j-#^-|=^-q^^^ 

public I s^^'c&]^] II Finally, after many years, they made the secret 
documents available to the public. 


publication | =;i!=^'S3j] || Is your novel ready for publication? 

publish I S'^^'m^^^'^1 II She hopes to get a book of her poems published 
next year. p-s^'N-^=;-§]-^3j-=;J!]-§l-^q-c5'^J!]''N=;-'^=^-=^q^-^3j-|=^-^q-^-q-q5=;'N-Sr^ 

pull I '-P|^^'^5j] "f^gaj'i!] II 'l don't have much pull with the leaders any 
more.'^^^=^'^»l'N-|-^!;-q-!;-q-=^-<^-.P|i:!j^l-|3i-s^=^| -piease pull this string. ^=^'q' 


pump I ^^'^aj'^^^-Vf^p^^] V^^aj'i!] II ^The water pump is broken so the car 
won't work. ^■'^g3j'n^f^V'^p'^'SJ!]i3j-q'^-^=;'^-qp=^-q'p^-|=^-|,=^-9S-^qi -The 
basement classroom is flooded so we will have to pump out the 
water before we can have class. '^■'^J!]'J!]A]q'p^'3j^'S'^'qg^'^'i!'^A]q'|g=;'s^' 

punish I c5^■^■^5=^■'J] II The teacher knew she had to punish the naughty 

young boy. =^5i-^3j-|^-p^'^-|'^-q-3j-^J!]-^^-c5=^'q'5^'Jli5'=^'gq'N-s^=^-«S3j-q-^^)] 
purchase | ^'^1 || I would like to purchase a new car someday. 

pure I ^^^'5^1 ^K's^^'t^l II The butter tasted so fresh and pure. 

purpose I =;5^J!]^''^3j] =;5^J!]^''^".l] II Learning is a life -long purpose. 

push I '^^■q^q'q] «J^-J!]yJ!] J!]y^-qi ^^'^^'|^'=^1 1| ^I'm grateful for the push 
my teacher gave me many years ago. "-V^TS^^'f aj'^^'^3j'^'N'^'".V=9=^'q5q's^=^' 
^^l-^q^^l'l-i-qq-q^jsi-q-qWajl "Don't push me! '^'"-l'g=^'^J!]-»l-|=^l 

put away | ^^^^'^^e:^'^] || Please put away your books and papers. 

put on I ^3j'i!] II Put on your cap now. ^''^'(i^'^'^'i^'^'^^j] 
put I ^R^R] i^J!]^] II Please put this book on the table. 

puzzle I '=^'T]'TJ!]3j^] -s^J!]'^J!]'q^'qg'q] || 'l could not solve the puzzle after 
several hours of trying. fcf=^-'^J!]T".V§?=^-<^-^^-^'^-'^'N-=^'T]q-J!]3j=^-^Al".VS^-^qi 
-This problem will puzzle you. Jl]aj=^^aj-q^'N-ii=^-^=;-»l^Jl]-q'^-q'i^'N| 

QQinghai Province | s^cf^aj'^^'iaj] || Qinghai Province is in 
Northwest China. »l§^3j'^=^'i3j'^'^=^'3]'^'5q-^=;-SW^l 
quarter | ^q^'c5^'^5^ 'fl'^'^I II 'A. quarter of my study time I 
spend learning Chinese. =^'N-^'«SJ!]'|=^'q^'5;c;-S|-^q-|k-^'^-i'^-'^^-q^-c5'l'^%^' 
q'']".!] "A quarter is an American coin worth twenty -five cents, or one 
quarter of a dollar. i?nj-|-5;|S5;|-^-B^-^<^-^!;-^-^5;|-S3^-'^-^-^-s^-^^-'^(^5]-aiK,-3^- 

question | '^'qj '^^\ \\ ^Please ask me a question. ^'"I'^'q'^Jlj'l^'^;^'! 'I 


will question him tomorrow. ^'^■p'".V'^^'ft3j''^51 
queue | '=^".vq] "5]".l] || ^Men wore queues during the Qing Dynasty. 

laj-^n.V^qM'l-^q'N-^-lM-qM-^n.vq-qSJ!] -Don't jump the queue. 5]n,v|,-S,si-q-»i- 

quick I siIj!]'^^ II Please be quick. »l|5!]'N?f|,'^'=^=^'l 

quickly | s^^^^'^^'^"^] || We walked quickly to the classroom. 


quiet I =^".vq] [^'^s^'s^^l ™^'q^J!]'^] || I like to listen to quiet music. 
quite I "^'S^'] 55] || He is quite quiet in the evenings. 

Rrace | '^^'^^1 '^^^j || 'Let's go to the horse race at the 
festival. ^■5fS'^'553j%^'^^''^V'^^ "What race of mankind do 
you belong to? ^=^-^-5^q-^J!]'N-|-^J!]'^-J!]=;-".VJ!]yJ!]'Nl 
radiation | '^^S''^^] || Radiation from the sun can be 
harmful. |'»l^''^|,=^''^|^'^'^=^'=^'i'|=^l 
radio | |^'?^''^^"-l''^p'^l || I don't own a radio. !;-",V|^-^=^-q^".vqpk-^J!]-5^2^] 
railroad | '^J!]^'"1»1] || The railroad runs past our house. 

rain | cB^'q] c5^-q-qqq-=J| II When will the rain stop? c5^'q'3j»l'^J!]'".V'^qq'»lcf»l'N- 
'^RJ!]'g'^3j'3js^] It will probably rain this afternoon. ^■^2;'g'5'S^'!^'<^!^!^' 
^=^1 It was raining all this morning. ^•^=;'^^5W;'N'".Vc5^'q'qqq'q^aj'«r=^l 

rainy | c5^'q'33jl cB^'q^'^qq"'^'!] || I don't like rainy weather but the farmers 

do. =;'^!;'c5^'q''^qq'=J^'J!]3j5^'J!]-PJ'N''^V9S'=^J!]q'5r=^irf3j-^!;-^!;-q-^»l^)-^-n,V=^q]q] 

raise | 'J!]'^'q] "^^^1 ^'^5,^'^! || 'The people in that village raise a lot of 
chickens. S'q'^'l's^'^s^M'^M'^'q's^^'q"^'^] "My older brother and his wife 
raised me. ^'^■g'q'^'^'J!]ft=^'qw!3j] ^I asked the students to raise their 
hands if they knew the answer to the question. ^^A]q'5^*".V5'q^'5'^'".13j' 

rapid | ^^'qi || The water in the river rose rapidly after the storm. 

rare | '~{^^^] II The doctor didn't know how to cure the rare disease. 



rate | ^'^ ^g'cB'S'cf'^] ^'^■<^^'^'!^| || The rate of growth for the town was 

steady after they finished the new road. J!j(aR",is^'J!]^^'q'",iM'qq'^^'^'5]^' 

q^".V^q-q^".V^'N-|-cf=^-J!]^3j-q^J!]M-^-J!]3jMW^l How would you rate this 

movie? |f '^■|'^'^=!]'!^^3i'<^^'R''^=^'S=^'<^^'^'^'^3i | 
reach | fq^N-q] Ij^^N-q] || I can't reach it. ^^J^-njttj-q-^'^-s^-lqMl 
react | I'^'I'^'^^aj'^!] ^*l''^5,^''^3i'=^l || The mother didn't react to the news 

about the accident at first. 

read | ^^'^^l ||Please read this text. ^q'cfaj'^^^'^^lj'N-^'^-l 
ready | ^'^3j'^=^'^=^'i!] || Are you ready to go? 

real l^sil'SHifk-s^'^-q] || He is a real person. [^■5^1'n,v'Sk-5^^-q-^J!]-«S3j| 
realistic | =^^^'^^'|l'^3i'^^'^'=^'^'«^3i'=^l || Do you think his wanting to 

become president is realistic? 

really | =;^^'J!]aj^] || Do you really want to come with me? 

reason | g's^cfaj] || What are your reasons for studying English? 

reasonable | =^3j'=^^'s^3j'i!] J!]3j^''^J!]^'=^^'s^3j'i!] || It is not reasonable for me 
to buy a new car at this time. 


rebel | '^q'J!]^=;'s^p3j] '^'^"-Vg^S'^l || 'He has always been a rebel against 
every established and accepted idea. p^'<^'q'^aj'^^s^'^'^'»r^'SK'q'cf^'s^^' 
S^^^^^P^ "^^^^l 'The younger students were rebelling against the 
teachers ' authority . '^^=^'^q'«^'^«^'N-|^V=^^-^3j%|^-=^q=;-".l^".v|,=^-|3j-Sr=^l 

receive | '^^^'^j || Did you receive any mail today? 

recent | 5^J!]'^=^] || The recent developments caused a delay in plans. 


recession | a»l^'^=;] || A failing economy is called a recession. 

recognize | ^M'33j'q] || I didn't recognize her after she got her hair cut. 



record | '33j'g] 'S'^^] '§5'^^'^ll| 'The temperature today is a record high. 
^■=^^'^'cf 5]^'3j'g3j'g'^^'J!]'55M'«^g3j'i!'^=^] "This old record player was made 
about thirty years ago. |^-=^q-'^p'^-'^'^-q-'^^-^^s^-§^-|3j-".vg3j-|^-^^-q-^3Jl 
^This summer I want to record as many folk songs as I can. S'"-1^'S^^' 

red I =^5^^'qj II Blood is red. (g5i^'^'^»l=^'q^^l 

reduce | ^3^\i^5^^1 II The traffic light helps reduce accidents on that 

comer. '^5!'^v|=^'^^''^3i'^'|'^'N-5^cfs^'N-|-c5J!]'|%g=^'^'J!]y;'q^'^^ 
reform | ^^5^'^=^] '^S^'^^'^S''^] || 'The new economic reform will 

stimulate production. ^q".vq|f^'q5'^'|=^'5i]'5^^-q-^'s)^3j-|:^-q|z;-(^qaj-aj-^aj- 

(^$!>'C]^!;'] 'The government wants to reform labor laws. SjS'^'^^'^^' 

refrigerator (fridge, ice-box) | '^|gJ!]'|^s^] || Our family's refrigerator is in 

our kitchen. ^=^'cf=^'^''^(iJ!]'§^»l'^'gq'cf=;'3j=^'^W^l 
refugee | '^[i^^'s^] || There are many refugees from war in the world. 

refuse | ^J!]=^'^J!]^] '^^■'^13i'5^'|,^'^l || 'in the summer heat the pile of refuse 
began to stink. =^^^'p^'cf=^'q^''?5!]'3j'Nl ^=^'|^'N-^=;-^-".V5-=;3j-1^q3yq§-»l'^l -He 
refused to tell the police where his friends had gone. ft3j'5^'i!=^'p'S'5]J!]'^' 

region | ^'[^"-l] || My home is in Haidong Region, Qinghai Province. 

c;q-s^-t^n,v^-»l§f ^3^-Sj!;-5]g-^^-s]-^a,v^-Sr^| What Tibetan region do you 

come from? |f=^'^'5'^'§''^'|^'^'5i]2;'3^'^'2r2;'q'^3i| 
regret | '^^^/^j "'^^/^'^l II ^^ don't regret studying hard for the exam, ^'g^!]^' 

|,^3i'S'^q'#^'"-l''^q^'=^'|^'^^'5^''^|^^l "I'm full of regret for the terrible 

things that I did. ^K,'S|'5l'g'!;3i'=^5i]"qf q'^'q^'=^'".V'^|^^'i!'i3j^|'^l 
relations | '^^".vq] || It's important to maintain good relations between 

countries. ^".vpq'q^%'^|".vq'qg=^^§aj-q(ik'N-|,=^-^-J!]".vii 

release | ^3j'^] '^5!5^'^3j'^=;'i!] || They decided to release a new model car. 

religion | c5^''^^^l || Religion is practiced by monks and lamas in the 

temple . '^qfsj'il'aj'N- q-q§3j-|,^-I'^-'5J!]'N-'^5]!^-q3j-|=^l 
remain | fS^] '^^'^SjM'^^'i]] || Do you want to remain in this village for 

more than one year? ^=^-^-q-q^-3j'N-'^Jij5Jl]'™'^'"l'q^=^''^'^=^'=^5^1 


remember | ^^j'^l II Do you remember what you said yesterday? 

remove | S^'^] "^3^^] \\ The workers had to remove the broken glass from 
the window. ql^q'N-|!3-f^=;-$!;-^-^".v|^c5Jl]^'^3j-^^^-^=;-l 

repair | 'i^^'^!]'^] -(^Jjj'Jjj^'^^^'q] || ^Where is a shop that does electronic 
appliance repair? ^J!]'SlWc5'N-^J!]-J!]»?|=^-qq-sf=;-p=;-^J!]-J!]=;-ajW^l "Do you 
know anyone who can repair my bicycle? |i=^■^'N■^■|^JI]■JI]^■^^■'^JI]^■5■|^JI]■ 

repeat | ^^] ^'^^^^'^'^'^] \\ Please repeat the question, ^'q^'^'^^';-] 
report | ^^aj'S'^^^^vq] '^3j'(5] || ^Please report what you saw and did. (i^'^'N' 

^■^5[j-5]gc;-q-s^c;-qf q!^-q(^-s^'^3j'S'J!]»5^1] 'He made a very good report on 

his study. '^'^■^'^■^■^■qq-^'^-aj'N-^aj-w'^-s'^-qg'^^^J!]-^".!] 
repress | q53j'J!]3j3j'^=^'q] q^r^Jj^'q^j^Jj^'^^^'q] || Some people like to repress 

others' ideas. 5^-".v".VJ!](^3j-qq-<^-q-q'T]J!]-q^J!]-|^-q^-^J!]qi 
request | ^^"q] "^'q'a'q] ^J!]^'q] || ^ Your latest request is unreasonable. |i^' 

^y"-l^'5,'^'^'^'"-l'J!]aj^''^J!]^'5^=^] "Can we request more food if we are 

hungry? J!]'^vy^=^'q'<^J!]'N'^'=;'i''^'g'»l'»l=;^'^?[!^'q<^'^'q'(^'i^vl5!] 
rescue | They hoped to rescue all the climbers from the mountain 

storm. p¥'N"^^q-^=;-n#l-||'^-§-S>-qqy»ip3j-cf!;-»i-|q-q^=^] 
resign | "^^■'^(i^'^S''^l || The general was asked to resign from his post. 

resolution | S^'^^s^'^] gJ!]'J!]5=;'gq'^] || Every year I make a resolution never 

to smoke again. "T^^'!;'N'g'»lJ!]'«J!;'qg^'5^'qg3j'qq'l=^'^5^'N'q5=;'Nl 
responsible | '^^3j'"13j''^] || The mother behaved in a responsible manner 

with her children. i3M-»i!N-5;K,-S|-|^s]-q<^-i!^-^-qq^3j-n;i3j| 
rest I ^^"-V^!]^ '^".VJ!]^q] II 'Our rest period will be over soon. ^'sS^'^^-VJ!]^' 

^'^'cf'^'S^'sT^'f^'^'^'^^l 'Let's rest for ten minutes, '^'sf'^-^^-si-qf ".V=;".VJ!]»? 

restrain | ^'']^''^^^'^S"^1 ^§5j'q] || The man was so angry that his friends 
had to restrain him from starting a fight. 

result I '»l§J!]-qg'Nl "'^^'^^l ^^'^1 1| 'What was the result of the argument? 
§'2;'qj(^-^q-s^^qj-qg^]-3j-3-(^q^-^3j] 'Your wrongdoing will result in your 
bemg punished. ^^■^'^^■|=^'|'^'^=^'"-VS=^'^'|=^'^''^^ 


retire | "-l'^''^(i^'^S"^l || That worker is surely old enough to retire. 

return | ^^^'"T^ '^^■"W]'^!] || ^ We will eagerly await your return. ^■af'N'ji^' 
|^-qJ!]-^J!]-q-".v5,-q-iajir'^-q|^q^-^-iSsaj] -My brother said he wouldn't return 
until next week. =;q'^aj'»li^'^'N'p^J!]g'Tqp'^-|!^'5^q'q^'5;J!]-i2'|^'5^'"W]i^l 

revolt I ^(^aj'"^!^ '^^""'^ II 'That kind of talk could start a revolt. P'^5'S' 
^^^■^'^■'^3j'"W]'^'^=^] "Peasants revolt when they are oppressed, ^^'^'if 

rice I '^^^l II Rice is an important food for Chinese people. 

ricli I ^'^] II She's rich, not poor. p^-^J!]^'^3j-q-".1'N-^g".1^5^3jl 
ride | fS^] '(^3^^] ^^^] II The ride in the old bus was unpleasant for 

everyone. |-|=^-5.=;'N-qpk-|!;-q-q-^2^-q-^-5^-cdk-5^^-»l§?3j-3j-q^-5?5^-5,:^| -I like to 

ride horses. =;-^-".V^3j-q^-=^J!]qi 
riglit I ^^%'^] -^^%'^^] II 'You gave the right answer. (i=^'|'N-".13j-q^J!]^ 

q^q'^l ^I like to sit on the right side of the room. =;-p=;-qq-Jl]«J'N-|5l]'N-aj'N- 

ring I '^l^^'S^'^l '^^^'§".11 II 'My mother likes her wedding ring very 
much. =;q-i3M-»i-prq-J!]^3j-^J!]-5]-»i^q-=^^'N-".V=9-5=;-^J!]qi -The bell will ring at 
noon. |3j'^=^'"-l'^'^^'5"-l'5!^'N'^'^=^l 

riot I '^^'S] -g^'cB'q^'q] II 'The crowd became so angry I thought they 
would start a riot. 8^-^qj^)-n.v^2;-^i3j^n,i!;^)-q^| s^'^'j^^'N'I'^'cB'ql^^'^'^'q'NS^!^' 
g,^'] -The workers will riot if the factory leaders don't meet with 

them, qf ^'^■'^^q'p^c?^=^'^'^'p'»i'^3j-jgi ql^q-§f'Ni=;-c5'q'i^§'^=^i 

rise I '-Pj^l -aj^'^jz^'si'i!] || 'The sun rises every morning in the east, ■^si' 
$:^'a'5^',P|^'^J!^^'^',P|^| -The rise of the workers' movement upset some 
of the leaders. qg-q<^-aj^-(^^aj-q?jc;!^-q-^!^-(^q|-§:^-fq-.^^-aj-p:;-|g-ql!^| 

river | S'q] ^^^'q] || The Mekong River begins in Yulshul Tibetan 
Autonomous Prefecture, f'f ^■^".V-P|".l^=^-^J!]'N-^=;-|=;-f^".V3j'N-q?'^l 

road I "-15^1 II The road to the airport is very rough. 

rob I '^^■^55^■^=^■ql II Has anyone ever robbed your home? 

rocli I '^^'5| "§^'^lll 'There are many big rocks on the mountainside. 


S:^^-3j-gq]^i3j^»l!;^qw^] -Don't rock the boat or it will turn over. 
rocket | s^'-P|J!]^'ng^'s^=^q] || A rocket flies in the air, high into the sky. 
roll I i"-l'^l ^t^l II It's easier to carry if you roll up the blanket. 

room I 'p^'S^J!] ''^p^'^l II ^This room is where I sleep. p^'S^JJ^'f^^^'aj'^^'^"-!'^' 
"iSj] 'Your new home has a lot of room. ^=^'^'p^'q'^^=^'q'".V'^p^'^'£5] 

root I §"^1 II Lazmess is the root of many problems. '^V'^V3j'J!]3j=^'=^3j'5^^'q'^'g' 
q^^Ssjl The roots of that tree are very big. ^=^^'l'§'q'^'=9'5=^'il 

rope I ^'^^\ II He didn't have enough rope to tie up all the yaks. 

rough I §■^■'^1 II His hands were rough from years of hard work outside. 
round | §^^'§^^1 ^^'^^1 ^'^^'^1 II The moon is round tonight. 

row I ^%"\\ -^j'^y^'q] II ^Which row do you sit in? ^^■5!"-l'J!]=;'^'^=^'^'^l "I'm 
tired so can you row the boat for a while? ^■g^'c5^'q^'|i^'^'N'§^'55^''^V5]' 

rubber | '^^^'^^l || The rubber on that old tire is very thin. 

ruin I ^^^^'^Jj^'l/^'^l '^Sj^'^l II 'standing in the cold weather without a 
good jacket can ruin your health. ^=^'"sjqg^'q'(^J!]'5^^'i!=^'3j5^'^''^|gJ!]^'s^^' 
|g^'".l^'^'^'|g=^'^'q^'g^'".VJ!]^=^'q^J!]'gq^'^^] "The castle ruin is situated near 
a mountain pass. J!]3j'^'«^p=^'^'q^J!]'=^'^J!]'J!]'(^J!]'J!]y^'3j'^^] 
rule I ^^'^"-Ij II What are the rules of the school? ^^'^^'^^'^"-l'^'5'^^'"^3il 
run I ^^ II Don't run, walk. s^'^J!]'q^'=^",VS^M'^R] He was exhausted after 
finishing the ten kilometers run. ^■'^■!^:^<^'^=;'ciSJn5^'^!5l'|^'^!^'g!;,'S=\'H^'| 

Ssad I "^=^'1^^! II Don't be sad, be glad. "^=^'»l'|^q^'|^^|,'^l 
safe I q^-q^Jll'N-'SSaj-q] || We are safe here. q^-3j'^-=^-6?q^''^^«l]'^'"^3j| 
sail I '51'^^r^l ^"^^'31 "5!'|'^'|'^'^1 II 'The boat's sail is made of 
strong white cloth. ^j-^jST^-^^j-^^'Tj^^sj-Sf^qj-aji^-qT'^] "Have you 
ever been sailing in a boat? |iS'3]'^^''^'^¥S'^'5]'gS'^'^'^^'^5^| 


salt I c^f^l II I don't like salt in my milk tea. =;-'?f^q-3j=;-S-c^f^-q^q'^-q^-5^-^q]qi 
same | '^^'s^^^'^j ^S^''^^] || 'Big' and 'large' have the same meaning. 

'i'q '■=^=^' 'isj^^ '■3]^3j'^'J!]3J!]''^5'«S3ji 

satellite | s^'^'qg'^''^p=^'^=^] || There are many satellites in the sky orbiting 
the earth. q^-f!;-^-'Nq'^f\K-q^^-3^!^-(^|^3;-q^3j'qq'5^'N'ql''^'qp'^'^^'s^!;^W^^ 
satisfy | "^=^■*s^■'^] || Even that delicious meal didn't satisfy him. 

Saturday | Jlj^T^aj'^!] || I will wash my clothes this Saturday. 

say I q.P|=^l II What did you say? (5=^'^'^"f '^■S"%^J!]'q.P|=^l 
school I J]q'5!l II I walk to school every morning. 

science | cf3j'=^^ || Science helps us understand the weather. 

score I ^^'5^1 J^'^'^^^l II What was your score on the examination? 

scream | ^'S'^^'^l ^j'^'^^I II Don't scream, I can hear you. Tl'S's^'^^ ^'^'(iS' 
^■^=^'c5'3y^q] We all heard her terrified scream. ^^'S'sX'sjJSi'i^'sr^'sqi's^-OT- 

sea I g's^§§l II The lake seemed as large as a sea. 

search | naSKvq] || We spent hours searching for the lost boy in the forest. 

^•§§=^'»l=;^-^!;'!;'cf'N'3jJ!]'^'J!]$q-^^^'qq'^'"i'q#>.ll Our search was finally 

successful. 5]g3;-c;-s^-(^S'^-^q-aj-a]q|!^-agq-Hc;-| 
season | ^^j^^'cf^^] "^^^'^jaj'^^^q^'^!] || 'Which season of the year is your 

favorite? "Tqp'^-3j=;-S-(i=^-i'^-=^J!]q-qq-S'^-i^J!]'N-^-J!]=;-«S3jl -I'll season the soup 

with salt and prickly ash. '^'^'fl'^'^'3i'^'^'|=^'^3i'cf'fl''^'^'^^^'«^'='l^'^''^^^'^'|,' 

seat I '^W]'^^'^] II Would you please give your seat to the old person on 

Please take a seat. q<aJr|!5^'5r|!>3;'(^^,5r|!5^'?5r|!5^| 
second | '^^^'t^] -^^'65] || 'I'm the second oldest child in my family. ^'S^ 
'R'^^'^^^^■^■^■^'^'^^^^^3i\ -I'll be there in a second. '^'^'^'S'^S^'^' 


secret | J!]^^'q] || I'll tell you because it's not a secret. ^'^'JJ^^^'q'^J!]' 

security | q=^■'^^^'^l || For security purposes I'm going to lock the door. 

see I R^!] sjgk-] || I can't see the blackboard. '^'^'I^'^si-s^-^^!] 

seek I fls^-vq] q#^'q] || She went out to seek a way to earn a living. 

seem | '^^q] ^^^1 II He doesn't seem to want to go to school today. 

sigh I ^^Sj'il'f^Sj'i!] -^aj'i!] II ^I sigh when I'm tried and bored. g=^'c5^'i!'3i'5i- 
^3j'g^'g'=;^] ^^'^aj'q'qgaj] "The girl was so sad that she heaved a deep 

sigh. g's5^'5^5^'N'|^3j'^'^3j'q'^=;'S?^JI]''^3jl 

seize | ^^3^^] \\ He thought it best to seize the opportunity to get a job. 


self I ^^'^S] II Psychology is the study of the self and others. 


sell I n^k-q] II Do you want to sell that sheep? (i=^'|'N-'5'^-^-qs?=;-i?;rq^=^l 
send I q^^'q] II Was it you who sent me the flowers? 


sense | SSj'S^'] S^'q] || That film doesn't make any sense to me. 


sentence | ft^ || This sentence is not correct. cf^''^s'5^''^5!^ 

separate | ^'^j S^^'^j || They decided to live separately from each other. 

September | ^^'S^'^1 II September follows August. 

series | ^■'^g".V".Vcf3j] || Did you watch the soccer series on TV last year? 

serious | 3j3j's^] || He was the most serious student in the class, p'aj'f^^aj'g]^' 
3j=^'^'^q'»l'iM'3j3j'5fSS3jl Stop laughing and be serious! 5]-!^?j^!^-q^-q|gq-3^3^- 

sermon | Sq^'^^^''^^'] || The minister gave a sermon every Sunday in 

church. £5I]-q5;-q^grr|-s^^-I^vqs5:^-S^p3j-|,'N-l'^-p=;-^-=^q=;-J!]3j=;-^3jW^l 
serve | "S^'^j W^'^] '^^^''W^S'^1 II The daughters were happy to serve their 


mother tea. g-5^-^»l'S)-;^!:;-q|-i3M-si-n,v^<^q^-q^-|| 

settle I ^g^'^S^^'l^^'^^l ^•q^J!]'N'^'J!]y;'qi -q|^!^-5q|!^-q| || ^Will you please 
help settle this argument? (i=^'|'N'f=^'^'^'^^'^'^^^'^'^'^y^''^^'N'|=^' 
=;5^] "We left our old home and came to settle here about fifty years 
ago. 2a'^-53;-ai'"<-<^-q^-<^m-m-^3^-aj-!;-g-m3^!^-a^aj-|'3^-5]-!^c;-|^-gaj-^-qi3^!^-(^^^- 

seven | q=;3j] || Seven people came to visit us. 

several | ^^^] \\ I will be gone for several days. ^■^3j''^J!]'T".V'^^'^'s^3j] 
severe | 5^'=^] || The snowstorm was very severe in Chabmdo last winter. 

sex I sicfajl 's^cfaj'sil "Sl^^'l'^l || ^My sex is female. =;q-»lcf3j-»l-^-sr^3jl "She 
wanted to have sex with him but he didn't want to have sex with her. 

shake | ^'y^] \\ She was so cold that she was shaking. 

shape I ^^q'^l II The shape of the moon is round. ^'^'^'^^^^'Sj'q^^'q^^'^Sj] 
share | '^"-1] 'S^^s^'g^'^^'^] || 'Your share of the food is less than my 

share. |i=^'^'3^'^".V^'^'S'g^'^".V'^l^'R^'] "Can you share your book with 

sharp I lij^ II The tip of a needle is very sharp. pq'f'^'=9'5^^3j^3jl 
she I p'5^] II She doesn't want to come. p's^'qRS^'q=^=^] 
shine | nj§k] || The sun will shine today. ^'^^^ys^'nJSk'^'^^^] 
ship I '»lc?5]l '|'^''^5^'l'^'^l II 'The ship was lost at sea. 5^§f5]'^'^'»l§f'?' 

^^■3j^'q=^] "We will ship the books that you bought to your home 

address. (i=^'^'Ny^'qq'^q'c5'';'§f'^'^=^'|5]-^-|aj-q53j-|!^-^!^] 
shirt I a^'"S3jl II I like my brother's shirt. '^■^!;-S|-^3j^^'a^'"i3j'".V=^J!]'^l 
shoe I ^si] II That shoe is black. '^^■^■^■3jJ!]^^=^l 
shoot I '^Jl]'qi "l^'q] II 'Don't shoot that gun near me. =;qy's):^-5^-»i:^q-si-|^ci^ 

"The film director wanted to start shooting the film tomorrow. ^^' 

shop I ^^'^fi'^] ^q] II 'The shop is closed. sf'^'P'^'^'!^^^^''^''! "I like to 

shop for new clothes in spring. ^^^■'']^'^'^3j'i!yq=^'=^J!]'^] 
shopping I ^'Sj II Let's go shopping. ^'^^cB'^^'y^S]! Our shopping trip 


tired us all. ^"5"|5i]"^"^!;"q"^'5i-c;-ig-^s;-5]-g!:;-s=^-^-q^q| 
short I ^'^'l II My brother is short. '^^'^3j'^|^'Nl=^'l 
shout I '^=^^=^-^J!]-qi '^'^^^] II 'Don't shout, I can hear you. ^^^'s'^-s^-^J!] 

'^'^•^^•^'N'SJ^-S'q.PI'^'il'^^qi "Her shout was not very loud. pW^'^'^'T^' 

show I '^3j'i!] "f^^s^'^aj] II 'please show me your stamp collection. 
i5^'S'|^'^^'^''^5'^'*"''^'"-''^^''i'^'l "What time does the show start? 

shrink | ^si] || Sometimes clothes shrink after they are washed. 

shut I ^^3j] ^J!] II Please don't shut the door. §^'s^'J!]^3j] 

sick I Sj'cfsajl "3j'q] II Nurses and doctors help sick people in the hospital. 

3j=^-5!]2(wj-:^!;-|j3j-q^)-|j3j-p!;-^-5^-3j-cf 53j-".vTj!]'N-^»1-|=^] "She got very sick and 

died two days later. 'pW=9-5=;'3j-3j'N-^3j-J!]^'^-|-1'N-^-^=;'Nl 
side I I^Jl'NlT^l II I live on this side of the river. '^'^''^^'^^'l^'T^'^'l^'^'^l 
sign I ^^^1 II The villagers decided to put a sign at the intersection. 

signal I 'q^'^^'N] "q^'^aj'^^l II 'a red light is a signal to stop. ^J!]-=^»l^^- 
q^=^'5^cfs^^'q^J!]'^q'q^'^J!]^'«J3j] "Please signal with your hands if you 
want us to come and help you. ^^■|'N-=;-§?S5':;-3j'N-Tj!]'N-|^-q^=^-3j-".lJ!]-q^-'^3jl 

silence | p'[^_J!]'^s^'i!] || At night on the grassland there is nothing to hear 
but silence. »lcf3j'sr^'^g=;'3j'N'p'|^5!]'Sj»l^^'^'l'"^=^'S'^ 

silver | =^5"-l] || She looks so pretty with all her silver necklaces. 

similar | '^^s^^^^j || 'Tall' and 'long' have similar meanings. 


simple I J]'*!] J^'q] II I can understand simple English. 

since | ^3j'3j'^] || I haven't seen her since last year. 

sing I "iaj'^l II Please sing this song. ^■'^S'")3j'i!=^'^'N] 
sir I ^'(^q^N] II Sir, I do know the answer. ^'(^q^N] !;'^-".13j^»l'N--Pi'Nl 
sister | %^'^ \\ My sister is seven years old. =;q'|=;'55^wq^3j'«S3jl 
sit I ^^^] ^(m^^] II Please sit on that chair. ^q-^Jl]'^-^-".vq(g'^'^-=^=;-| 


sit down I »1^-".V^=^1 II Please sit down. »l^-n,V^=^-^=^-] 

situation | J!]3jM'qq] J!]3jM'^".l] || They have improved their hving situation. 

six I 5^ II I have six pencils. ^'"-I'l^'S^'^^'"^^! 

size I i'^^'l II What size are your shoes? ^■^■"S5^%i'^^'^'sf^'^3il 

skate I ^^'-Pj^'^^'^l II I learned how to skate last winter. 3j'3j^'=^^3j'p=^'^^' 

^^'^^^^^i'^'^1 1 broke my left skate. ;;<^-!^^-:Q=^-i5;|!^-'^5]-q|ai!5i-5]-szT| 
skeleton | ''l^'^^'^l || If you want to become a doctor, you must study a 


skill I "^^■§■"-11 II Being a surgeon requires great skill. 

skin I s^^^'t^l II That young lady has such lovely smooth skin. |j3;'-f|^'^'".V 
qqj^l-q-q^siif^-q^q-^j^-^^^^-q-^q^-Sr^^l We will skin the sheep after it is 
dead then cut it into pieces and cook it. ^Jr|'-a'^'!;,'S5^'TO'q5r|!5^'q'!:]fl!5^' 

skirt I ^=^-J!]Sw]'Nl II My skirt is new. =;q-|]^-J!]Sw]'N-^-J!]'N^-qt^3jl 

skull I g=^'^] II He fell down and cracked open his skull. p'g^'".vq^".V3j'^'^!;' 


sky I 3j»l-»ipqi II The sky is blue today. ^-^^^-Sj-ajsl-sipq^-^Sj^^^l 
slave I ^3j'J!]"^J!] II Without freedom of choice one becomes a slave. 


sleep I ^'^'^] "^"-V^l II ^I didn't get enough sleep last night. »1=^=;'=^^=^'=^'"1' 

J!]|=^-q=^!;^»l^q] -It's late so let's sleep. S'^'§f=^''^|'q'^-^".VS-q^ 
slow I =^"^■q] II Don't be slow to answer my questions. 

slowly I =^".l■s^^] II She was tired and slowly walked home. 

small I ^^'^^'l II He is a small man. p^'5^'^^'^^'^J!]'^3j] 

smash | qs^^] ^S^'^^] || She was so angry that she smashed the pot. 

smell I '^-si-'I'si-q] ^d^] \\ ^Please smell this cake. 'Tj-^-qy5,-q^q-|-si-1'»i-:^:;-| -i 

don't like that smell. '^■^■s^-'^-n.vlS-^^J!]^! 
smile I 'q^5^-5^=^=;'N| '=^^=^'^1 1| 'They greeted her with big smiles. p^^'N-q^si- 


5i;^:;s]-|s]-^q^-q-^s]| 2j gjjjjjg ^j^gj^ ^^^ happy. =;-".lWq-'^^-S^-=;-=^3]=^l 

smoke | ^S'q'qgsj'q] 'WS^^ Vq] || 'My mother doesn't like it if I smoke. =;'^' 
S-q-qg3j-q^-=;q-isM-»l-5^-^Jl]qi -Do you have a smoke? (i^'".vg'»lJ!]'5J!]W^'=^»ll ^I 
hke the smell of dung smoke early in the morning. ^■i5Jr|5^'q'^'5^^''^'q^' 

smooth I ''^^s^'^] -^^'^1 II 'Her hair is black, long, and smooth. p'5^q'S'3j' 
3jJl]'l'>'^=^'"l''^^s^^^3i| "Please smooth down your unkempt hair. ^'^'S' 

snow I 'p'^'sj-qqqi -^:^^]^ || ^It will snow tomorrow. 'N'^'^aj'p'^M'qqq'^'^';] 

'The snow was white and beautiful. p^^'3j'=;'T]=^'(^^'5^?'N] 
so I '^■'^^1 -^Sj'l,^! II 'l think so. =^'^■^■'^^■^^=^1 "He left so we also left. 


social I I'^^'f^l^-Vq'^-VS^p^'i!] II All the people were very social at the 

party. W5&l'N'^=;'5^'cdk-»i-q|",vqisqi-",v»ip'Nl 
sock I f^qKi] II This sock is blue. qqKvq^-^3j^TSj3j| 
soft I I'sij II The baby's cheeks are so soft. |,'^'s^'^'S'5]|^^-s'^-q|^!^-'T|<^-|- 

soldier | fi^ \\ My brother is a soldier. =;q-^3j-^-=^»lJ!]-5J!]'«S3Jl 

solid I s^ig^'^'^] II When it gets cold outside water turns into solid ice. 

solve I ^"-Vq] g^'^5^'^] II Do you think we will be able to solve the 

problem? (i^'^'^'=^'i'^'^3j^^3j-^-^".V^q-^-^=^-q^=^-=^»ll 
some I q^q] II Do you want some paper? |5^''^'.P|J!]'^'qJ!]q'=;^^'^s^] 
somebody | s^'S'^n'si] || Does somebody here speak English? 

something | =;3j'qJ!]q'=^] || I heard something about that recently. 


sometimes | s^cfs^M'slcfs^^'^] ^q'^'qJ!]^^] || Sometimes I listen to music. 

son I gi II He is my son. p'3j'^q'g'^3j] 

soon I s^'q^^^'t^^l ^^'s^^l II Soon we will go home. 


sorry | ^^^'^■^^'s^'cw] || I'm sorry I made you angry. 


sound 1 13] ^^] II That tractor is making a very loud sound. 

south I "^^'N] ™j II Sichuan is south of Gansu. §-(g3j-^-'T]3j-^'3-^-™^J!]'^-^-Sr^l 
southeast | ^^'"S] || A tall mountain is southeast of our village. 

southwest I "S'Sj^l II Tibet is in Southwest China. 

space I s^p'T';^^^] II Many people are interested in space travel. 

speak I q.P|=^l m II Don't speak so loudly. ^^^-siaj-sT^-s^-q-Pj^l 
special | (iS''^^'^] || We all think she is a special student. 

speed I 5^^^^'cf^l II The airplane flies at a fast speed. 

spell I j&!]'qs=^'^^'^] II Can you spell this word? 

spend I q'T^"!] II How much money do you spend every month on food? 

spirit I S^'^'^l S^'^^'^l II The happy children are in high spirits. 

split I q^'q] II They split the money they won in the contest. 


sport I g^Vg^'l II What is your favorite sport? 

spring I 'S^^'^'l 'c^'I'^l ''^'^^ II ^Many kinds of plants bloom in spring. 
^^=;''T]'v'|'-Pj^'^^^'s^^^"-v|'^^''^q=^] "The metal spring was made of 
strong steel. '|J!]'^'^'™»l'|q'^'1^'|J!]'N'23's?".l'N'!:!i'!^l ^We get our water from 
a spring at the bottom of the mountain. ^■cf'N'^'^V^'^'9SJ!]'5^'3j'^'^'"i3j] 

spy I %"-l'^l %"-l'^l II ^The villagers thought the strange man was a spy. 
S-8^'5^-8^-S-s^=^-^-^-^".V»l-^J!]-«S3j-q^-q^=^l -pm not interested in spying on 
anyone. 5^-J!](^3j-".V^".vq^^-=;-^-«^] 

stamp I ^a^'S^^] ^"l'gJ!]'i]] II ^Did you remember to put a stamp on the 
letter? ^=^'|'N-5s-q]<^-gJ!j-n,v|q]-^q]M-|'^-^-5^-q|=^-=^5^] -I won't stamp your 
document with an official seal until our leader signs it. ^'^''^^'raS'^'^' 


stand I '"-l^'^'^J!]'^] '"-1^'^] II 'l don't agree with your stand on that 

question. 5'q'^'l'^=^'3i'^'=;'^^'|'".l=^M''gJ!]M'"-V9S'^g=^l "The students need to 
stand when they answer a question. ^■s^'§f'N'5'q'".V'^13j''^^q'^'S'^'"^=^'".l^^' 

star I ^^^'5^1 ^^''^^3i''^^'^3i''^l ^'^(^^'^3i'^^|'^''^l II 'There are many stars 
in the night sky. s^cfej'sTq'Sjs^'sip'T^^'sl'sl'^^Sis^l "She was a famous 
movie star when she was younger. ^'>'S'^'^'P'5^'^^'^53j''^|gq'^3j'5^'5]J!]^' 
33j'(^J!]'"^3j] ^I'm going to star in a new movie. ^^'^^ij'qsaj'^^^^'q'i^Jlj'Jlj'aj^' 

start I ^^^ '^^^s^'R] II 'He wanted to get off to a good start in his new 
job. pq-^-q-J!]'^^-qq^J!]-3j'N-p''^-q^wiJ!]^^J!]-f»l-q^=^l "Let's start our class 
now. =^-'^-^-iN-^q-^=^-|-qqif5^-q^-^l 
starve | '^^'N-q] || Without food people starve. g-»l-s^=^-3j-5^-^si*i-^J!]'N] 
station | ^'cf^'^] -q^r^^^'sq^ q^-q(^q^-^;^-q| || ijhe nearest petrol station is far 
away. gJ!]'J5^yq^'^5^'^3j'^'a^J!]^'".V".15^'gJ!]'^^'] "The army will station one 
hundred soldiers at the new military outpost. ^«^J!]'=;g^'J!]^'5^saj''^13j'=;s^J!]' 

statue I ^^^a II There is a statue of a man in the front of the school. 

stay I '^=^'qi ^=^1 II 'We enjoyed his stay at our home. 'p^=^'cf=^'^'^=^'q5;-R§gi!^- 

=^q]q-sr^-|2^] -I want to stay with you. =;-J5^-|-»l^»l-^-^^-q^^] 
steal I if|l qif|'^] II He said he didn't steal anything from the store. 

steel I i''3^'^l || The building is made out of steel and concrete. 

step I ^^'^■^^'^l ~5J5]"q"^'qi II ^The children sat on the steps outside the 

school. |,'^'=^'S^q'5!^'|''^"-l'|,'^'N-^^'N-^=;-^=^l "Don't step on my feet. ^^S" 

still I 'S'S^'l "'^^'^'^^'^1 II ^It was late and she still hadn't returned home. 
^^■'^^■q|'5=;'pw^-S=;-«J".V".V»l-"W] "The rabbit remained still when it saw 
the hungry wolf ^•q:;-S|!^-q^!^-$5;|!^-§!^-5]3^3;-q<^-|jK,-S|-5]g!:;-5]-gsi|-'n^-^^- 

stomach | q'qj SJS'R^ || His stomach was full after eating a big dinner. 


stone I 5] II The statue is made of stone. '^^'^'^'S'^-l^l'^^^lj 
stop I sicfsiM"'^^^''^] II Don't stop running, we are almost there. 

^5!]'N-»1^8^'^-8^-qT«l] =^'^=^f^'i=^'^'".vg3j'^=;'g".11 The driver told us our stop in 
this small town is only for ten minutes. (^■'?■q'5^■^;■S■'^■^^;.■^'^■^^^■^^^■(^=^(^■ 

store I 'cf^'p^'] '^^'^^^'l,^'^! II 'Can you buy me some milk from the 
store? ^■^'N'§§k'p^'^'3j^'^'".V^s^y^q'qs^] "Please store these boxes in 
your home. |^s^''^^'=^J!]'(5=^'cf^'3jM'i^^'J!]^J!T|^^l 

storm I S^''^^^! II The crops were destroyed by the storm yesterday. 

story I ^^*1'^^1 II Tell me a ghost story. =;-".vq|-«S-J!]™-^^-5J!]'^=^'=^=;'l 
stove I "^JJ^^N-gqi II The kettle of tea is on the stove. ^*l''|^'^-gq-|-^=;-^-Sr^] 
straight | 5^'«5^ S^'^^I II Can you draw a straight line? ^^'^'N'^^'^^'s?^'']' 

q^-^q-qsi] He talks very straight. f?!^-s!^-5-5;;-q5;-|| 
strange | c5■s^=^] "^■5^cf3j'53j] || No one knew the strange man. 

street | Sj^'^-is^] || I walked down the street yesterday. 

strike | '",1^'q^J!] "5^'5J!]'^=^'q] || 'The workers' strike lasted two weeks. 
n,l's)-q'i^q's)-n,l's)-q1jl]-q^gq-qpk-q]|'5^-R!;-^^] "The man didn't strike the child 
even though he was very angry. |'^'i!'^'p^'|g'".l^'^'^^'p'^'^'^'i!'^'".VS^'l^'«' 

strong I '^qM'33jl ^q^N'i] II My father is very strong. =;q'i3M-!^'^'=9'3=;'^!^-'^q'^'i| 
strongly | c53j''^^] -P|J!]'^'c53j'i!^] || The house smelled strongly of incense. 

struggle I '^^1] "q^^'qcf^'^^'^l^'gtn'i'^'qi || 'The peasants' struggle 
against the corrupt government soon grew into a nationwide 

revolution. ^=;'q'N'^'^-^;;!^-^-g3;-q<^-|:^-q^(a:;-n,i^a,vg!^-q-5^-q^:;s]-q^-^n,v 

"^^M'^Rq(^3j'^'J!]^=^'q^'(^J!]'y^=^] "The climbers struggled to make their 
way to the top of the mountain. ^^'q^^'qJJj's^paj'^'N'^'gtn'^J^'^'S^Jl^^'q^Jlj^' 


stubborn | ^^^'=^1 ^^'q] || She was very stubborn and didn't want to 
study her lessons. pw^'|-S'^-=9'5=;'|=;^'^3j-q'N-^!;-S|-q^]q-^3i-!^5;]-|j;-s^-qY^| 


student | ^q'si] || I am a student. =;-^-^q'»l-^J!]-'^3jl 

study I '^'l^'l ^'^1 II 'His English study is something that he enjoys. 

^|j3i''^^'"-V^q'|'=^'|,=^'i"^'f?^"'^5i](^'g5i]'^'-S5i|-'^3jl "Do you like to study 

English? (i=^'=^|)3i'"^^'^q'=^^'^^'Tq»ll 
stupid I ^3j'i!] ^^'S"-!] ^3j'^J!]^] II Spending all the money is a stupid thing. 

substitute | "^=^1 5^^=^] 'cfq'si] cfq'l^'^J] -c^q'^-V^^'q] || 'if our teacher is sick, 
the school sends a substitute to replace her. ^'S^'^^i'^aj'Sj'aSi ^iq'^j'^'s^'cfq' 
(^J!^'S^^J!^^'3j^'p'5^q'cfq'^=^] "Please substitute a larger size for this smaller 
size coat. '^=^'"sJ§=^'q''^^^'cfq'"-V^=^'"sji3j^^J!]-^^Tj!]'Nl 
succeed | g",vp'gq'i!] || If you try very hard you can succeed at whatever 

you do. ^"-lyji'^'I'^-qq^-qfaj-iaj^^^-^l %-".i'^-^=;-^".vp-qgq-^qi 
sucli I '^S''^^! II There is such a strong wind today. S'^^'^^'^^S'^^^c^] 
sudden | ^'g^^j || All of a sudden the house fell down. ^'3^'?j'P^'^'^^^''l 
suffer I f^'^^'q] II The sick people in the hospital are all suffering from 

some kind of disease. |]aj'p!;'S'aj=^'q'§?aj^'§!^-5]3^3;-Sr=^] 
sugar I ''I'^'l'sil II I like sugar in my tea. =;-Rq-3j=;-S-'T]-^-|-5^-'^3j-q^-^J!]qi 
summer | ^^^'PJ || It is hot in summer. =^^^'p=^'3j5^'^'cf5?"^3jl 
sun I 'I'sil ^-s^^-^-q] || 'The sun felt hot on our backs. =;-Sq-^q-3j'N-|-»l-cfq'S' 
^^q'l^] "We will sun our quilts and blankets today. ^'^^'^'cf'^'^'sS^'^".!' 

Sunday | J!]g'^'a's^] || I don't go to school on Sunday. 

sunny | |-q=^-'^3j-qi || Today is a sunny day. ^■^=;-^yq'=^-'^3j-qq-|3j-Sf^J!]-^3j| 
sunsliine | ^'q^j || The sunshine warmed the cold winter day. 

supervise | 'S'^^'^S'^l II The teacher asked the best student to supervise 

the others while she was gone. 

supper I =^^'^'5'^1 II When did you eat supper? ^=^'|'^-=^^=;-g'^-3j»l-§f^l''^-qt^3jl 
supply I 'q=;3j'f|=;] "'^SSj'SS'^S'^l II 'We don't have a large supply of books 

at the school. ^q'^'^'^'c?'^V^^'c5'q^3j'#^'i3j^5^'|,=^l "We can supply you 

with all the coal that you need. ^=^-".VS^p^qq^".Vcdk-5^-!^-sf!^-q^3j-|2^-|=^-^q] 
support I 'gq'^^^] 'gq'^^'^S'^l || 'The son had to provide support for his 


mother after his father died. g^-pq-i3M-s5-q=^^v|'N-pq-i3M-»i-",v^q-|=^-|,=^-=^3]'^r 
^^■] 'Please support the decisions that the leaders make. '^^'(^S'^'^" 

suppose I q^s^'ISk'^^''^] '^SS'^^l II I don't suppose you know his phone 

number? ^=^'^'N'pq'p'q^'i3M!;-5]!;'N'^M-^-5,:^-:;s]-9|-q^:^| 
suppress | ^Sj^j'^l] ^5^5^^] \\ He had to suppress his laughter during the 

class. ^q-^=^t'^q^-^f^fq-qi=^-s?q233i-=^T''|^l 

sure I p'^^ II Are you sure you want to do this? 

surplus I OTS^l II There is a surplus of barley this year. ^'".B'aj^'OTS^'^^] 
surprise | ^'^^''^^^'i!] '"^'s^cf^'q] || 'His surprise was an act — it wasn't 

genuine. p'=9^Ai^^'q'3j'^5^'q^^'^5^'n,i'^'R5^'5^3j] "I was so surprised to see 

him again. f^=^=;-«^=;-q^^-^'^-q-".V=;-«^-»lcf^l 
surrender | »lJ!]'§^=^'q] || The enemy surrendered after one battle. 

surround | s^gTq^^^] || There are flowers surrounding the tree. 

survive | ^^'q] || We weren't sure he would survive his injury. 

suspect |'?5r|!5^'i!] 'a^'=;J!]M'33j] || 'l suspect that he won't be able to finish 
school. ^^'pAiq'^j'ajM's^g^^'^aj'^q'il^^'^tn!^] -The police arrested several 
suspects after the murder. =^»l^-J!]'^=^-^=;-1'N-^3j^J!]-q'N-^'NY]'N-53j-qJ!]q-qW3j- 

suspend | S^^^''^] || The kite hung suspended from its string in the tree. 

swallow I s^^'^1 II His throat was so sore that he couldn't swallow easily. 


sweater | q"-l'"|l || I lost my sweater. ^^•^c;-qi-q".vnsjq^| 
sweet I »l=;^-5|j II She likes to drink sweet tea. pw'^»l=;^wq^=^-q=^-^J!]qi 
swim I '^'J"-!] %S"-l'l,S''^l II 'Our swim in the lake lasted one hour, ^'cf 
siagij-aj'^-ajM-f jf=^-J!]5J!]'"-Vf ^"-V^'^l "I like to swim in the river, '^'f q'^'aj'^'^'^' 

sympathy | Jr|^!;.'5^5]!5^] || We all had a lot of sympathy for him after his 
mother died. 'pq'i3^'»l'q^'N'|'N'=;'^^!;'si'N'p^"l'5nS!;-$5]!^-i3j^q5=;'^| 


system | «^'".1^ qs^'njJi^s]] || Lawyers study the legal system. 

T table I 5^'^] || The teacher's table is bigger than my table. 
take I n|g=;] '^^^] \\ Take my brother with you when you go 
to the market. ^^■^»l'"-V'^^^q'N''^^'^3j'"^'n(|=^Tj!]'Nl 
take I f^ji^l "iajl II Please take this money. ^=^-5?q^-'^13j-Kjl]'^| 
take care of | 'S'^^'^S'^l II Take care of yourself when you go abroad. 

take off I g^'^l '^'^■q] II Please take off your shirt. (5=^'|'S^'"i3i'5=^''^^'^l 
talk I '<^S'^'|'^1 "P'^^^'I'^'^l II ^The subject of his talk was Tibetan 

linguistics. 'pq-(^s'^-|!^-§-q|=^-J!]^-^-q=^-^-|^-S>q^-qt^3j] "Don't talk so much. 

tall I ^'^■qi II How tall are you? ^^'I'^l^'N^-q^q-^'^-q-".!! 
tank 1 1=^1 II The tank was full of water. f'^'I'Sj'^'^l's^^l 
tape I ^|3i'5^ ^^'q] II ^Put some tape on the envelope. '^^■-P|q'N-|-^=;-".v|3j- 

gJ!]-qJ!]q-|'^l -I need to tape this torn paper. =;'N-?iJ!]-g-g=^^-|'^-=^^^l 
target | '=^9|J!]M-qq3jl "=^*^^'^''?"-l''^^3j'=^l II 'The arrow hit the center of the 

target. »l=^'Tsr^'=^9|J!]'^'qq3j%=^^".V".l^J!] "Cigarette advertisers target 

young people. g'5^J!]'»lcf»l'N'|'^'q^'(iq'^'N'J!]^3j'5i'^»l'^'=^5^J!]W".vqW3jl 
task I "-I^N-qJl^ajl II We had many tasks to do. =;-S?".V".l'N-q5!]3j-»l=;^qaq-^W^l 
taste I ^l^q] ^^'^■qj II 'The taste of boiled mutton is good. '55!]-.P|-q^'^-»iq-1^ 

q'^5^1 "Please taste the soup and tell me if you think that it is salty 

enough. ^=^'|'N-f^-qq-'^=;-3j'N-c^-f^-q=^=;-sr=^-s^=^-!;-n,v?i2^] 
tax I '^^'(^"-l] '(^"-V'^^^-Vqi II 'How much tax do you need to pay this year? 

^■'^''^'jl^'l'^l'^^'l^^-l'^'cf'^'l'^'^^'^l "The city will tax all retail sales 

beginning next year. |'"f3j'N-q|=;-^=;-(i^-|,'N-^".vqsf=;-".V(g".vq^".V^-^=^l 
tea I ^] II She has tea in the morning. ia^nJ^'q^'p's^'^'^'qK^'] 
teach I nc5=^'qi n(|^| || What does he teach you? p'^'(i^'"-l'5'^^'^=^l 
teacher | ^^'^^j] || The teacher came to class late. ^^■^3j'J]q'(^^'"-V"^^'^''^§l 
team | ^'p^ || Our basketball team played last night. 

tears | s^^'Sj || Her tears felt hot as they streamed down her face. 

•463 • 

technical | "-l^'g'"-!'^] || He wanted to attend the local technical college. 

teeth I ^ II His teeth are very white. p^''5^'=9'5^'^'Tj^] 

telephone | 'p"^^] "p'^^^'^^^'q] || ^Our family has no telephone. ^=^'cf^'".vp' 

R^'s^'^] 'Please telephone me this evening. =^'=^J!]^'^'".vp'i!=^'g^'^] 
television (TV) | qsaj'^^^aj] || There was no electricity so we couldn't 

watch television. ^J!]-5^2^-q'N-=;-§f'N-q^aj-q|3j-".rq<^-»l-^qi 
tell I ^^1 m II Please tell me about yourself. (|'=^'|'«'«^cfej'=^'".V?p^'=^=^'l 
temperature | 5^'5]^'l || What is the temperature now? ^'"^^^'^l^'^'sf^'^^l 
temporary | ^q'^'^^ J!]3j^'^q'^] || The building they made was only 

temporary. ^^^'^■"l'^'q^^J!]'p=^'^'^q'^-gJ!]-5»l-^J!]-'^3jl 
ten I q|l II Here are ten pens. '^^'^''^^'^'S^'^l'^^l 
tense | sq^'^j "^^^j || She was tense before taking the test. ^Jl]^'",VS^'(gJl]'S5- 

q^!;-p^-$5]!5)-#i's)| -They wrote in the past tense. 'p^§f'N'S«5'q=^'^'q'q'f[".vaj'N' 

tent I ^^1 II Our village has a large tent. =;-S^-S-q-n,vff]^-i3jif^q]-Sr^| 
term | ^^'^^] &!]'§&]'^1 ^'^q^] || 'l don't understand some of these new 
terms and expressions. g'^^'=^^'&!]'§&]'^'J!]'^=^'q''^^'=^^'3j^'S]'p'.P|'^'".V^'^'3yq'8^' 
"Tajl "The new term will begin soon. ^q'^q'^'J!]'^^'q'5^'q^^'q^'q3]^»i'g' 

terrible | S^^] '^R^^'iaj] 5^'5l || That was a terrible storm we had 

yesterday. p''^=;'=;'§§k'^!;'q#1'55;|-q-^5;|-a=^-| 
territory | s^^Tp^^] M'c5] || Qinghai has much grassland territory. 

terror | =;^^^'SJ!] || She felt terror at the thought of giving a speech in 
front of the class. 

test I J^'^l^l II We always have a test on Friday. 

textiles | '^p".V'^gJ!]'gaj'^'^] || Cotton and wool are materials used to make 

textiles. ^!;'q'^v^!;'q'^v^'qp'^vngJ!]'g3j'f'N''^vq'f]'".vqq'^'c5'«S3ji 
than I "-I'Nl q^^l II I am taller than you. (i^-".l'N-=;-J!]^J!]M-^=;-| 
thank | q'T^q'^aj'^'q] || I want to thank him for his help. 


Thank goodness! | ^3j5^'^aj'5^M's^||3j'^^'] || Thank goodness! I didn't 

become ill. J!13j5^'^3j'«^'N-5^(|aj'^'^'l '^■"-Vaj-cfs^-^^-l 
thanks | ^'^'N-|-il || Thanks for your help. ^=^'|'N-Tj!]'N-^^-q^-^'^'N-|-il 
that I ^1 II What is that person doing? 5^-^'^-5'^J!]-".l'^-q^3jW^l That's all 

right. ^'cWj'S] 
the Chinese | ^^'^'^1 1| The Chinese have a long history. 

the day after tomorrow | ^i^M'^aj] || The day after tomorrow will be a 

holiday. J!](^M-|3j-^-J!]3j=;-q-'^3jl 
the day before yesterday | p'^3j] || The day before yesterday I was ill. 

the middle of the day | ^3j'^^'l || We will eat lunch in the middle of the 

day. ^3j'^=;'".V=;'c?'^'^=;'g'N'qg'T^t^3jl 
the next day | a3j'J!](5J!]'s^] ^'ftaj] || On the next day I could not go home. 

the next year | ^'"-l] || The next year I became a student. 

the people | »l'^s^^] || The people of our village are all Tibetan. 

the Tibetans | q=^■s^] || The Tibetans have a beautiful and important 

language. q=^'5^'"-V^=^'c5'^3j'".VJ!]".vi'q'^J!]W^l 
theatre (theater) | ^^■J!]=^'p^'] || She wants to become an actress in the 

theatre. pr^'|'^'J!l^f^'^''^(gq's^p3j'^J!Tl=^'n^=^l 
their | '^^] \\ This is their classroom. '^^■^■p'§§q'^'p^'^3i| 
theirs | '^^] || It is theirs, not ours. ^■^■p¥'^''^3jl =;-S^-5^3j| 
them I p^cf] II Please give it to them. ^■p1f".V^3j'=^^'] 
themselves | p^§f^=;'l || They did it all by themselves. ST^^'cf'^-p^cf^'^'S^'N'^-l'Nl 
then I ^■aj'Nl II What will you do then? ^■3j'^-(i^-|'^-5-^J!]-".l'Nl 
there | ^'Sj] || He lives there with his family. 

these I '^S'S^ || These girls are all good students. 


they I R'^ || They will not give you any trouble. 


thick I s^^'^^l II The wool on that sheep is very thick. 

thin I f^^'^] ^S^] II She dieted until she was quite thin. 

thing I =;=\'^'=^] II I don't have a thing to wear. ^'"-V^^j'^'i^^'^^'s^'^] 

think I ^^"^^1 q's^sij II I think we must leave now. '^'^■=;-S?^-<^-q^=^3]'^-q^-qY^| 

third I ^^5^"^1 II This is the third time I've told you to stop that. 

thirteen | q^'^^s^] || She was thirteen before she went to the big city. 


thirty | ^»1'^1 1| My mother is thirty years old. =;q-i3M-»i-^-3r^si-§-<^3j| 
this I ^] II This is a big yak. q^-^-5l]"^5[]-i3j^^J!]-^=^l 
those I ^'^^ II Those are an old pair of socks. ^■^^■3j''^q".V5^'c5'^5^'^=^] 
threat | ^^'^^'^1 |=!]'|=^'q<^'^K,'q^3^| || Your threats don't frighten me. 
|i^'5'5^'c,'nj'sqi'q^nj'S]'^qi The older boys threatened the younger ones. 


three | ^^«^] || There are three girls in our family. ^=^'cf^''^'g'«^'^^«^'^^] 
through I qg^l II I like watching the horses run through the grass. 

throw I m3i\ ^i^ II Throw me the ball. ^'^■'^■^■'^■".VJ!]!^'^-'^';-] 
Thursday | ^^'^'^^'^j || On Thursday we will have a picnic. 

Tibetan |'q^-^=^l q=^-«SJ!] q^^-sS] || Do you speak Tibetan? jl=^'|'N^=^'^=^'^^=^' 
.P|'^''^«] I am Tibetan and I speak Tibetan. !;-^-q=^-^5f|!5l-S3^-q!^-!:;!^-q!^-S!^- 

ticket I s^'^l II Can you buy me a bus ticket? 

tidy I 5]"-V^^ 5]aj-!^qi-qg-qi II She always keeps her room tidy, p's^^'s^q'p^" 
q'^3j'q^'5]".v^J!]'|,^l I'll tidy up the classroom now. '^■'^■!:;^-|q-|^s;-3^c;-5]'^- 

tiger I ^^ II Have you ever seen a tiger? (i^'^'^'^^'^^'^^'^s^] 
time I ^^'^'cf'^l '^"1 II ^What time is our English class? '^•§f'?'^q'^=^'^'^'cf=^' 
=;q'^^w]3i| 'You must be on time or the teacher will punish you. |3S'^^' 


tire I g=;'S^'S'<^5r|-q| || I'm afraid the long trip has tired you. z^.'si't^nj" 

tired | 5^■c5=^■'^l || He was tired after studying for many hours. 

to I "-Ij II I'm going to go to the market. =;-^»l-".vq^|'^-Sr^| 
today I S'^^'l || Today I want to tell you all a story. 

togetlier | ^^*''?il II We ate a delicious dinner together. 

toilet I ^S'P^'l II The toilet stopped working last night. 

tomorrow | ^^'aaj] || Tomorrow I'm leaving on a long trip. 

toniglit I S'S^^'l II Tonight he thought it would rain. 

too I ^^=;'l ^'^] ^'^] '^'^^\ II ^Do you want to read a book, too? ji'^'^'N'^!;' 
^^■S'(^^'^^''^=^=^'=^«^] 'I'm too fat; I need to lose weight. =;'^=;'y-5=;'-f|' 

tool I "l^'cB] II A hammer is a useful tool. g'q'3j'".lJ!]'c5'^'c5=^'3^'^^] 
tooth I '^l II The baby is growing a new tooth. 

top I ll gJ!] II Put the book on top of the table. ^^■c5'^'5J!]'^'S'gJ!]''^V^J!] 
torture | ^3fyR\ ^'^'R] aja^'^i^!^! || Trying to read a book in the dark is 
torture for the eyes. ^aj'3jJ!]-S]-3j=;-=^q-c5'^J!]-q-^-5^J!]-".VJ!i^=^-q-il He likes to 
torture people weaker than himself |^'3;'-^=;'«J^''^5]'^c;'q(^'5]'nj'5]3;^'qi%s;" 

total I g'^fs^^'^S'^l II Can you total these numbers for me? 

touch I ^^■'^l II He was so fat that he couldn't touch his toes. 

toward 1 1?!]'^-".!] || We walked toward the village, ^^'sf^-qq-liijsj-sj-^r^^-i 
town I S]^'^^"-!] II Are you going to town today? 


township 1 1^^'] ^.P|J!]''T] II My home is in Maba Township. 

trade | '^'S^'] '^■«^'^S''^1 1| 'The computer trade in China is growing. 
^'^'Sfsj'^^'^^ysSk'^^'q^ajW^l "Do you think he will trade this blanket 
for some food? ^=^'^'N'q<^'N'3j'p''^'si".V^'^'q^'g'N'qJ!]'T".iy§§k'|,^'|^'=^sil 

tradition | 23"-l'33j] || Singing loudly is a tradition in this area. 

traffic I ^q^»l-q5]".ll ^§§k'|^'=Jl || 'Late at night there is little traffic. 

=^qik-5fq|-^^)-^-q^»l-q5]n,v|2^-q-a!;-] "They traffic in drugs. p¥'^-SJ!]ysf=;-|=^l 
traffic jam | '^5]»l''^5]"1'(^sX'p3] || There was a traffic jam so I'm late. 

tragic I ^'^S^'cB'^l || The death of the two boys was tragic. 

train | s^'^^p^^] || I have never been on a train. ^■5^''^p=^""1'^^5j"3j's)-qss^-5^-^^-| 
traitor | ^■".IJ!]'^!] || The police arrested the woman for being a traitor. 

transport | ^"^''^5^'S^'^l II That big truck is used to transport goods to 
the market. q^s^-q5]'^v5.=;'N-qp'^-^-=^T^l'j!]-sf=;-^^-|'^vq53j-|=^-q^-q'f[".il 

travel | ^q5]".vs=;i -q5]n,v|r-|^r-qi II 'xravel by ship is slower than travel by 
plane. 5]S'(^nj'3;'5]|^(^'(^nj'nj!5^'!;nj] "They wanted to travel only at 
night. 'f^§f'^'5]S3^-^!^-p^3j-n.vq5]n,v|=^-|,=^-q^=^] 

treasure | aj^^'g'SBaj] '^•5'^'|j'^'§'>'^| || 'They hoped to find a treasure in 
the cave. p^cf'N-gJ!]-gJl]-^-3i'^^^-§'i3j-^J!]-^=^-q^-^-q-q5=^'Nl "ITl treasure this 
ring my student's mother gave me. :;^'^:;'Jn'^q'5](^'B^'5]!^'g3^'q(^'5]^q' 

treat | *1^3i''^q'^'|,^'=^l 51^3^'q^'|'^'q| || 'I'll treat you to a nice meal at 
noon in a restaurant. |3j-^=;-".v=;M-(i=^-'^-g-fq!;-^-g'^-5=^-qg=;^^J!]-qg(^-q^' 
«^5]3j'qq^'^] "She gave him a treat after he helped her so much, p'^'p's^' 

treaty | c5^M'"^^ || The two countries ended the war by signing a treaty. 

tree | f ^'q] || The tree was cut down, f ^■q■=^■q5=^] 
trial I (^q■^5=^l II The murder trial lasted only two days. 



trip I ^'^"-I'l'^l "^"-V^l 'ffiK,'^'*^^'^'^] II ^We don't have enough money for 
the trip. «J".V^=^-|=^-q^-=;-S?".V^^-9fq=^=;^s^=^] -Re careful or you will trip 
and fall. $5]!^-^c;-g!^-!^c;-^-5]3^-g!^-^c,-^c,-q-(^aj-3^!^-g!:;-^-(^^aj-^!^| 

trouble | '^'T^q'^",!] ^jj] ^qi-qg-qi || I hope we don't have any trouble on the 
way. ^'^■^■§f".ls^'p'3j'^'SJ!]'5^=^'i!=^'^] I don't want to trouble you so I'm 
leaving. !;!^-i|'!^-aj-^q|-qg-5]-(^^:^-q?)-c,-^c,-(^^-^-S3^| 

trousers | ^^'§3^1 1| I've bought some new trousers. 

truce I n|gJ!]'5^cf«^'^'q^J!]'q] II The armies declared a truce. 

true I'^si] q^3j-q] II I swear it is a true story. =;'^-q^-^-J!]™-^^^»l-^J!]-5Saj-q;^- 

trust I ^'^^■i'Nl -'^^■i'N-qi Xs^l II 'The trust that I have in your ability 
explains why I am promoting you. ^»J'(i=^'^''i^^'a^''^'«^=^'5B»J''ik''^'^'^'^»j'|5=^' 
^■tt]'q=^^'tt]^=^'!^q'^'9j6B^'5)^| -I'm not sure that person can be trusted. s)'^'"j' 

try I ^^^'^] '%'^] ^'^■'^'I'^'^l II 'Although it was a good try it was 

unsuccessful. ^■§?=^-<^-qg=;^^J!]-5S3j-sr=^-":iJ!]'N-q5]q-5^-^=;-l -She will try to 
come to see you in the hospital. 'pW^3j-p=;-S-^=^-".vq'^-^-Sr=;-|'^W^l 

Tuesday | J!]gq-5^J!]-=^si^l || I'll see you next Tuesday. gc;!^-|!^-5]<^- 


turn off I P'§^'=^1 II Please turn off the radio. |^-^=^-qp'^-"rq-p-|qi 
TV (television) q^aj-q|ajl || I don't like to watch TV. 

twelve I ^I'^I'N] II I'm twelve years old. =;'"fq§'J!]|'^'^3j] 
twenty | ^'-Pj] || There are twenty students in my class. 

twenty-one | ^^'^5^ || My oldest brother is twenty -one. 


twin I s^M'^] II My twin is now a doctor. ^q'S^J?5^'3j'=^'<^'^3j'i!'(^J!]'"^3j] 
two I ^'^] II Two boys ran across the road. ^•":VJ!]|'N'".l»l'^!;-3j'N'S5^'q^J!]'N] 


U uncle I i3M-f^] II His uncle is a teacher. pqWf^'^'=^5i-^3j-^J!]t^3jl 
under | '^^'Sj] || The dog ran under the house. 

understand | ^^\ '^'^^] \\ Do you understand? (i^'^'^''9'^'^5^1 
unite I ^3j'a".V^=;'i!] II We should all unite for equal rights. 

United States of America (USA) | i3M-5^-S:-p| || My English teacher is 

from the USA. =;'l-=^|;3j-5Sq]-^-=^q]-^3j-^-i3M-s^-^-p-3jM-Sr=;-qt^3jl 
universe | ^^R^l^'Saj] || The scientists study the elements in the universe. 

university | J]q'5!'c53j'5^] || He passed the entrance exam and will go to a 

university . 'p^'^J!]'N'q^^'3j'N'^q'^'i3j's?(^^5]-^-5,:^| 
unless I ^'S^Sj] 5^3j'3j] s^'J!]^^!]^] II I don't want you to come unless you will 

be happy. (i=^'^=;'|^^"^3j'3j'»l'^y^'Nl '^'^■^^w;-g-Hi:;-3j-5^-q^=^l 
unlike | k^^] \\ Tibetan is unlike English. q=^'^=^%=^|,Sj-^=^-^=;-S-q5| 
until I ^^'^%^1 II I won't see you again until tomorrow. 

unusual | gaj''33j'»iaj'i!] || That is an unusual rock. 

up and down | "^=^'5^=^] || His hand moved up and down. 

up I "■I'^M] |,3jl ^'^'l II Let's go up the mountain. =;-6f^^q-^=;-".vq?J!]-q^-^l 
urgent | cfq^'cB'q] ^^^^^1 II This is an urgent message for your teacher. 

us I ^'§§1 II Please tell us the answer. ^'c^^-V^'^'^-iaj'^] 
use I g^^'^l II Please use my pencil. ^^'•^'S^'g^'^^'S'^l 
usual I g3j''33j] II As usual the road gets muddy after it rains. 

usually I gaj't^^l II I usually have bread for breakfast. 


V valley | '^^'^j || There is a large valley between those two 
mountains. ^■q^-J!]|M-|-q^-3j-'5^-q-i3i-2r-^Jl]W^l 
value I =^3j'5^'] f^^T^^'] II With inflation the value of money 
is reduced. =^".V"rq^»i'g".v?jk-q-=^=;-q^3j-3j'Nl I'^'sTq'q^q'g'^'^si'Ni 
vegetable | f'S^l || This vegetable is my favorite. 

vehicle | ^^^''^p^j || Have you seen our new vehicle on the road? 

version | qg=^'"^J!] || This is the best version of the poem I've ever read. 

very | =9'5=^'l || She is very tall. p-»iq-q]|Ji]'s)-=9-5=;-S:R| 

very much | "^'S^'] -f]^?)] II I don't like to eat beef very much. 

veto I ig'J^n (^§]^'1,^'^1 II His veto couldn't be overturned. i^^'ig'^tn'S'sjqf' 
^^'§^'^'€^1 The President chose to veto the new law. ^3j'^3j'^'^'^«^'^' 

vicious I <^^] II That is a vicious dog barking over there. "J'JJj'aj'l^lj'qf^a;' 

victory | Sf-'ifi] \\ The players were celebrating their recent victory. 

village I f 'q] II My village is behind the mountain. 


violence | S'^'^S] || It would be awful to have violence in the classroom. 

virus I 3j=^■=W] II The virus was spread through water. ^■qg=^■3j^■3j=^■W|iq] 
visit I 'ncfs^M'f^g -Hcfs^'N-q^-l'^-qi || ^My mother left for her own home 
yesterday after a three -day visit to my home. ^^W5^^'^=;'cf^'S'a3j'J!]^«^' 
^'^■^■ncfs^'N-q^-^^-l'^-prq-^si-S-Sw]-'^^;-] -When will you visit me? '^'=^%'^ 

visitor I f^^l^-vq] Hcfs^^'q^'^^^'s^psj] || The visitor left after two hours. 


voice I ^S] II Her voice sounded strange on the phone. 


volcano | 5^'^] || There are volcanoes erupting in Hawaii. 
volleyball | ^^'cB^'^^'"-!] || The new voUeybaU was expensive. 

vote I ^q^s^M•^P|^!] "q^s^'^'.P|J!j''^3j'q] II 'How many votes did each candidate 
receive? '^^5^'N-|^J!]-q-5;-5;-a,vq^sis]-;pii!j-|-^5j-5;-gsi!sj| -At what age do you get 
to vote in the election? (i^-|'N-fTSq-^=;-aj'N-q^5^-q^q-q^»l'N-?iJ!]-q^3jl 

voyage | 5^« g^] || My mother arrived after a long voyage over the 
ocean. '^'^■i3M-»l-«j3j-S,R»ia^|':^-^s]-5]g^-|^-q|^^] 


wages I ^'"^3j] II He hopes improving his education level will 
increase his wages. 

wait I q^^'^1 II Wait for me here and ITl be back in an hour. ^<V' 

wait for | q^^''^] || Please wait for me by the school. 

wake I Jj^'q] M^'t^] II Please wake me up early tomorrow morning. 

walk I 'jfi^'^^'l "Jfi^'^^'S'^^^l'^l II 'After a long walk in the mountains I felt 
much better. ^■^^■3j'^-if^=;-g=;-".v«j3j-S:!;-|3j-q-3ji =;q-§?k-q-1-^J!]q-".v»r=;-i -PU walk 
to your home this evening. ^■S^^'^'(i^'cf^'"-VJfi^'5^'S''^5]'^'^3jl 
wall I ^^'1 II The wall is made of bricks. ^^■^■'^■^J!]'^!]'^'".!^] 
want I '^'^^■^1 ^^'^■^1 II Do you want any tea? ^=^'|'N-^q^=;-q^=^-^»ll 
war I f^^q'^l^J!] II Many people die in war. 5^'5^^^'^gq''^|gJ!]'|g'^'-f| 
warm | ^S^^] \\ Today is warm. ^'^^'JTisai'qi-fliS^'^aj'q'^s;] 
wash I q^'q] II ITl wash the dishes later. ^!;-(^?[5;-|!5r:;si-S^-»i-q3]| 
waste I ^S'^'^'^'^^^'^l II Don't waste your time playing sports all the 

time. 3js^-a3^-§^V|k-|'N-3j'N-5;c,-S|-^^)-§f=^-^=^f'^-^-si-qjy;-] 
watch I '5]§q|-5](^-^-s'^-qpk-n5] -q<^-q] || 'l lost my new watch. ^^^N'^z^-Sj-aj^qi- 
siJ^'sf^^'qpk'fTJjj^^'q^] "Please watch my children while I go to town. 

water | 's'"?^'^] 'S| || 'l water the yaks and sheep in the evening. 


=^J!^^'5^^'^s]-gq^-ajq^-a,v^-i^:^| 'Please give me a glass of hot water. 

wave I %'^^^] -^^■^"j'3j-^:^-q^S5'3jl Viq^-q^-'^3j-q| || ^She likes to stand in the 
waves at the ocean. pW^'5^§f^'^'^q^'^''^l^'^'i!=^'=^J!]'^] 'I can recognize 
his wave from far away. ^=;'^=;'3j'^'!;'N'p^!^^'J!]253j-^^-q]SJ3j-|;^-q-S,q^-^q| ^q 
waved goodbye when he left. p-|,M-^qM-pM-".lJ!]-q^-q^aj-aj'N-q^-5fg,^| 

way I "-is^] gq^ II This way please! ",wq^'^'^ 

we I '^^ II We are Tibetan. '^■§^'q'=^'q'^3j] 

weak I ^^s^'t^] ^s^'^'^^'] || I prefer weak tea over strong tea. 

wealth I ^^^^'f^^l II There is a great deal of wealth in that part of town. 

weapon | s^Saj'cB] || The rebels hid their weapons near the forest, ^'".l^!]'^' 

wear | ^3j] %S^^] \\ ITl wear my new hat tonight. 

weather | 3^^'^] ^3jSl■^^P|'\ll || The weather is nice today. 

Wednesday | J!]^^™^!]'^!] || The party is on Wednesday. 

week I J!]g'^''^p=^] II One week from today is her birthday. 

weekday | J!]g'^''^p=^'^'^3j's^] || Monday is a weekday. 

weekend | J!]g'T5^^'^ || Saturday and Sunday are the weekend. 

welcome | S^<^'^^| S^'^'^^'^S'^l II He gave us a very nice welcome. ^^' 
:;-S-ai-!^zT|(^-q^-y5=^'«i5i]'^'q'^5i]'g'^| Welcome to my home! ^=^'cf=^'".l'^q'N' 

west I ^^'l?'!'^! II My home is west of here. =^^'^"-V'^^'^'S'5q'|?!l^V^W^l 
wet I Xm-!^] ^R^^]^ \\ My shirt is wet from the rain. =;q-S^-'^iaj-c5^'q'".l'N-q=;'Nl 
what I 5'(^^ II What did you learn in class today? ^'^^'(i^'^'^'Jjq'l^^'^^'-^'^' 

what about | 5''^5'«S3j-q| || What about next week? Jlj^q-q^k-^J^-s^-^'S-q^- 


^=^1 What about the new teacher? ^^^'^aj-JJl^N^-q-^'l-q^-S;!^] 
wheat I 5]] || China grows a lot of wheat. ^^■J!]'^'5]'5^^'q''^^q^] 
wheel I '^p^'"-!] II The wheel was invented a long time ago. 

when I ajs^'S'^l ^S'^] -3j»l'i=^ || ^When she left she was sad. pW|^-|,<sj-c^-'p^q- 
"^^'i^S'^'l 'When will you visit me again? ^^■^'^■=;'"l'3i»l'cf^'"^=^'q|^' 

where | ^^'"-l] ^^'aj] || Where are you going? (i^'^^'".V'^5]'q(^3j'^=^l 
which I ^'^'l II Which color do you like best? (i=^'i'^-=^J!]q-qq-pYl'^'^'^'"^^l 
while I ^i''^] ^3j] ^q^'^1 II While she was out a friend came to visit. 

white I ^''j^^ II My trousers are white. =;q-^=;-|»l-^-=^'T]^-q'^3j] 

who I ^1 II Who telephoned you? g'N-ji^-".vp-q^-q^=;-l 

whole I cf=^'»ll S>'^'^] ^'C^] II I ate the whole dish of food. '^'N-^'^-S^-J!]'^^'^] 

whose I ^^1 II Whose book is this? '^^'^■^^■^^'cB'^Sajl 

why I %^%^] II Why are you weeping? ^^■|'N%q-|^-^-q^q'^-q^3j-Sr^l 

wide I ^'i'qil II The river is wide and deep. J!]^^'q'=^'aj'^'i'(^^'J!]^^'gq] 

wife I ^'^Si] '|»1'«5] II My wife is younger than me. =;q''|si's?=;'".l'N'^=;'l 

willing I '^SS'^^l II I'm willing to help you with your homework. 

win I g^-Vq] II The team struggled to win the match. 

^■pJl]-^'N-q5]3j-q^^-".l'N-^".vq^-qf3jl Our win last night made us the 

champions. 5]!^z;-!^q|z:;-S|-|aj-fq-^!^-c;-S't?12;''^!;'q5;-q|5;| 
wind I '5=^'l -^-I^^-f^i^^-Hr^^^-qi || ^The wind is cold. ^'^•^•'^(iJ!]'N'5f5j3j| -j 

forgot to wind my watch so it stopped. =^'5^'^!^'Jn'^'S>'<^f?^''?'=\ff]'g'!^^'>' 

window I ^!3'f^^'l || The window is broken. ^!3'f^^'^'c5^ 

windy | S^'c^'q] || Yesterday was windy. f^'^^'S^'cB] 

winter | ^^3j'p] || Winter will soon come. ^fjSj'p'^^'s^^'^jq^'^'^^l 

wise I -P|M'g'53jl II I hope to become wise when I grow older. ^■Sj'^^'S^'S]' 

wish I ^'^1 ^'q-q^aj-q] || What is your strongest wish? g^^-^-^-q-J^i-ia^-q-^- 
tnz^'ojsi She wished she could go to the university. p's^^'p'S^Aiq'^'iaj' 


with I *l^*l'Sl II I'll come with you. =;-(i=^-=^!;-»i^»i-^-q^^-5)3j| 

withdraw | ^^v'^^Sj'^] ^^''^l^j'^l || I'll need to withdraw some money from 

the bank tomorrow. 'N^-|3j-^'N-^".vp^-3j'N-|'^-s?qJ!]q-|^-Sl3j-=^qi'^-^-^=^] 
without I s^=^'3jl 5^=^'q^l s^^^'^l II Without my friends, I'd be quite lonely. 

woman | ^^'s^j || That woman is Tibetan. ^'^■s^'=;'3j'q=;'s^'"^3j] 
women | |^'5^1 1| Those women are Tibetan. |^'5^'^'=^J!]'3j'q^'=^J!]^'^aj] 
wonder | ^5]S^'§;:;'| "^^■3j''^=;=;'i!] || 'l was filled with wonder when I saw 
a zebra for the first time. gz^^-'^^-^'^-^^-gz^-ig-^J^I-ajgs^-^^-s^-^c.-aj^^-f c,- 
sr|!5i'q£!5i'!5i!^'| 'I wonder what they will be doing next week? Jlj^T'^p^^' 

wood I -Pj^'l II Can you help me collect some wood? 

word I &I] II How do you pronounce this word? ji^'^'N'S^^''^^'^"'^^''^'^! 
work I ^'^'^ ^^^] '^'q'l^'^^l II 'l don't like my work. =;-^:;-S|-gq-"1-5^-^5!]q| "I 

will work hard. '^'^■^■q^-qq^-qfaj-^-^-^Sajl 
worker | "•I'^-l'^-sipajl ql^q] || My father is a worker. =;q-i3M-s5-^-ql^q-^J!]-fiS3j| 
world I '^^s^'^^'l II I'd rather live here than anywhere else in the whole 

world. !;'q^»i'|=;'S|'«j".v5]'J!](^3j'^3^'".i'N'q^'J!]^'^'^'q^^] 
worried | ^^^^'f^^'^S'^] || I'm worried about your study. 

worry | $s]!^-|gaj| ^si^^'f^^'l^'q] || What is your biggest worry? |f'^'|'^5]!^- 

igaj-|:^-!^-5!^-m^-q-^-mc;-§3^| I wony about you. '^'^•^^•".V*S*l'N'f^^'|,^l 

Don't worry! '^»l'^-f^5-5^-|^l 
worse I ^'(^Sj] II If I don't study my English becomes worse and worse. 

worst I 5'5^] o5'^'(^3j'^] II He is the worst student in the class. 

wound I l]^'^3j] II She got a serious wound when she fell off her horse. 

write I '^g'q] II Will you write a letter to me very soon? 

wrong I s^'f^^j^'i!] || What's wrong with your sister? 



x-ray | x-'^^] || I had an x-ray yesterday. 

xenophobia | !i|<53;'«J'il=v'q(^'?i5i?)'(^g| || 'Xenophobia' is a very 
strong dislike of strangers or foreigners. !i|<^a^'ai'<^=v'q(^'?JSj?J' 

Yyear | "-l] || In what year were your bom? (3S'3j'".V3j5^'".V^'^l 
yellow I ^^'qj II Butter is yellow. »1^-^ab^tSJ3j| 
yes I '^lJ!]'^-»5j 5S3j| II Yes, I am Tibetan. ^3^] '^S^^'^R-^S^^ 
yesterday | p''^^'] || I forgot what I said yesterday. 

yesterday evening | s^^R^J!]^] || Yesterday evening I went to visit my 

uncle . 5^=^=;-=^^=;-=;-^!;-S|-is^-f^-".vqcf»i'N-q5-|=^-q^-'^=;-l 
yet I '^■^'^'l II I haven't been to class yet. '^'^q'^=^'"-l'=^'5'^''5=;-5^^1 
you I (i=^l II Do you want to learn English? (i^'|'^''^|;3j'"^^'|'^''^'^=^''^*ll 
young I ^'^^■gi "f'^^'l II I'm not young anymore. ^■'^■".I'^^'s^aj] 
your I ^'^1 II Your dress is beautiful. ^'^■^■^■^■^■=9'3^'S^?'N] 
yours I ^=^'|l II Is this book yours? =^^'c5''^^'^'^=^'|'«S3j'3j»ll 
yourself | |g=;'=^Ra=;] || Did you paint this picture by yourself? 

zebra | g^'fjl || Zebras are black and white, look like horses, 

Zand live in Africa. g:;-|g-^-nj,?)-s]^!i|-!^'T|3;-ai!i|-fg-|g-Sai-ai| !i|^!i|!?j-^-s^:;- 
zenith | f 'SI =v=;'q(^'S^'| || He died from a heart attack when 
he was at the zenith of his career. |T2;^'Sj'(^|a;'ai?j'!v2;'q<^'s^'3;' 

zero I ^^'^^ II Zero is a number. J!]=^'gJ!]'aj'5]^M''T]'(^J!]'^3j] 

zigzag I S'S'S^il II We followed the zigzag path through the forest. ^'SsJ' 

zipper I ^'^^] II Plastic zippers are cheaper than metal zippers but they 
are not as strong. <^§=i|'^'S^=i|''r''g=i|')'S'f 'i|''^''^'i'^^'^'^^'5'g')'=^5i3^| 


zombie | ^'oi^isii || A zombie is a dead person that has come back to hfe. 
zone I f^oil II The United States has several time zones. B^'5i'^'p''ii'wsi'f^«j' 
zoo I ^-i^Jii^j-p!;-! II My children like to visit the zoo. !;(^-|?J-q-S-^-!^!i|?J-|^!;-^-